In healthcare terms, evaluation is the process of making a judgment on something using scientific and statistical procedures to ascertain whether it meets certain criteria Hickey and Brosnan 5. The process also assesses whether a certain thing meets given benchmarks to ensure that the expected goals and outcomes of the project is on course as supported by donors. The evaluation process however needs to be planned in a given way with steps to be followed to conduct the activity.
This serves as a foundational step in planning for the evaluation process. It helps in identifying stakeholders of in a given program. This eases the evaluation process as the stakeholders ensure that the process progresses as needed and that clarifications during the process can be made Blumenthal et al. The description will bring on board various interests among the stakeholders and on the other hand create a platform that encourages accountability along the process. In this stage, the purpose of the program will be outlined, together with its objectives, mission and activities to be involved during the evaluation process Orton et al.
This stage involves gathering data and information which will be applied during the main evaluation process. This needs to be done through developing possible sets of questions and tailoring these components with the evaluation. In addition to this, a projection on resource requirements should also be conducted out to ensure that critical elements are addressed in the main process. This stage involves selecting possible information to fit the main theme of carrying out the evaluation. The plan also involves drawing a timeline to guide the process, distributing roles and responsibilities to oversee the entire program evaluation process Butterfoss This comprises all stakeholders where a procedure will be developed that will guide the data analysis.
In this stage, various programs to be used in the actual data analysis will be made available to facilitate the analysis. This is a critical phase in the planning process as it brings stakeholders on one stage. It also ensures that reviews are carried on the components such as questions, objectives and resource requirements to facilitate a smooth process. The plan could be disseminated through email and written documents.
The evaluation program is meant to establish the effectiveness of the program on mothers of Kathmandu valley in Nepal. It is specifically meant to ascertain the effectiveness of the child clinic towards the prevention of child mortality and morbidity, and to ascertain its effectiveness in regard to education meant for mothers to enable them perform self diagnosis for potential signs of disease. The program also aims to assess the progress of the program towards the reduction of child mortality and morbidity.
In addition to the above, the evaluation program aims to unearth potential problems which affect the delivery of healthcare at the child clinic, so as to improve the services to help reduce child mortality and morbidity. For the evaluation to be conducted, a research methodology should be used. This can be defined as a way employed to solve a research problem systematically Kothari 8. The reason for conducting research this way is to assist the researcher to develop certain tests that will prove or dis-approve the results to be a true representation based on the evaluation research questions.
Quantitative evaluation will be used to evaluate whether the components of the program were effective in meeting the objectives of the program. This involves the use of numerical measurements to analyze a specific issue on a subject matter Thomas 2. The evaluation methodology will evaluate programs effectiveness towards the reduction of deaths that were occurring in a year. In this case, a survey will be conducted to ascertain the effectiveness of the components of the program within the area.
The survey will target the regions that experienced deaths before the program was launched and after the program, and also verify the effectiveness of the child health clinic in the reduction of child mortality and morbidity. In order also to correctly identify the areas of interest, a sample will be used to spear head the evaluation process, with this being a small section selected to help carry out a given process Kapur and Sawena The sample selected will mainly constitute the inhabitants in Kathmandu slum, to help ascertain whether the program helped reduce deaths and child mortality and morbidity.
There are various data collection methods which will be used during the evaluation including a surveys, interviews, use of questionnaires and document reviews. Surveys should be used given the geographical attribute of the area. This data collection method will be composed of sets of questions that evaluators and program participants will use to collect data.
It will be structured in a way to contain both structured and unstructured question and response options. This will give the participant an option and enable the evaluator to accommodate both open and closed-ended questions, to allow as much as possible quantity of data to be collected. Interviews will be used to collect data from the slum inhabitants through a one-to-one interview approach. In this case, an in-depth interview will be used to collect diverse information concerning the program, which encourages openness and courage thereby ensuring that an extensive coverage on the achievements and limitations of the program are gathered.
Questionnaires refer to a collection of sets of questions administered to participants, in that they give their responses based on the questions Holmes et al. It is a useful approach for collecting straight forward data and should specifically be used in collecting data with straight forward answers. In this instance, it will be used to gather data on deaths before and after the program was launched.
The program evaluation process should also involve a review of existing documents to help gather data related to the program. The sample documents that should be considered in this stage include minutes, reports and other surveillance data to enable evaluators to make an informed decision. The document also allows evaluators to check on the progress and to ascertain whether decisions and improvements were made based on report findings.
