thesis on industrial air pollution

american government essay paper

A full set of resources to accompany this feature can be downloaded for free here. Calling all English teachers: does this sound familiar? As structure gcse english lit essay go through extracts in the last lesson on Friday afternoon, you ask carefully crafted questions, and note with satisfaction how students shoot their hands up in a flash, like Barry Allen on the run. Later, back at home, you mark them. What went wrong?

Thesis on industrial air pollution political ecology-essays

Thesis on industrial air pollution

There are many pollutants of suspended materials such as dust, fumes, smokes, mists, gaseous pollutants, hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds VOCs , polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAHs , and halogen derivatives in the air which at the high concentrations cause vulnerability to many diseases including different types of cancers. Particle pollutants are major parts of air pollutants. In a simple definition, they are a mixture of particles found in the air. Particle pollution which is more known as PM is linked with most of pulmonary and cardiac-associated morbidity and mortality.

The size of particle pollutants is directly associated with the onset and progression of the lungs and heart diseases. Particles of smaller size reach the lower respiratory tract and thus have greater potential for causing the lungs and heart diseases. Depending on the level of exposure, particulate pollutants may cause mild to severe illnesses.

Wheezing, cough, dry mouth, and limitation in activities due to breathing problems are the most prevalent clinical symptoms of respiratory disease resulted from air pollution. Long-term exposure to current ambient PM concentrations may lead to a marked reduction in life expectancy. The increase of cardiopulmonary and lung cancer mortality are the main reasons for the reduction in life expectancy. Reduced lung functions in children and adults leading to asthmatic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD are also serious diseases which induce lower quality of life and reduced life expectancy.

Strong evidence on the effect of long-term exposure to PM on cardiovascular and cardiopulmonary mortality come from cohort studies. O 3 with the chemical formula of O 3 is a colorless gas which is the major constituent of the atmosphere. It is found both at the ground level and in the upper regions of the atmosphere which is called troposphere. GLO is believed to have a plausible association with increased risk of respiratory diseases, particularly asthma. As a powerful oxidant, O 3 accepts electrons from other molecules.

There is a high level of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the surface fluid lining of the respiratory tract and cell membranes that underlie the lining fluid. The double bonds available in these fatty acids are unstable. O 3 attacks unpaired electron to form ozonides and progress through an unstable zwitterion or trioxolane depending on the presence of water. These ultimately recombine or decompose to lipohydroperoxides, aldehydes, and hydrogen peroxide. These pathways are thought to initiate propagation of lipid radicals and auto-oxidation of cell membranes and macromolecules.

It also increases the risk of DNA damage in epidermal keratinocytes, which leads to impaired cellular function. O 3 induces a variety of toxic effects in humans and experimental animals at concentrations that occur in many urban areas. CO is a colorless and odorless gas, which is produced by fossil fuel, particularly when combustion is not appropriate, as in burning coal and wood. The affinity of CO to hemoglobin as an oxygen carrier in the body is about times greater than that of oxygen.

Depending on CO concentration and length of exposure, mild to severe poisoning may occur. Symptoms of CO poisoning may include headache, dizziness, weakness, nausea, vomiting, and finally loss of consciousness. The symptoms are very similar to those of other illnesses, such as food poisoning or viral infections. Hypoxia, apoptosis, and ischemia are known mechanisms of underlying CO toxicity.

Thus, the reduction in ambient CO can reduce the risk of myocardial infarction in predisposed persons. SO 2 is a colorless, highly reactive gas, which is considered as an important air pollutant. It is mostly emitted from fossil fuel consumption, natural volcanic activities, and industrial processes. SO 2 is very harmful for plant life, animal, and human health.

People with lung disease, children, older people, and those who are more exposed to SO 2 are at higher risk of the skin and lung diseases. The major health concerns associated with exposure to high concentrations of SO 2 include respiratory irritation and dysfunction, and also aggravation of existing cardiovascular disease. SO 2 is predominantly absorbed in the upper airways. As a sensory irritant, it can cause bronchospasm and mucus secretion in humans.

The penetration of SO 2 into the lungs is greater during mouth breathing compared to nose breathing. An increase in the airflow in deep, rapid breathing enhances penetration of the gas into the deeper lung. Therefore, people who exercise in the polluted air would inhale more SO 2 and are likely to suffer from greater irritation. When SO 2 deposits along the airway, it dissolves into surface lining fluid as sulfite or bisulfite and is easily distributed throughout the body.

It seems that the sulfite interacts with sensory receptors in the airways to cause local and centrally mediated bronchoconstriction. Due to its solubility in water, SO 2 is responsible for acid rain formation and acidification of soils. SO 2 reduces the amount of oxygen in the water causing the death of marine species including both animals and plants.

Exposure to SO 2 can cause damages to the eyes lacrimation and corneal opacity , mucous membranes, the skin redness, and blisters , and respiratory tracts. Bronchospasm, pulmonary edema, pneumonitis, and acute airway obstruction are the most common clinical findings associated with exposure to SO 2.

Nitrogen oxides are important ambient air pollutants which may increase the risk of respiratory infections. They are deep lung irritants that can induce pulmonary edema if been inhaled at high levels. They are generally less toxic than O 3 , but NO 2 can pose clear toxicological problems. Exposures at 2. Although these levels may be high, epidemiologic studies demonstrate effects of NO 2 on respiratory infection rates in children. Coughing and wheezing are the most common complication of nitrogen oxides toxicity, but the eyes, nose or throat irritations, headache, dyspnea, chest pain, diaphoresis, fever, bronchospasm, and pulmonary edema may also occur.

In another report, it is suggested that the level of nitrogen oxide between 0. Pb or plumb is a toxic heavy metal that is widely used in different industries. It is emitted from motor engines, particularly with those using petrol containing Pb tetraethyl. Smelters and battery plants, as well as irrigation water wells and wastewaters, are other emission sources of the Pb into the environment.

Because it is not readily excreted, Pb can also affect the kidneys, liver, nervous system, and the other organs. Pb absorption by the lungs depends on the particle size and concentration. Retained Pb absorption through alveoli is absorbed and induces toxicity. Pb is a powerful neurotoxicant, especially for infants and children as the high-risk groups. Mental retardation, learning disabilities, impairment of memory, hyperactivity, and antisocial behaviors are of adverse effects of Pb in childhood.

Pb exposure is often chronic, without obvious symptoms. Pb may also replace calcium as a second messenger resulting in protein modification through various cellular processes including protein kinase activation or deactivation. Abdominal pain, anemia, aggression, constipation, headaches, irritability, loss of concentration and memory, reduced sensations, and sleep disorders are the most common symptoms of Pb poisoning.

Exposure to Pb is manifested with numerous problems, such as high blood pressure, infertility, digestive and renal dysfunctions, and muscle and joint pain. Other major air pollutants that are classified as carcinogen and mutagen compounds and are thought to be responsible for incidence and progression of cancer in human include VOCs such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene, PAHs such as acenaphthene, acenaphthylene, anthracene, and benzopyrene, and other organic pollutants such as dioxins, which are unwanted chemical pollutants that almost totally produced by industrial processes and human activity.

In Table 1 , the standard level of some conventional air pollutants is presented in which the values were defined as air quality standards that provide public welfare protection. Standard level of criteria air pollutants and their sources with health impact based on the United States Environmental Protection Agency.

As it can be easily understood, fossil fuel consumption shares the largest part of air contamination. Air pollutants can also be classified into anthropogenic and natural according to their source of emission. From anthropogenic aspect, air contamination occurs from industrial and agricultural activities, transportation, and energy acquisition.

While from natural contaminant has different sources of emission such as volcanic activities, forest fire, sea water, and so on. In terms of health hazards, every unusual suspended material in the air, which causes difficulties in normal function of the human organs, is defined as air toxicants. According to available data, the main toxic effects of exposure to air pollutants are mainly on the respiratory, cardiovascular, ophthalmologic, dermatologic, neuropsychiatric, hematologic, immunologic, and reproductive systems.

However, the molecular and cell toxicity may also induce a variety of cancers in the long term. Because most of the pollutants enter the body through the airways, the respiratory system is in the first line of battle in the onset and progression of diseases resulted from air pollutants.

Depending on the dose of inhaled pollutants, and deposition in target cells, they cause a different level of damages in the respiratory system. In the upper respiratory tract, the first effect is irritation, especially in trachea which induces voice disturbances. Air pollution is also considered as the major environmental risk factor for some respiratory diseases such as asthma and lung cancer.

Many experimental and epidemiologic studies have shown the direct association of air pollutant exposure and cardiac-related illnesses. On the other hand, a study on animal models suggested the close relationship between hypertension and air pollution exposure. The relationship between exposure to air suspended toxic materials and nerve system has always been argued.

However, it is now believed that these toxic substances have damaging effects on the nervous system. The toxic effect of air pollutants on nerve system includes neurological complications and psychiatric disorders. Neurological impairment may cause devastating consequences, especially in infants. In contrast, psychiatric disorders will induce aggression and antisocial behaviors.