The evaluator should use the descriptive approach to perform data analysis by recording the number of participants involved and how various health cases have been resolved successful upon implanting the program. This is because the approach considers various variables in a population, which are helpful in presenting the summary of the findings Wells To analyze the number of mothers that the program has had an impact in, the frequency distribution should be used to record the cases handled, and successes of the program.
In this case, a table needs to be used to record the statistics. The frequency distribution should be used to record the average number of cases handled from the start of the year. This gives a summary of the successful cases, based on the objectives of the program, and helps summarize the data through average. To compute success in terms of cases handled, the process should use the case attributes. The computation should give a picture on the successful cases. It should also give the number of child births per the , cases.
The above methodology should be used in the evaluation. This is because it evaluates the program based on certain quantifiable attributes. It is easier to record the cases involved, solved and unsolved in numerical form which given establishes whether the program achieves its objectives. In addition to this, the methodology also uses a combination of data collection methods which helps gather in-depth data necessary to help in the computation process, and also gives statistical figures regarding the outcomes of the evaluation.
On the other hand, various documents reviewed in the process helps give accountability regarding the program, and also reduces mis-presetation of data which may be hidden from the external evaluators. The intended evaluation should have various checks to safeguard data collected from respondents and other participants.
It is important to include this attribute to foster credibility and validity of data collected. In this, credibility as a concept is involved with ensuring that collected data is accurate and the findings depict the actual state Parker This ensures that the data collected gives the correct measurement on the intended attribute. The credibility aspect should be instilled through certain safeguards such as use of reliable sources and data verification.
Data reliability is an important aspect that should be considered to maintain data credibility. This needs to be conducted by interviewing specific participants such as mothers, rather than the project stakeholders. In doing so, reliable data would be collected since there is likelihood that other parties may forge data in favor of some stakeholders. Data verification remains an important aspect as it helps ascertain that given data is verifiable, in that collected data by the use of certain gadgets represent the true picture of the situation, which also ensures that data is accurate and not duplicated.
These safeguards ensure that data collected is credible, valid and can be used to evaluate the program to produce the correct findings. Blumenthal, Daniel S, Ralph J. DiClemente, Ronald L. Braithwaite, and Selina A. Butterfoss, Frances D. Coalitions and Partnerships in Community Health. Hickey, Joanne V, and Christine A. New York: Springer Pub.
Co, Research Methods in the Biosciences. Oxford: Oxford University Press, Kothari, C R. Kapur, Jagat N, and H C. Kapur and H. New Delhi: Chand, Orton, Stephen N, Anne J. Menkens, and Pamela Santos. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Pitney, William A, and Jenny Parker. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, Thomas, R M. Thousand Oaks, Calif: Corwin Press, Wells, Michael K.
Successful Program Evaluation. Education tended to produce a reduction in sexual risk behaviour as opposed to complete cessation. Nevertheless, it is appropriate to consider integrating such education with service provision. The results of the review provide guidance to service providers and mental health nurses wishing to develop and evaluate sexual health education programmes for service users.
Areas for future research are also identified. Behavioral interventions for the control of tuberculosis among adolescents. Team-level flexibility, work—home spillover, and health behavior. Drawing on two waves of survey data conducted six months apart in , this study examined the impacts of a team-level flexibility initiative ROWE--results only work environment on changes in the work-home spillover and health behavior Drawing on two waves of survey data conducted six months apart in , this study examined the impacts of a team-level flexibility initiative ROWE--results only work environment on changes in the work-home spillover and health behavior of employees at the Midwest headquarters of a large U.
Using cluster analysis, we identified three distinct baseline spillover constellations: employees with high negative spillover, high positive spillover, and low overall spillover. Within-team spillover measures were highly intercorrelated, suggesting that work teams as well as individuals have identifiable patterns of spillover.
Multilevel analyses showed ROWE reduced individual- and team-level negative work-home spillover but not positive work-home spillover or spillover from home-to-work. Trends suggest that ROWE also decreased the odds of excessive drinking and improved sleep adequacy and exercise frequency. Some health behavior effects were mediated via reduced individual-level negative work-home spillover exercise frequency, adequate time for sleep and reduced team-level negative work-home spillover smoking frequency, exercise frequency, and adequate time for sleep.
While we found no moderating effects of gender, ROWE especially improved the exercise frequency of singles and reduced the smoking frequency of employees with low overall spillover at baseline. To determine whether the students enrolled in the computer-based teaching program would take the final examination in pathology earlier than those who studied according to the previous traditional program.