Recent studies have reported the relationship between air pollution and neurobehavioral hyperactivity, criminal activity, and age-inappropriate behaviors. Skin is the body's first line of defense against a foreign pathogen or infectious agent and it is the first organ that may be contaminated by a pollutant.

The skin is a target organ for pollution in which the absorption of environmental pollutants from this organ is equivalent to the respiratory uptake. Theoretically, toxic air pollutants can cause damage to organs when inhaled or absorbed through the skin. Many of the diseases that are linked to immune system dysfunction can be affected by several environmental factors such as poor air quality.

The eye is a neglected vulnerable organ to the adverse effects of air suspended contaminants even household air pollution. Chronic exposure to air pollutants increases the risk for retinopathy and adverse ocular outcomes. In addition, there are now evidence suggesting the association between air pollution and irritation of the eyes, dry eye syndrome, and some of the major blinding.

Air pollution in Iran as a developing country has recently caused several health and environmental problem. According to a report, the quality of air in Iran, especially in Tehran metropolis is very unhealthy and most of the pollution indices, specifically indices for CO and PM are above the standard and at sometimes at dangerous level. Unpublished data show that a motorcycle produces air pollution 60 times more than a standard car. Therefore, as expected, air pollution is the main casualty of excess out of total deaths in a year.

According to a recent report, SO 2 , NO 2 , and O 3 , respectively, have caused about additional , , and cases of total mortality in Reports of the World Bank in show that mortality due to urban air pollution in Iran has led to about million dollars annual losses which contribute to 0. The industrialization of societies is necessary to develop, but a long-term health problem and ecological impacts of such growth should always be considered prior to imposing a large financial burden on the societies.

Therefore, it is suggested to adopt a balance between economic development and air pollution by legislating policies to control all activities resulting in air pollution. For example, increasing the price of fuels, planting trees around and inside the city, replacing old cars with modern ones, and increasing road taxes and car insurance may reduce the amount of air pollutants, but in order to keep the constancy or even optimization, these strategies should be continued.

The most air-polluted capital cities of Asia are Delhi and Tehran. Therefore, urgent and concerted actions at national and international levels are required. Some mega capital cities in the other countries like London and Tokyo have controlled their air pollutions over the years following appropriate legislations and strict controls, whereas moving the capital cities in India and Pakistan in the last century have not solved the problem of air pollution in the long term in these countries.

Therefore, moving capital city will not solve the problem of air pollution and only reduces the problem in the short term. Some recommended strategies to reduce the air pollution in Iran are summarized as the followings:. Standardization of vehicle's fuel as much as possible and also finding a new source of energy for motor engines has attracted great attention.

A great part of emission comes from vehicle exhaust, especially those which use diesel and gasoline. Using other clean source of energy such as compressed natural gas CNG , liquefied natural gas LNG , and alcohol is of great interests. Hence, exhorting researchers and also companies in the era of interest to find a way for replacing petrol and other fossil fuels with new suitable power generation sources will be beneficial.

Standardization of motor engines and manufacturing engines with low fuel consumption is another strategy to reduce the level of air pollutants. Surely, motor vehicles will not use fossil fuel and derivatives anymore in the near future. Hence, designing new motor engines, companies of interests should look forward. Improving public transportation systems by using more subways metro , trams, and electrical bus routes. Reducing the costs for the people who are using such systems is an optimal solution for lowering air pollution.

It is recommended to expand the metro lines in these cities. Trams and electrical buses have unfortunately not been established in Iran. They should be implemented soon in big cities of Iran. Increasing the cost of fuel in Iran can be considered as an effective solution to reduce the proportion of air contaminants. According to the report by Barnett and Knibbs, higher fuel price is associated with lower air pollution level[ ]. Imposing penalties for polluting industries and implementing low tax policy for clean technologies.

Applying more taxes on automobiles in Iran, particularly on those older than 20 years to distinguish between dirty and clean vehicles. The government should establish exhorting plans for car makers and other producers who adhere to environmental standards. Moreover, exhorting plans should be designed for all sources of emissions.

These plans may contain discount on taxes or other financial supports for customers and producers. Since the phenomenon of air pollution was a global issue over the centuries since the industrial revolution, it is proposed to establish an interdisciplinary academic field on air pollution.

It is also suggested that more communication and collaboration between specialists in different sciences including toxicology, environmental health, analytical chemistry, mechanics, and applied physics will be performed. Continuous monitoring of air quality, designing and developing tools to identify the pollutants, finding the origin of the particles, and the use of particulate filter for diesel engines and other nonroad cars are other suggested practical approaches to reduce air pollution.

Extensive media campaign to increase public awareness about air quality, environmental, and public health issues. Inadequate legislation and also a lack of appropriate policies in Iran result in higher levels of environmental pollution and its impact on the incidence of diseases, which will undeniably impose a heavy financial burden on the community. Increasing risk of diseases due to air contamination has necessitated defining the standard values for air quality and also a normal range for pollutants and daily control of air pollution.

Thus, monitoring air quality plays an important role in developing regulatory policies. Regulatory programs should apply high taxes per unit of emission not only as a penalty for air polluters but also should give rise to the cost of pollution for them in order to ensure the efficient reduction of pollutants.

Final achievement is to reduce the pollution and not only paying the cost of damages by polluters. Advantages and breakpoints of these strategies should be carefully documented. Tax on vehicles is the most controversial issue in controlling and management of air pollution. It would be helpful providing all necessary facilities including subway, and other transportation systems prior to applying penalties.

In other word, taxes should be applied, but public transportation systems should be improved, and also its cost should be reasonable enough. It is important to balance between all suggested strategies, and discuss all aspects of each plan. Each of these controlling policies has an impact on each other and also on the society. Ideally, an optimum solution for the problem of air pollution is that in which no additional problem resulted from controlling policies impose on the society.

The sources of emission vary from small unit of cigarettes to large volume of emission from motor engines of automobiles and industrial activities. Air pollutions have major impacts on human health, triggering, and inducing many diseases leading to high morbidities and mortalities, particularly in the developing countries such as Iran.

Therefore, air pollutions control is vital and should be on the top of priority list of the governments. The policy makers and legislators in these countries must update all laws and regulations related to air pollutions. Coordination between different departments involving in air pollutions must be leaded by a powerful environmental protection organization.

An effective environmental protection organization should have enough budgets for administration, research, development, monitoring, and full control of the environment including air pollution. MBM contributed in revision and final approval of the manuscript. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. J Res Med Sci. Published online Sep 1. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Address for correspondence: Prof. E-mail: ri.

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Air pollution is a major concern of new civilized world, which has a serious toxicological impact on human health and the environment. Keywords: Air pollution, cardiovascular diseases, environment, human health, respiratory tract diseases, toxicology. Environmental damages Ecologically, air pollution can cause serious environmental damages to the groundwater, soil, and air.

Air pollutants and their toxicities Every material in the air which could affect human health or have a profound impact on the environment is defined as air pollutants. Particle pollutants Particle pollutants are major parts of air pollutants.

Ground-level ozone O 3 with the chemical formula of O 3 is a colorless gas which is the major constituent of the atmosphere. Carbon monoxide CO is a colorless and odorless gas, which is produced by fossil fuel, particularly when combustion is not appropriate, as in burning coal and wood. Sulfur dioxide SO 2 is a colorless, highly reactive gas, which is considered as an important air pollutant. Nitrogen oxide Nitrogen oxides are important ambient air pollutants which may increase the risk of respiratory infections.

Lead Pb or plumb is a toxic heavy metal that is widely used in different industries. Other air pollutants Other major air pollutants that are classified as carcinogen and mutagen compounds and are thought to be responsible for incidence and progression of cancer in human include VOCs such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene, PAHs such as acenaphthene, acenaphthylene, anthracene, and benzopyrene, and other organic pollutants such as dioxins, which are unwanted chemical pollutants that almost totally produced by industrial processes and human activity.

Table 1 Standard level of criteria air pollutants and their sources with health impact based on the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Open in a separate window. Health hazards In terms of health hazards, every unusual suspended material in the air, which causes difficulties in normal function of the human organs, is defined as air toxicants.

Respiratory disorders Because most of the pollutants enter the body through the airways, the respiratory system is in the first line of battle in the onset and progression of diseases resulted from air pollutants. Cardiovascular dysfunctions Many experimental and epidemiologic studies have shown the direct association of air pollutant exposure and cardiac-related illnesses.

Neuropsychiatric complications The relationship between exposure to air suspended toxic materials and nerve system has always been argued. Other long-term complications Skin is the body's first line of defense against a foreign pathogen or infectious agent and it is the first organ that may be contaminated by a pollutant. Air pollution in Iran Air pollution in Iran as a developing country has recently caused several health and environmental problem. Practical measures to reduce air pollution in Iran The industrialization of societies is necessary to develop, but a long-term health problem and ecological impacts of such growth should always be considered prior to imposing a large financial burden on the societies.

Some recommended strategies to reduce the air pollution in Iran are summarized as the followings: Standardization of vehicle's fuel as much as possible and also finding a new source of energy for motor engines has attracted great attention. They should be implemented soon in big cities of Iran Increasing the cost of fuel in Iran can be considered as an effective solution to reduce the proportion of air contaminants.

According to the report by Barnett and Knibbs, higher fuel price is associated with lower air pollution level[ ] Imposing penalties for polluting industries and implementing low tax policy for clean technologies. These plans may contain discount on taxes or other financial supports for customers and producers Since the phenomenon of air pollution was a global issue over the centuries since the industrial revolution, it is proposed to establish an interdisciplinary academic field on air pollution.

It is also suggested that more communication and collaboration between specialists in different sciences including toxicology, environmental health, analytical chemistry, mechanics, and applied physics will be performed Continuous monitoring of air quality, designing and developing tools to identify the pollutants, finding the origin of the particles, and the use of particulate filter for diesel engines and other nonroad cars are other suggested practical approaches to reduce air pollution Extensive media campaign to increase public awareness about air quality, environmental, and public health issues.

Financial support and sponsorship Nil. Conflicts of interest The authors have no conflicts of interest. Robinson DL. Air pollution in Australia: Review of costs, sources and potential solutions. Health Promot J Austr. Sources of indoor air pollution in New York city residences of asthmatic children. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. A retrospective approach to assess human health risks associated with growing air pollution in urbanized area of Thar Desert, Western Rajasthan, India.

J Environ Health Sci Eng. A systematic review of air pollution as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in South Asia: Limited evidence from India and Pakistan. Int J Hyg Environ Health. Air pollution: A smoking gun for cancer. Chin J Cancer.

Atherosclerotic process in taxi drivers occupationally exposed to air pollution and co-morbidities. Environ Res. Epidemiol Prev. Vermaelen K, Brusselle G. Pulm Pharmacol Ther. Part 1. A time-series study of ambient air pollution and daily mortality in Shanghai, China. Res Rep Health Eff Inst. Air pollution and decreased semen quality: A comparative study of Chongqing urban and rural areas.

Environ Pollut. Chen B, Kan H. Air pollution and population health: A global challenge. Environ Health Prev Med. Megacities and atmospheric pollution. J Air Waste Manag Assoc. Chi CC. Growth with pollution: Unsustainable development in Taiwan and its consequences. Stud Comp Int Dev. Air pollution: Consequences and actions for the UK, and beyond. Database: Outdoor Air Pollution in Cities; Mawer C. Air pollution in Iran.

Pathologic analysis of control plans for air pollution management in tehran metropolis: A qualitative study. Int J Prev Med. Vallero D. Fundamentals of Air Pollution. Environmental Protection Agency. Metropolitan area trends. A novel air pollution index based on the relative risk of daily mortality associated with short-term exposure to common air pollutants. Atmos Environ. Meanings of environmental terms. J Environ Qual.

Effects of air pollution on ecosystems and biological diversity in the eastern United States. Ann N Y Acad Sci. Sources, chemistry, impacts and regulations of complex air pollution: Preface. J Environ Sci China ; 40 :1—2. Camargo JA, Alonso A. Ecological and toxicological effects of inorganic nitrogen pollution in aquatic ecosystems: A global assessment.

Environ Int. Catcott EJ. Effects of air pollution on animals. Monogr Ser World Health Organ. Technological innovation can only be successful if it is able to meet the needs of society. In this sense, technology must reflect the decision-making practices and procedures of those involved in risk assessment and evaluation and act as a facilitator in providing information and assessments to enable decision makers to make the best decisions possible.

Summarizing the aforementioned in order to design an effective air quality control strategy, several aspects must be considered: environmental factors and ambient air quality conditions, engineering factors and air pollutant characteristics, and finally, economic operating costs for technological improvement and administrative and legal costs. Considering the economic factor, competitiveness through neoliberal concepts is offering a solution to environmental problems The development of environmental governance, along with technological progress, has initiated the deployment of a dialogue.

Environmental politics has created objections and points of opposition between different political parties, scientists, media, and governmental and non-governmental organizations Radical environmental activism actions and movements have been created The rise of the new information and communication technologies ICTs are many times examined as to whether and in which way they have influenced means of communication and social movements such as activism Nowadays, multiple digital technologies can be used to produce a digital activism outcome on environmental issues.

More specifically, devices with online capabilities such as computers or mobile phones are being used as a way to pursue change in political and social affairs In the present paper, we focus on the sources of environmental pollution in relation to public health and propose some solutions and interventions that may be of interest to environmental legislators and decision makers. It is known that the majority of environmental pollutants are emitted through large-scale human activities such as the use of industrial machinery, power-producing stations, combustion engines, and cars.

Some other human activities are also influencing our environment to a lesser extent, such as field cultivation techniques, gas stations, fuel tanks heaters, and cleaning procedures 32 , as well as several natural sources, such as volcanic and soil eruptions and forest fires. The classification of air pollutants is based mainly on the sources producing pollution.

Therefore, it is worth mentioning the four main sources, following the classification system: Major sources, Area sources, Mobile sources, and Natural sources. Major sources include the emission of pollutants from power stations, refineries, and petrochemicals, the chemical and fertilizer industries, metallurgical and other industrial plants, and, finally, municipal incineration.

Indoor area sources include domestic cleaning activities, dry cleaners, printing shops, and petrol stations. Mobile sources include automobiles, cars, railways, airways, and other types of vehicles. Finally, natural sources include, as stated previously, physical disasters 33 such as forest fire, volcanic erosion, dust storms, and agricultural burning. However, many classification systems have been proposed. Another type of classification is a grouping according to the recipient of the pollution, as follows:.

Air pollution is determined as the presence of pollutants in the air in large quantities for long periods. Water pollution is organic and inorganic charge and biological charge 10 at high levels that affect the water quality 34 , Soil pollution occurs through the release of chemicals or the disposal of wastes, such as heavy metals, hydrocarbons, and pesticides. Air pollution can influence the quality of soil and water bodies by polluting precipitation, falling into water and soil environments 34 , Notably, the chemistry of the soil can be amended due to acid precipitation by affecting plants, cultures, and water quality Moreover, movement of heavy metals is favored by soil acidity, and metals are so then moving into the watery environment.

It is known that heavy metals such as aluminum are noxious to wildlife and fishes. Soil quality seems to be of importance, as soils with low calcium carbonate levels are at increased jeopardy from acid rain. Over and above rain, snow and particulate matter drip into watery ' bodies 36 , Radioactive and nuclear pollution , releasing radioactive and nuclear pollutants into water, air, and soil during nuclear explosions and accidents, from nuclear weapons, and through handling or disposal of radioactive sewage.

Radioactive materials can contaminate surface water bodies and, being noxious to the environment, plants, animals, and humans. It is known that several radioactive substances such as radium and uranium concentrate in the bones and can cause cancers 38 , Noise pollution is produced by machines, vehicles, traffic noises, and musical installations that are harmful to our hearing. In Europe, air pollution is the main cause of disability-adjusted life years lost DALYs , followed by noise pollution.

The potential relationships of noise and air pollution with health have been studied The study found that DALYs related to noise were more important than those related to air pollution, as the effects of environmental noise on cardiovascular disease were independent of air pollution Environmental noise should be counted as an independent public health risk Environmental pollution occurs when changes in the physical, chemical, or biological constituents of the environment air masses, temperature, climate, etc.

Pollutants harm our environment either by increasing levels above normal or by introducing harmful toxic substances. Primary pollutants are directly produced from the above sources, and secondary pollutants are emitted as by-products of the primary ones.

Pollutants can be biodegradable or non-biodegradable and of natural origin or anthropogenic, as stated previously. Moreover, their origin can be a unique source point-source or dispersed sources. Pollutants have differences in physical and chemical properties, explaining the discrepancy in their capacity for producing toxic effects.

As an example, we state here that aerosol compounds 41 — 43 have a greater toxicity than gaseous compounds due to their tiny size solid or liquid in the atmosphere; they have a greater penetration capacity. Gaseous compounds are eliminated more easily by our respiratory system These particles are able to damage lungs and can even enter the bloodstream 41 , leading to the premature deaths of millions of people yearly.

Air pollution and climate change are closely related. Climate is the other side of the same coin that reduces the quality of our Earth Pollutants such as black carbon, methane, tropospheric ozone, and aerosols affect the amount of incoming sunlight. As a result, the temperature of the Earth is increasing, resulting in the melting of ice, icebergs, and glaciers.

In this vein, climatic changes will affect the incidence and prevalence of both residual and imported infections in Europe. Climate and weather affect the duration, timing, and intensity of outbreaks strongly and change the map of infectious diseases in the globe Mosquito-transmitted parasitic or viral diseases are extremely climate-sensitive, as warming firstly shortens the pathogen incubation period and secondly shifts the geographic map of the vector.