The study included all medical We compared the success of these two groups of students at the final pathology examination in the first term. The two studies were independent projects, but both were part of a nationally funded collaboration on cardiovascular health. Improving prevention in primary care: Evaluating the sustainability of outreach facilitation. The sustainability of the improved care has been pursued in several studies, but only a few investigations of office-system interventions have been subjected to long-term analysis.
Varying degrees of sustainability were observed as early Varying degrees of sustainability were observed as early as 6 months and as late as 5 years after the end of This project tested a week health promotion course for older adults with early-stage dementia.
In a quasi-experimental design, participants were assigned by site to intervention group or control group and evaluated at two time points In a quasi-experimental design, participants were assigned by site to intervention group or control group and evaluated at two time points. Mini-Mental State Examination scores, Geriatric Depression Scale scores, health behaviors, plus several measures of psychological well-being were used in this study. In the independent samples t-test analysis, significant positive change was found from pretest to posttest for the treatment group on cognition and depression.
A chi square analysis found several significant positive differences in health behaviors for the treatment group. Effects of a professional development program on classroom practices and outcomes for Latino dual language learners. Moving toward a comprehensive assessment system: A framework for considering interim assessments. The current salt iodization strategy in Kyrgyzstan ensures sufficient iodine nutrition among school-age children but not pregnant women.
Assessing the anticipated consequences of Computer-based Provider Order Entry at three community hospitals using an open-ended, semi-structured survey instrument. Related Topics. Evaluation Research. Follow Following. Educational evaluation. Developmental evaluation.
Impact Evaluation. Qualitative Program Evaluation. Program Evaluation Research Methodology. Curriculum and Pedagogy. Measurement and Evaluation.
Download full paper NOW! The study employs quantitative technique in the data collection. Analysis of the data collected reveals that Boeing is unable to effectively manage the supply chain process. Supply chain process adopted by Boeing reveals that successful relationship of the strategic partners is one of the critical factors for the project success. Failure of one the strategic partner could affect the tasks of multiple strategic partners and the whole factors have led to the delay in the project delivery.
To address future delay in a project delivery, the study suggests that there is a need for future research on the application of unconventional supply chain methodology in a complex project. There is a need for future research on the method to apply the new methodology to mitigate project delay and cut costs. The fuel efficiency has been attributed to the advanced in technology and other common idea found in the research is that innovation, which remains the focus of customers, makes Boeing to develop a super-efficient airplane.
Designed with modern system architecture, Boeing offers increase functionality and efficiency. Moreover, Dreamliner is built with Rolls-Royce and General Electric engine, and Boeing new engine reveals a great contribution to the advanced in technology. Despite the significant contribution that Dreamliner will add to the aviation industry, there is a significant delay to the successful completion of the project.
While Dreamliner is supposed to bring innovation into the aviation industry, the delay in the project has made Boeing to incur high costs in the design and production of Dreamliner. Factors leading to the delay have been attributed to the series of testing cancellation and delay in the production process. Extensive testing that has been implemented only makes the company to undergo number of changes with the design and specifications.
From and until , there has been production delay of Boeing Additionally, new methodology that Boeing has adopted in the supply chain for the project materials has also caused the delay. Boeing has also implemented multiple layers relationships with its strategic partners, and inability to effectively manage its strategic partners has caused a significant delay in the Dreamliner project. While Boeing has already secured commands from many firms especially from International Lease Finance Company ILFC , which is the biggest customer of Boeing, the delay in the order delivery could lead to the order cancellation since there is a need to implement testing for Dreamliner before being delivered to customers.
However, Year is assumed delivery target of the Dreamliner. By making the delivery of Dreamliner a reality, Boeing will maintain its top position in the Aviation industry. Data Analysis and Synthesis Data collected for this study undergoes quantitative analysis to enhance data validity and reliability.
Research employs quantitative data analysis because it is very easy to administer and it incorporates relatively large number of samples, survey questions, and easier to summarize. Zawawi, To enhance dependability, credibility and trustworthiness of the data collected, the study cleans the data to enhance data integrity. One of the techniques that the study employs to clean the data is by using explanatory data analysis. Explanatory analysis identifies and rectifies errors discovered in the dataset.
The study thoroughly inspects all data and all erroneous data are corrected or removed. The statistical technique is also employed for further analysis. The study employs descriptive statistics to summarize the raw data. Major objective for using descriptive statistics is to correlate data with the research project.
The data are presented in tables, graphs and charts to enhance correlation of the data with the study. University of West England The major aim is to identify the factors leading to the production delay of Boeing The study also addresses the supply chain weakness to identify solution to the problem. Data collected reveals Boeing relies on Tier-1 global strategic partners to develop and build the entire section of Dreamliner.