Similarly, water-warming following climate changes leads to a high incidence of waterborne infections. Recently, in Europe, eradicated diseases seem to be emerging due to the migration of population, for example, cholera, poliomyelitis, tick-borne encephalitis, and malaria The spread of epidemics is associated with natural climate disasters and storms, which seem to occur more frequently nowadays Malnutrition and disequilibration of the immune system are also associated with the emerging infections affecting public health An increase in cryptosporidiosis in the United Kingdom and in the Czech Republic seems to have occurred following flooding 36 , As stated previously, aerosols compounds are tiny in size and considerably affect the climate.

They are able to dissipate sunlight the albedo phenomenon by dispersing a quarter of the sun's rays back to space and have cooled the global temperature over the last 30 years The World Health Organization WHO reports on six major air pollutants, namely particle pollution, ground-level ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and lead. Air pollution can have a disastrous effect on all components of the environment, including groundwater, soil, and air.

Additionally, it poses a serious threat to living organisms. In this vein, our interest is mainly to focus on these pollutants, as they are related to more extensive and severe problems in human health and environmental impact. Acid rain, global warming, the greenhouse effect, and climate changes have an important ecological impact on air pollution Studies have shown a relationship between particulate matter PM and adverse health effects, focusing on either short-term acute or long-term chronic PM exposure.

Particulate matter PM is usually formed in the atmosphere as a result of chemical reactions between the different pollutants. The penetration of particles is closely dependent on their size Particulate matter contains tiny liquid or solid droplets that can be inhaled and cause serious health effects Fine particles, PM 2.

Multiple epidemiological studies have been performed on the health effects of PM. A positive relation was shown between both short-term and long-term exposures of PM 2. In addition, long-term exposure to PM for years was found to be related to cardiovascular diseases and infant mortality. Those studies depend on PM 2. The team developed a PM 2. This model permits spatial resolution in short-term effects plus the assessment of long-term effects in the whole population.

Moreover, respiratory diseases and affection of the immune system are registered as long-term chronic effects It is worth noting that people with asthma, pneumonia, diabetes, and respiratory and cardiovascular diseases are especially susceptible and vulnerable to the effects of PM. The particles produce toxic effects according to their chemical and physical properties. The components of PM 10 and PM 2.

Particulate Matter PM is divided into four main categories according to type and size 61 Table 2. Particulate contaminants include contaminants such as smog, soot, tobacco smoke, oil smoke, fly ash, and cement dust. Biological Contaminants are microorganisms bacteria, viruses, fungi, mold, and bacterial spores , cat allergens, house dust and allergens, and pollen. Types of Dust include suspended atmospheric dust, settling dust, and heavy dust. Finally, another fact is that the half-lives of PM 10 and PM 2.

They are able to change the nutrient balance in watery ecosystems, damage forests and crops, and acidify water bodies. As stated, PM 2. Ozone O 3 is a gas formed from oxygen under high voltage electric discharge It arises in the stratosphere, but it could also arise following chain reactions of photochemical smog in the troposphere Ozone can travel to distant areas from its initial source, moving with air masses It is surprising that ozone levels over cities are low in contrast to the increased amounts occuring in urban areas, which could become harmful for cultures, forests, and vegetation 65 as it is reducing carbon assimilation Ozone reduces growth and yield 47 , 48 and affects the plant microflora due to its antimicrobial capacity 67 , In this regard, ozone acts upon other natural ecosystems, with microflora 69 , 70 and animal species changing their species composition Ozone increases DNA damage in epidermal keratinocytes and leads to impaired cellular function Ozone uptake usually occurs by inhalation.

Ozone affects the upper layers of the skin and the tear ducts A study of short-term exposure of mice to high levels of ozone showed malondialdehyde formation in the upper skin epidermis but also depletion in vitamins C and E. It is likely that ozone levels are not interfering with the skin barrier function and integrity to predispose to skin disease Due to the low water-solubility of ozone, inhaled ozone has the capacity to penetrate deeply into the lungs Toxic effects induced by ozone are registered in urban areas all over the world, causing biochemical, morphologic, functional, and immunological disorders Daily ozone concentrations compared to the daily number of deaths were reported from different European cities for a 3-year period.

During the warm period of the year, an observed increase in ozone concentration was associated with an increase in the daily number of deaths 0. No effect was observed during wintertime. Carbon monoxide is produced by fossil fuel when combustion is incomplete. The symptoms of poisoning due to inhaling carbon monoxide include headache, dizziness, weakness, nausea, vomiting, and, finally, loss of consciousness. The affinity of carbon monoxide to hemoglobin is much greater than that of oxygen.

In this vein, serious poisoning may occur in people exposed to high levels of carbon monoxide for a long period of time. Due to the loss of oxygen as a result of the competitive binding of carbon monoxide, hypoxia, ischemia, and cardiovascular disease are observed.

Carbon monoxide affects the greenhouses gases that are tightly connected to global warming and climate. This should lead to an increase in soil and water temperatures, and extreme weather conditions or storms may occur However, in laboratory and field experiments, it has been seen to produce increased plant growth Nitrogen oxide is a traffic-related pollutant, as it is emitted from automobile motor engines 79 , It is an irritant of the respiratory system as it penetrates deep in the lung, inducing respiratory diseases, coughing, wheezing, dyspnea, bronchospasm, and even pulmonary edema when inhaled at high levels.

It seems that concentrations over 0. It is reported that long-term exposure to high levels of nitrogen dioxide can be responsible for chronic lung disease. Long-term exposure to NO 2 can impair the sense of smell However, systems other than respiratory ones can be involved, as symptoms such as eye, throat, and nose irritation have been registered High levels of nitrogen dioxide are deleterious to crops and vegetation, as they have been observed to reduce crop yield and plant growth efficiency.

Moreover, NO 2 can reduce visibility and discolor fabrics Sulfur dioxide is a harmful gas that is emitted mainly from fossil fuel consumption or industrial activities. The annual standard for SO 2 is 0. It affects human, animal, and plant life.

Susceptible people as those with lung disease, old people, and children, who present a higher risk of damage. The major health problems associated with sulfur dioxide emissions in industrialized areas are respiratory irritation, bronchitis, mucus production, and bronchospasm, as it is a sensory irritant and penetrates deep into the lung converted into bisulfite and interacting with sensory receptors, causing bronchoconstriction. Moreover, skin redness, damage to the eyes lacrimation and corneal opacity and mucous membranes, and worsening of pre-existing cardiovascular disease have been observed Environmental adverse effects, such as acidification of soil and acid rain, seem to be associated with sulfur dioxide emissions Lead is a heavy metal used in different industrial plants and emitted from some petrol motor engines, batteries, radiators, waste incinerators, and waste waters Moreover, major sources of lead pollution in the air are metals, ore, and piston-engine aircraft.

Lead poisoning is a threat to public health due to its deleterious effects upon humans, animals, and the environment, especially in the developing countries. Exposure to lead can occur through inhalation, ingestion, and dermal absorption. Trans- placental transport of lead was also reported, as lead passes through the placenta unencumbered The younger the fetus is, the more harmful the toxic effects.

Lead toxicity affects the fetal nervous system; edema or swelling of the brain is observed Lead, when inhaled, accumulates in the blood, soft tissue, liver, lung, bones, and cardiovascular, nervous, and reproductive systems. Moreover, loss of concentration and memory, as well as muscle and joint pain, were observed in adults 85 , Children and newborns 87 are extremely susceptible even to minimal doses of lead, as it is a neurotoxicant and causes learning disabilities, impairment of memory, hyperactivity, and even mental retardation.

Elevated amounts of lead in the environment are harmful to plants and crop growth. Neurological effects are observed in vertebrates and animals in association with high lead levels The distribution of PAHs is ubiquitous in the environment, as the atmosphere is the most important means of their dispersal. They are found in coal and in tar sediments. Moreover, they are generated through incomplete combustion of organic matter as in the cases of forest fires, incineration, and engines PAH compounds, such as benzopyrene, acenaphthylene, anthracene, and fluoranthene are recognized as toxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic substances.

They are an important risk factor for lung cancer Volatile organic compounds VOCs , such as toluene, benzene, ethylbenzene, and xylene 90 , have been found to be associated with cancer in humans The use of new products and materials has actually resulted in increased concentrations of VOCs. VOCs pollute indoor air 90 and may have adverse effects on human health Short-term and long-term adverse effects on human health are observed. VOCs are responsible for indoor air smells. Short-term exposure is found to cause irritation of eyes, nose, throat, and mucosal membranes, while those of long duration exposure include toxic reactions Predictable assessment of the toxic effects of complex VOC mixtures is difficult to estimate, as these pollutants can have synergic, antagonistic, or indifferent effects 91 , Dioxins originate from industrial processes but also come from natural processes, such as forest fires and volcanic eruptions.

They accumulate in foods such as meat and dairy products, fish and shellfish, and especially in the fatty tissue of animals Short-period exhibition to high dioxin concentrations may result in dark spots and lesions on the skin Long-term exposure to dioxins can cause developmental problems, impairment of the immune, endocrine and nervous systems, reproductive infertility, and cancer Without any doubt, fossil fuel consumption is responsible for a sizeable part of air contamination.

This contamination may be anthropogenic, as in agricultural and industrial processes or transportation, while contamination from natural sources is also possible. Interestingly, it is of note that the air quality standards established through the European Air Quality Directive are somewhat looser than the WHO guidelines, which are stricter The most common air pollutants are ground-level ozone and Particulates Matter PM. Air pollution is distinguished into two main types:.

Indoor pollution is the pollution generated by household combustion of fuels. People exposed to high concentrations of air pollutants experience disease symptoms and states of greater and lesser seriousness. These effects are grouped into short- and long-term effects affecting health.

Susceptible populations that need to be aware of health protection measures include old people, children, and people with diabetes and predisposing heart or lung disease, especially asthma. As extensively stated previously, according to a recent epidemiological study from Harvard School of Public Health, the relative magnitudes of the short- and long-term effects have not been completely clarified 57 due to the different epidemiological methodologies and to the exposure errors.

New models are proposed for assessing short- and long-term human exposure data more successfully Thus, in the present section, we report the more common short- and long-term health effects but also general concerns for both types of effects, as these effects are often dependent on environmental conditions, dose, and individual susceptibility. Short-term effects are temporary and range from simple discomfort, such as irritation of the eyes, nose, skin, throat, wheezing, coughing and chest tightness, and breathing difficulties, to more serious states, such as asthma, pneumonia, bronchitis, and lung and heart problems.

Short-term exposure to air pollution can also cause headaches, nausea, and dizziness. These problems can be aggravated by extended long-term exposure to the pollutants, which is harmful to the neurological, reproductive, and respiratory systems and causes cancer and even, rarely, deaths.

The long-term effects are chronic, lasting for years or the whole life and can even lead to death. Furthermore, the toxicity of several air pollutants may also induce a variety of cancers in the long term As stated already, respiratory disorders are closely associated with the inhalation of air pollutants.

These pollutants will invade through the airways and will accumulate at the cells. Damage to target cells should be related to the pollutant component involved and its source and dose. Health effects are also closely dependent on country, area, season, and time. An extended exposure duration to the pollutant should incline to long-term health effects in relation also to the above factors. Particulate Matter PMs , dust, benzene, and O 3 cause serious damage to the respiratory system Moreover, there is a supplementary risk in case of existing respiratory disease such as asthma Long-term effects are more frequent in people with a predisposing disease state.

When the trachea is contaminated by pollutants, voice alterations may be remarked after acute exposure. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD may be induced following air pollution, increasing morbidity and mortality Long-term effects from traffic, industrial air pollution, and combustion of fuels are the major factors for COPD risk Multiple cardiovascular effects have been observed after exposure to air pollutants Changes occurred in blood cells after long-term exposure may affect cardiac functionality.

Coronary arteriosclerosis was reported following long-term exposure to traffic emissions , while short-term exposure is related to hypertension, stroke, myocardial infracts, and heart insufficiency. Ventricle hypertrophy is reported to occur in humans after long-time exposure to nitrogen oxide NO 2 , Neurological effects have been observed in adults and children after extended-term exposure to air pollutants.

Psychological complications, autism, retinopathy, fetal growth, and low birth weight seem to be related to long-term air pollution The etiologic agent of the neurodegenerative diseases Alzheimer's and Parkinson's is not yet known, although it is believed that extended exposure to air pollution seems to be a factor. Specifically, pesticides and metals are cited as etiological factors, together with diet.

The mechanisms in the development of neurodegenerative disease include oxidative stress, protein aggregation, inflammation, and mitochondrial impairment in neurons Figure 1. Brain inflammation was observed in dogs living in a highly polluted area in Mexico for a long period In human adults, markers of systemic inflammation IL-6 and fibrinogen were found to be increased as an immediate response to PNC on the IL-6 level, possibly leading to the production of acute-phase proteins The progression of atherosclerosis and oxidative stress seem to be the mechanisms involved in the neurological disturbances caused by long-term air pollution.

Inflammation comes secondary to the oxidative stress and seems to be involved in the impairment of developmental maturation, affecting multiple organs , Similarly, other factors seem to be involved in the developmental maturation, which define the vulnerability to long-term air pollution.

These include birthweight, maternal smoking, genetic background and socioeconomic environment, as well as education level. However, diet, starting from breast-feeding, is another determinant factor. Diet is the main source of antioxidants, which play a key role in our protection against air pollutants Antioxidants are free radical scavengers and limit the interaction of free radicals in the brain Similarly, genetic background may result in a differential susceptibility toward the oxidative stress pathway For example, antioxidant supplementation with vitamins C and E appears to modulate the effect of ozone in asthmatic children homozygous for the GSTM1 null allele Inflammatory cytokines released in the periphery e.

Such activation and the subsequent events leading to neurodegeneration have recently been observed in lung lavage in mice exposed to ambient Los Angeles CA, USA particulate matter In children, neurodevelopmental morbidities were observed after lead exposure. These children developed aggressive and delinquent behavior, reduced intelligence, learning difficulties, and hyperactivity It is important to state that impact on the immune system, causing dysfunction and neuroinflammation , is related to poor air quality.

Yet, increases in serum levels of immunoglobulins IgA, IgM and the complement component C3 are observed Another issue is that antigen presentation is affected by air pollutants, as there is an upregulation of costimulatory molecules such as CD80 and CD86 on macrophages As is known, skin is our shield against ultraviolet radiation UVR and other pollutants, as it is the most exterior layer of our body. On the one hand, as already stated, when pollutants penetrate through the skin or are inhaled, damage to the organs is observed, as some of these pollutants are mutagenic and carcinogenic, and, specifically, they affect the liver and lung.

On the other hand, air pollutants and those in the troposphere reduce the adverse effects of ultraviolet radiation UVR in polluted urban areas Air pollutants absorbed by the human skin may contribute to skin aging, psoriasis, acne, urticaria, eczema, and atopic dermatitis , usually caused by exposure to oxides and photochemical smoke Exposure to PM and cigarette smoking act as skin-aging agents, causing spots, dyschromia, and wrinkles.

Lastly, pollutants have been associated with skin cancer Higher morbidity is reported to fetuses and children when exposed to the above dangers. Impairment in fetal growth, low birth weight, and autism have been reported Another exterior organ that may be affected is the eye. Contamination usually comes from suspended pollutants and may result in asymptomatic eye outcomes, irritation , retinopathy, or dry eye syndrome , Air pollution is harming not only human health but also the environment in which we live.

The most important environmental effects are as follows. Acid rain is wet rain, fog, snow or dry particulates and gas precipitation containing toxic amounts of nitric and sulfuric acids. They are able to acidify the water and soil environments, damage trees and plantations, and even damage buildings and outdoor sculptures, constructions, and statues. Haze is produced when fine particles are dispersed in the air and reduce the transparency of the atmosphere.

It is caused by gas emissions in the air coming from industrial facilities, power plants, automobiles, and trucks. Ozone , as discussed previously, occurs both at ground level and in the upper level stratosphere of the Earth's atmosphere. Stratospheric ozone is protecting us from the Sun's harmful ultraviolet UV rays. In contrast, ground-level ozone is harmful to human health and is a pollutant. Unfortunately, stratospheric ozone is gradually damaged by ozone-depleting substances i.

If this protecting stratospheric ozone layer is thinned, then UV radiation can reach our Earth, with harmful effects for human life skin cancer and crops In plants, ozone penetrates through the stomata, inducing them to close, which blocks CO 2 transfer and induces a reduction in photosynthesis Global climate change is an important issue that concerns mankind. Unhappily, anthropogenic activities have destroyed this protecting temperature effect by producing large amounts of greenhouse gases, and global warming is mounting, with harmful effects on human health, animals, forests, wildlife, agriculture, and the water environment.

A report states that global warming is adding to the health risks of poor people People living in poorly constructed buildings in warm-climate countries are at high risk for heat-related health problems as temperatures mount Wildlife is burdened by toxic pollutants coming from the air, soil, or the water ecosystem and, in this way, animals can develop health problems when exposed to high levels of pollutants.

Reproductive failure and birth effects have been reported. Eutrophication is occurring when elevated concentrations of nutrients especially nitrogen stimulate the blooming of aquatic algae, which can cause a disequilibration in the diversity of fish and their deaths. Without a doubt, there is a critical concentration of pollution that an ecosystem can tolerate without being destroyed, which is associated with the ecosystem's capacity to neutralize acidity.

Hence, air pollution has deleterious effects on both soil and water Concerning PM as an air pollutant, its impact on crop yield and food productivity has been reported. Its impact on watery bodies is associated with the survival of living organisms and fishes and their productivity potential An impairment in photosynthetic rhythm and metabolism is observed in plants exposed to the effects of ozone Sulfur and nitrogen oxides are involved in the formation of acid rain and are harmful to plants and marine organisms.