A break in supply chain has led to a significant delay in the overall production. The delay includes part shortage, and Tier-2 and Tier-3 suppliers do not often provide accurate and timely information and Tier-1 suppliers are often not aware that their actions could cause delay in Boeing production. Thus, delay occurs in response to the production and delivery date.
Typically, underlying supply chain is likely to cause delay because the Tier-1 strategic partners depend on Tier-2 and Tier-3 to deliver materials that Boeing requires for the timely deliveries. Unless, Boeing keeps different safety stocks, the company may face challenges in addressing delay problem. The processes within the program must meet the expectations of stakeholders, otherwise the program will not be successful in achieving its goals.
In this case, the goals of Treca Digital Academy are to provide a high quality alternative to brick and mortar schools. This evaluation will help to determine its ability to accomplish this task. The third aspect of the evaluation of current trends consists of a feasibility study to determine if the program is likely to be successful considering the constraints of available resources.
An examination will be limited to legalities, funding, staff, time, and resources. It will examine resources that are available now and those that are anticipated to become available in the future. In this case, the school operates from a central office and via satellite offices scattered throughout the area. The school does not have the same cost and operating structure as a traditional brick and mortar school. It provides every student a free computer and equipment through which school is conducted.
Purpose of the Program Evaluation The purpose of the program evaluation will be to evaluate the ability of Treca Digital Academy and its ability to offer results similar to brick and mortar schools without the high cost. It will also examine the ability of the program to offer students a comparable education to that found in traditional brick and mortar states throughout the operating area.
The study will provide data for the stakeholders that will help them to determine if the program is something that they wish to continue to sponsor in the future. It will provide valuable insight into the ability of the program to meet its end needs, with success similar to that of a brick and mortar school. The ability to achieve the intended goals is paramount to willingness of stakeholders to continue to fund this program.
Program Goals and Objectives The goals and objectives of the evaluation will be to asses the following areas. Academic performance of students, as compared to students in a brick and mortar school. The preparedness of K-3 students for Ohio Academic Tests and other required standardized tests. The ability of the curriculum to serve the needs of the larger community and the individual communities in which students live.
The ability of the program to operate and achieve its goals in the future. The evaluation plan will be implemented with the goals used as a bridge to the gaps between the current state of the program and the desired end state of the program. An outcome evaluation will be conducted to determine if the program is meeting its desired objectives.
Throughout the process, formative evaluation techniques will be used to evaluate the programming sequence of diagnosis, delivery, debriefing, and disembarkation. Formative evaluation tasks include: 1. Tracking grades of academic students and the development of accumulative grade point average throughout the test period. Tracking academic progress throughout the test period. Tracking of test scores on Ohio Achievement Tests and other standardized tests throughout the test period.
Tracking the number of students who continue in the program against those that reenroll in the brick and mortar school during the evaluation period. The focus of the goals and objectives will be to determine what the end state of the program will look like. Treca Digital Academy offers a complete curriculum for their students and this curriculum is a continual work in progress, but a vision of what the program wishes to achieve will be clearly laid out in the goals and objectives.
The academy is continually working on ways to improve the curriculum and to improve the performance of their students. Summative evaluations will be conducted that reflect the present state of the program, when compared to the established goals and objectives of the program. This evaluation will be repeated at the end of the program to determine if the program has improved its ability to achieve the goals and objectives of the study.
Summative evaluation will provide a means to determine if the goals of the program are being met. Summative tasks include: 1. Interviews conducted at specified time periods throughout the evaluation process. Regular summary reviews of academic performance. Summative evaluation will provide the means to analyze strengths and weakness of the program, in addition to formative evaluation. Summative evaluation serves as the means to assess goal achievement definitively.
Formative evaluation focuses on the process and what is going on at the present time. Summative evaluation focuses on all of the past achievements and ties it to future goals expectations. Finally, a needs assessment will be conducted both at the beginning of the process and at the end of the process to determine the current and end needs of the program.
The needs assessment will differ from the above mentioned summative evaluations in that it will not examine the success of the program in achieving these goals. It will only address the needs of the program so that other evaluations can be compared to the needs to determine if the needs of the stakeholders are being met. Analysis and Action Plan This section of the evaluation plan will focus on data collection, analysis of the data, and the steps that need to be taken to reach the end goals of the evaluation.
In order to accomplish this task a review of the goals and objectives of the program will be conducted.
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