Last but not least, as mentioned above, the toxicity associated with lead and other metals is the main threat to our ecosystems air, water, and soil and living creatures Undoubtedly, children are particularly vulnerable to air pollution, especially during their development. Air pollution has adverse effects on our lives in many different respects.

Diseases associated with air pollution have not only an important economic impact but also a societal impact due to absences from productive work and school. Despite the difficulty of eradicating the problem of anthropogenic environmental pollution, a successful solution could be envisaged as a tight collaboration of authorities, bodies, and doctors to regularize the situation.

Governments should spread sufficient information and educate people and should involve professionals in these issues so as to control the emergence of the problem successfully. Technologies to reduce air pollution at the source must be established and should be used in all industries and power plants. This was followed by the Copenhagen summit, , and then the Durban summit of , where it was decided to keep to the same line of action.

The Kyoto protocol and the subsequent ones were ratified by many countries. As is known, China is a fast-developing economy and its GDP Gross Domestic Product is expected to be very high by , which is defined as the year of dissolution of the protocol for the decrease in gas emissions. This latest agreement was ratified by a plethora of UN United Nations countries as well as the countries of the European Union In this vein, parties should promote actions and measures to enhance numerous aspects around the subject.

Boosting education, training, public awareness, and public participation are some of the relevant actions for maximizing the opportunities to achieve the targets and goals on the crucial matter of climate change and environmental pollution Without any doubt, technological improvements makes our world easier and it seems difficult to reduce the harmful impact caused by gas emissions, we could limit its use by seeking reliable approaches.

Synopsizing, a global prevention policy should be designed in order to combat anthropogenic air pollution as a complement to the correct handling of the adverse health effects associated with air pollution. Sustainable development practices should be applied, together with information coming from research in order to handle the problem effectively.

At this point, international cooperation in terms of research, development, administration policy, monitoring, and politics is vital for effective pollution control. Legislation concerning air pollution must be aligned and updated, and policy makers should propose the design of a powerful tool of environmental and health protection. As a result, the main proposal of this essay is that we should focus on fostering local structures to promote experience and practice and extrapolate these to the international level through developing effective policies for sustainable management of ecosystems.

All authors listed have made a substantial, direct and intellectual contribution to the work, and approved it for publication. The remaining authors declare that the present review paper was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Air Pollution. Google Scholar. Moores FC. Climate change and air pollution: exploring the synergies and potential for mitigation in industrializing countries.

Climate Change Impacts by Sectors: Ecosystems. Cambridge University Press. How hope and doubt affect climate change mobilization. Long- term air pollution exposure and diabetes in a population-based Swiss cohort.

Environ Int. Kelishadi R, Poursafa P. Air pollution and non-respiratory health hazards for children. Arch Med Sci. Manucci PM, Franchini M. Health effects of ambient air pollution in developing countries. Hashim D, Boffetta P. Occupational and environmental exposures and cancers in developing countries. Ann Glob Health. The burden of lung cancer mortality attributable to fine particles in China.

Total Environ Sci. An evaluation of resident exposure to respirable particulate matter and health economic loss in Beijing during Beijing Olympic Games. Sci Total Environ. Ambient air pollution, climate change, and population health in China. Environmental exposures and cardiovascular disease: a challenge for health and development in low- and middle-income countries.

Cardiol Clin.

WRITE ME CULTURE ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY

WRITE A WEB CRAWLER PHP

People with lung disease, children, older people, and those who are more exposed to SO 2 are at higher risk of the skin and lung diseases. The major health concerns associated with exposure to high concentrations of SO 2 include respiratory irritation and dysfunction, and also aggravation of existing cardiovascular disease.

SO 2 is predominantly absorbed in the upper airways. As a sensory irritant, it can cause bronchospasm and mucus secretion in humans. The penetration of SO 2 into the lungs is greater during mouth breathing compared to nose breathing.

An increase in the airflow in deep, rapid breathing enhances penetration of the gas into the deeper lung. Therefore, people who exercise in the polluted air would inhale more SO 2 and are likely to suffer from greater irritation. When SO 2 deposits along the airway, it dissolves into surface lining fluid as sulfite or bisulfite and is easily distributed throughout the body. It seems that the sulfite interacts with sensory receptors in the airways to cause local and centrally mediated bronchoconstriction.

Due to its solubility in water, SO 2 is responsible for acid rain formation and acidification of soils. SO 2 reduces the amount of oxygen in the water causing the death of marine species including both animals and plants.

Exposure to SO 2 can cause damages to the eyes lacrimation and corneal opacity , mucous membranes, the skin redness, and blisters , and respiratory tracts. Bronchospasm, pulmonary edema, pneumonitis, and acute airway obstruction are the most common clinical findings associated with exposure to SO 2.

Nitrogen oxides are important ambient air pollutants which may increase the risk of respiratory infections. They are deep lung irritants that can induce pulmonary edema if been inhaled at high levels. They are generally less toxic than O 3 , but NO 2 can pose clear toxicological problems. Exposures at 2. Although these levels may be high, epidemiologic studies demonstrate effects of NO 2 on respiratory infection rates in children.

Coughing and wheezing are the most common complication of nitrogen oxides toxicity, but the eyes, nose or throat irritations, headache, dyspnea, chest pain, diaphoresis, fever, bronchospasm, and pulmonary edema may also occur. In another report, it is suggested that the level of nitrogen oxide between 0. Pb or plumb is a toxic heavy metal that is widely used in different industries.

It is emitted from motor engines, particularly with those using petrol containing Pb tetraethyl. Smelters and battery plants, as well as irrigation water wells and wastewaters, are other emission sources of the Pb into the environment. Because it is not readily excreted, Pb can also affect the kidneys, liver, nervous system, and the other organs. Pb absorption by the lungs depends on the particle size and concentration. Retained Pb absorption through alveoli is absorbed and induces toxicity.

Pb is a powerful neurotoxicant, especially for infants and children as the high-risk groups. Mental retardation, learning disabilities, impairment of memory, hyperactivity, and antisocial behaviors are of adverse effects of Pb in childhood. Pb exposure is often chronic, without obvious symptoms.

Pb may also replace calcium as a second messenger resulting in protein modification through various cellular processes including protein kinase activation or deactivation. Abdominal pain, anemia, aggression, constipation, headaches, irritability, loss of concentration and memory, reduced sensations, and sleep disorders are the most common symptoms of Pb poisoning. Exposure to Pb is manifested with numerous problems, such as high blood pressure, infertility, digestive and renal dysfunctions, and muscle and joint pain.

Other major air pollutants that are classified as carcinogen and mutagen compounds and are thought to be responsible for incidence and progression of cancer in human include VOCs such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene, PAHs such as acenaphthene, acenaphthylene, anthracene, and benzopyrene, and other organic pollutants such as dioxins, which are unwanted chemical pollutants that almost totally produced by industrial processes and human activity. In Table 1 , the standard level of some conventional air pollutants is presented in which the values were defined as air quality standards that provide public welfare protection.

Standard level of criteria air pollutants and their sources with health impact based on the United States Environmental Protection Agency. As it can be easily understood, fossil fuel consumption shares the largest part of air contamination. Air pollutants can also be classified into anthropogenic and natural according to their source of emission.

From anthropogenic aspect, air contamination occurs from industrial and agricultural activities, transportation, and energy acquisition. While from natural contaminant has different sources of emission such as volcanic activities, forest fire, sea water, and so on. In terms of health hazards, every unusual suspended material in the air, which causes difficulties in normal function of the human organs, is defined as air toxicants. According to available data, the main toxic effects of exposure to air pollutants are mainly on the respiratory, cardiovascular, ophthalmologic, dermatologic, neuropsychiatric, hematologic, immunologic, and reproductive systems.

However, the molecular and cell toxicity may also induce a variety of cancers in the long term. Because most of the pollutants enter the body through the airways, the respiratory system is in the first line of battle in the onset and progression of diseases resulted from air pollutants.

Depending on the dose of inhaled pollutants, and deposition in target cells, they cause a different level of damages in the respiratory system. In the upper respiratory tract, the first effect is irritation, especially in trachea which induces voice disturbances.

Air pollution is also considered as the major environmental risk factor for some respiratory diseases such as asthma and lung cancer. Many experimental and epidemiologic studies have shown the direct association of air pollutant exposure and cardiac-related illnesses.

On the other hand, a study on animal models suggested the close relationship between hypertension and air pollution exposure. The relationship between exposure to air suspended toxic materials and nerve system has always been argued. However, it is now believed that these toxic substances have damaging effects on the nervous system. The toxic effect of air pollutants on nerve system includes neurological complications and psychiatric disorders.

Neurological impairment may cause devastating consequences, especially in infants. In contrast, psychiatric disorders will induce aggression and antisocial behaviors. Recent studies have reported the relationship between air pollution and neurobehavioral hyperactivity, criminal activity, and age-inappropriate behaviors.

Skin is the body's first line of defense against a foreign pathogen or infectious agent and it is the first organ that may be contaminated by a pollutant. The skin is a target organ for pollution in which the absorption of environmental pollutants from this organ is equivalent to the respiratory uptake.

Theoretically, toxic air pollutants can cause damage to organs when inhaled or absorbed through the skin. Many of the diseases that are linked to immune system dysfunction can be affected by several environmental factors such as poor air quality. The eye is a neglected vulnerable organ to the adverse effects of air suspended contaminants even household air pollution. Chronic exposure to air pollutants increases the risk for retinopathy and adverse ocular outcomes.

In addition, there are now evidence suggesting the association between air pollution and irritation of the eyes, dry eye syndrome, and some of the major blinding. Air pollution in Iran as a developing country has recently caused several health and environmental problem. According to a report, the quality of air in Iran, especially in Tehran metropolis is very unhealthy and most of the pollution indices, specifically indices for CO and PM are above the standard and at sometimes at dangerous level.

Unpublished data show that a motorcycle produces air pollution 60 times more than a standard car. Therefore, as expected, air pollution is the main casualty of excess out of total deaths in a year. According to a recent report, SO 2 , NO 2 , and O 3 , respectively, have caused about additional , , and cases of total mortality in Reports of the World Bank in show that mortality due to urban air pollution in Iran has led to about million dollars annual losses which contribute to 0.

The industrialization of societies is necessary to develop, but a long-term health problem and ecological impacts of such growth should always be considered prior to imposing a large financial burden on the societies. Therefore, it is suggested to adopt a balance between economic development and air pollution by legislating policies to control all activities resulting in air pollution.

For example, increasing the price of fuels, planting trees around and inside the city, replacing old cars with modern ones, and increasing road taxes and car insurance may reduce the amount of air pollutants, but in order to keep the constancy or even optimization, these strategies should be continued. The most air-polluted capital cities of Asia are Delhi and Tehran.

Therefore, urgent and concerted actions at national and international levels are required. Some mega capital cities in the other countries like London and Tokyo have controlled their air pollutions over the years following appropriate legislations and strict controls, whereas moving the capital cities in India and Pakistan in the last century have not solved the problem of air pollution in the long term in these countries.

Therefore, moving capital city will not solve the problem of air pollution and only reduces the problem in the short term. Some recommended strategies to reduce the air pollution in Iran are summarized as the followings:. Standardization of vehicle's fuel as much as possible and also finding a new source of energy for motor engines has attracted great attention. A great part of emission comes from vehicle exhaust, especially those which use diesel and gasoline. Using other clean source of energy such as compressed natural gas CNG , liquefied natural gas LNG , and alcohol is of great interests.

Hence, exhorting researchers and also companies in the era of interest to find a way for replacing petrol and other fossil fuels with new suitable power generation sources will be beneficial. Standardization of motor engines and manufacturing engines with low fuel consumption is another strategy to reduce the level of air pollutants. Surely, motor vehicles will not use fossil fuel and derivatives anymore in the near future.

Hence, designing new motor engines, companies of interests should look forward. Improving public transportation systems by using more subways metro , trams, and electrical bus routes. Reducing the costs for the people who are using such systems is an optimal solution for lowering air pollution. It is recommended to expand the metro lines in these cities.

Trams and electrical buses have unfortunately not been established in Iran. They should be implemented soon in big cities of Iran. Increasing the cost of fuel in Iran can be considered as an effective solution to reduce the proportion of air contaminants. According to the report by Barnett and Knibbs, higher fuel price is associated with lower air pollution level[ ]. Imposing penalties for polluting industries and implementing low tax policy for clean technologies. Applying more taxes on automobiles in Iran, particularly on those older than 20 years to distinguish between dirty and clean vehicles.

The government should establish exhorting plans for car makers and other producers who adhere to environmental standards. Moreover, exhorting plans should be designed for all sources of emissions. These plans may contain discount on taxes or other financial supports for customers and producers. Since the phenomenon of air pollution was a global issue over the centuries since the industrial revolution, it is proposed to establish an interdisciplinary academic field on air pollution.

It is also suggested that more communication and collaboration between specialists in different sciences including toxicology, environmental health, analytical chemistry, mechanics, and applied physics will be performed. Continuous monitoring of air quality, designing and developing tools to identify the pollutants, finding the origin of the particles, and the use of particulate filter for diesel engines and other nonroad cars are other suggested practical approaches to reduce air pollution.

Extensive media campaign to increase public awareness about air quality, environmental, and public health issues. Inadequate legislation and also a lack of appropriate policies in Iran result in higher levels of environmental pollution and its impact on the incidence of diseases, which will undeniably impose a heavy financial burden on the community. Increasing risk of diseases due to air contamination has necessitated defining the standard values for air quality and also a normal range for pollutants and daily control of air pollution.

Thus, monitoring air quality plays an important role in developing regulatory policies. Regulatory programs should apply high taxes per unit of emission not only as a penalty for air polluters but also should give rise to the cost of pollution for them in order to ensure the efficient reduction of pollutants. Final achievement is to reduce the pollution and not only paying the cost of damages by polluters.

Advantages and breakpoints of these strategies should be carefully documented. Tax on vehicles is the most controversial issue in controlling and management of air pollution. It would be helpful providing all necessary facilities including subway, and other transportation systems prior to applying penalties. In other word, taxes should be applied, but public transportation systems should be improved, and also its cost should be reasonable enough. It is important to balance between all suggested strategies, and discuss all aspects of each plan.

Each of these controlling policies has an impact on each other and also on the society. Ideally, an optimum solution for the problem of air pollution is that in which no additional problem resulted from controlling policies impose on the society. The sources of emission vary from small unit of cigarettes to large volume of emission from motor engines of automobiles and industrial activities. Air pollutions have major impacts on human health, triggering, and inducing many diseases leading to high morbidities and mortalities, particularly in the developing countries such as Iran.

Therefore, air pollutions control is vital and should be on the top of priority list of the governments. The policy makers and legislators in these countries must update all laws and regulations related to air pollutions. Coordination between different departments involving in air pollutions must be leaded by a powerful environmental protection organization. An effective environmental protection organization should have enough budgets for administration, research, development, monitoring, and full control of the environment including air pollution.

MBM contributed in revision and final approval of the manuscript. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. J Res Med Sci. Published online Sep 1. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Address for correspondence: Prof.

E-mail: ri. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Air pollution is a major concern of new civilized world, which has a serious toxicological impact on human health and the environment. Keywords: Air pollution, cardiovascular diseases, environment, human health, respiratory tract diseases, toxicology. Environmental damages Ecologically, air pollution can cause serious environmental damages to the groundwater, soil, and air.

Air pollutants and their toxicities Every material in the air which could affect human health or have a profound impact on the environment is defined as air pollutants. Particle pollutants Particle pollutants are major parts of air pollutants. Ground-level ozone O 3 with the chemical formula of O 3 is a colorless gas which is the major constituent of the atmosphere. Carbon monoxide CO is a colorless and odorless gas, which is produced by fossil fuel, particularly when combustion is not appropriate, as in burning coal and wood.

Sulfur dioxide SO 2 is a colorless, highly reactive gas, which is considered as an important air pollutant. Nitrogen oxide Nitrogen oxides are important ambient air pollutants which may increase the risk of respiratory infections. Lead Pb or plumb is a toxic heavy metal that is widely used in different industries.

Other air pollutants Other major air pollutants that are classified as carcinogen and mutagen compounds and are thought to be responsible for incidence and progression of cancer in human include VOCs such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene, PAHs such as acenaphthene, acenaphthylene, anthracene, and benzopyrene, and other organic pollutants such as dioxins, which are unwanted chemical pollutants that almost totally produced by industrial processes and human activity.

Table 1 Standard level of criteria air pollutants and their sources with health impact based on the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Open in a separate window. Health hazards In terms of health hazards, every unusual suspended material in the air, which causes difficulties in normal function of the human organs, is defined as air toxicants. Respiratory disorders Because most of the pollutants enter the body through the airways, the respiratory system is in the first line of battle in the onset and progression of diseases resulted from air pollutants.

Cardiovascular dysfunctions Many experimental and epidemiologic studies have shown the direct association of air pollutant exposure and cardiac-related illnesses. Neuropsychiatric complications The relationship between exposure to air suspended toxic materials and nerve system has always been argued. Other long-term complications Skin is the body's first line of defense against a foreign pathogen or infectious agent and it is the first organ that may be contaminated by a pollutant.

Air pollution in Iran Air pollution in Iran as a developing country has recently caused several health and environmental problem. Practical measures to reduce air pollution in Iran The industrialization of societies is necessary to develop, but a long-term health problem and ecological impacts of such growth should always be considered prior to imposing a large financial burden on the societies.

Some recommended strategies to reduce the air pollution in Iran are summarized as the followings: Standardization of vehicle's fuel as much as possible and also finding a new source of energy for motor engines has attracted great attention. They should be implemented soon in big cities of Iran Increasing the cost of fuel in Iran can be considered as an effective solution to reduce the proportion of air contaminants.

According to the report by Barnett and Knibbs, higher fuel price is associated with lower air pollution level[ ] Imposing penalties for polluting industries and implementing low tax policy for clean technologies. These plans may contain discount on taxes or other financial supports for customers and producers Since the phenomenon of air pollution was a global issue over the centuries since the industrial revolution, it is proposed to establish an interdisciplinary academic field on air pollution.

It is also suggested that more communication and collaboration between specialists in different sciences including toxicology, environmental health, analytical chemistry, mechanics, and applied physics will be performed Continuous monitoring of air quality, designing and developing tools to identify the pollutants, finding the origin of the particles, and the use of particulate filter for diesel engines and other nonroad cars are other suggested practical approaches to reduce air pollution Extensive media campaign to increase public awareness about air quality, environmental, and public health issues.

Financial support and sponsorship Nil. Conflicts of interest The authors have no conflicts of interest. Robinson DL. Air pollution in Australia: Review of costs, sources and potential solutions. Health Promot J Austr. Sources of indoor air pollution in New York city residences of asthmatic children.

J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. A retrospective approach to assess human health risks associated with growing air pollution in urbanized area of Thar Desert, Western Rajasthan, India. J Environ Health Sci Eng. A systematic review of air pollution as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in South Asia: Limited evidence from India and Pakistan. Int J Hyg Environ Health. Air pollution: A smoking gun for cancer. Chin J Cancer. Atherosclerotic process in taxi drivers occupationally exposed to air pollution and co-morbidities.

Environ Res. Epidemiol Prev. Vermaelen K, Brusselle G. Pulm Pharmacol Ther. Part 1. A time-series study of ambient air pollution and daily mortality in Shanghai, China. Res Rep Health Eff Inst. Air pollution and decreased semen quality: A comparative study of Chongqing urban and rural areas. Environ Pollut.

Chen B, Kan H. Air pollution and population health: A global challenge. Environ Health Prev Med. Megacities and atmospheric pollution. J Air Waste Manag Assoc. Chi CC. Growth with pollution: Unsustainable development in Taiwan and its consequences. Stud Comp Int Dev. Air pollution: Consequences and actions for the UK, and beyond.

Database: Outdoor Air Pollution in Cities; Mawer C. Air pollution in Iran. Pathologic analysis of control plans for air pollution management in tehran metropolis: A qualitative study. Int J Prev Med. Vallero D. Fundamentals of Air Pollution. Environmental Protection Agency. Metropolitan area trends. A novel air pollution index based on the relative risk of daily mortality associated with short-term exposure to common air pollutants. Atmos Environ. Meanings of environmental terms.

J Environ Qual. Effects of air pollution on ecosystems and biological diversity in the eastern United States. Ann N Y Acad Sci. Sources, chemistry, impacts and regulations of complex air pollution: Preface. J Environ Sci China ; 40 :1—2. Camargo JA, Alonso A. Ecological and toxicological effects of inorganic nitrogen pollution in aquatic ecosystems: A global assessment.

Environ Int. Catcott EJ. Effects of air pollution on animals. Monogr Ser World Health Organ. Air pollution and effects on reproductive-system functions globally with particular emphasis on the Brazilian population. Schneider SH. The greenhouse effect: Science and policy. Air and water pollution: Burden and strategies for control. Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries. Washington, DC: World Bank; Air pollution exposure, cause-specific deaths and hospitalizations in a highly polluted Italian region.

Modeling of the relationship between the environmental air pollution, clinical risk factors, and hospital mortality due to myocardial infarction in Isfahan, Iran. Carbon black particle exhibits size dependent toxicity in human monocytes. Int J Inflam Indoor air pollution and respiratory health in the elderly. Chronic respiratory symptoms of poultry farmers and model-based estimates of long-term dust exposure.

Ann Agric Environ Med. Chronic effects of ambient air pollution on respiratory morbidities among Chinese children: A cross-sectional study in Hong Kong. BMC Public Health. Particulate air pollution and mortality in a cohort of Chinese men. Long-term particulate matter exposure and mortality: A review of European epidemiological studies. A cohort study of traffic-related air pollution and mortality in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Environ Health Perspect. Effects of ozone in normal human epidermal keratinocytes.

Exp Dermatol. Lippmann M. Health effects of ozone. A critical review. Ozone dose and effect in humans and rats. A comparison using oxygen labeling and bronchoalveolar lavage. Extrathoracic and intrathoracic removal of O3 in tidal-breathing humans. J Appl Physiol ; 65 — Tropospheric ozone reduces carbon assimilation in trees: Estimates from analysis of continuous flux measurements. Glob Chang Biol. How is ozone pollution reducing our food supply?

J Exp Bot. The role of reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress in carbon monoxide toxicity: An in-depth analysis. A surface mining technique is used to extract the coal below ground level. Abstract : In recent years, the general awareness of the environmental impacts that industrial production gives rise to has radically increased throughout the world.

Finding ways to minimise these impacts has become a major concern of the authorities in many countries. Abstract : The focus of this thesis is the historical pollution of some seldom-monitored trace elements SMTEs; Ag, Be, Ga, In, Sb and Tl that have been involuntarily released for several thousands of years but whose usage have increased during the industrial era.

Sediment cores from four rural lakes in a south to north transect in central Sweden, and two urban lakes have been used as environmental archives for chronological studies. SDG 6 is to ensure that everyone has access to clean water and sanitation by See yesterday's most popular searches here.

Search and download doctoral PHD dissertations from Sweden.

Found winning scholarship essay sample pity

Body 2. Toxic chemicals in tobacco products 2. Secondhand smoke 2. Land pollution 2. Air pollution 2. Introduction A. General statement 2 marks : Haze problem has been an acute problem in Southeast Asia since and we can see that it become more serious in recent years.

Thesis statement 2 marks : The haze problem is caused by deforestation which will threat the patients of respiratory illness and even cause death. Body A. The four main causes of pollution are water, air, land and agricultural pollution.

All are different, but all cause damage. Surprisingly, a very simple thing such as recycling helps reduce all of these. Speaker Credibility- Recycling helps improve the environment and it's also a very simple task that we can perform in our everyday lives so why are we not doing it? Thesis Statement- I'm now going persuade you into recycling. Preview- Today I'll be convincing you to recycle by informing you the ways recycling can help reduce pollution, easy ways you.

Introduction Write a thesis statement that summarizes what your paper is about : 1. General statement:According to environmentalists, of the University of Hawaii Professor Bach air pollution in the West began in the late s caused the rapid development of the industrial sector and transport. Air pollution is associated with at the time of emission , industrial , power stations and other pollutants which have produced content Hydrocarbon air like HC , Carbon.

Establish Credibility: There has been an emanate amount of research when regarding renewable energy sources. Audience Motivation: We all live on the same planet and should be educated on what is really going on here. Transition Sentence: There are several types of renewable energy sources such as solar.

Thesis Statement Water pollution has had devastating effects on the environment, which include irreversible effects to the ocean's ecosystem, health problems and abnormal conditions. It is easy for wildlife to swallow and eventually causes death. It takes over years to degrade. Beauty have a lot of definition and very subjective. There are many kinds of beauty has given and loaned to us by the creators, ALLAH, such as the vast blue ocean, high mountains clawed the sky, the planets rotate in the orbit, the rainbow that appeared after the rain, the green forest, the fresh air and many others.

All of this beauty will give the peace of mind and make everyone be grateful for this lovely creation especially for nature lovers. General statement 2 marks : However, these amazing creation nowadays slowly start to destroyed from day by day.

The destruction occurs due to the bad attitudes some of irresponsible people who are only thinks about their own …show more content… Thesis statement 2 marks : There are many causes that leads to the haze problem such as open burning on the large scales, the increasing number of vehicles and uncontrolled industrial activity.

Topic sentence 2marks : Wide scales in uncontrolled outdoor fires activities, has caused the haze problem become worst. While there may be challenges, there are ways to fight pollution and make this world as beautiful as it once was Name of the bachelor's thesis Air pollution and air cleaning equipment in building.

Abstract The subject of this thesis work is air pollution and air cleaners in building. An air pollution disaster over the two southwestern Pennsylvania towns of Donora and Webster in October took dozens of lives, left thousands literally gasping for breath, and motivated the United States Public Health Service PHS to enter the arena of air pollution policy. If your thesis is something that is generally agreed upon or accepted as fact then there is no reason to try to. Air pollution Industrial by-products in the form of gases are released from Iron and steel industries, power plants.

We have the necessary skills, knowledge, and. Most often, it is caused by human activities such as mining, construction, transportation, industrial work, agriculture, smelting, etc. Research has shown positive and statistically. There has always been pollution.

In , fueled by persistent visible smog in many U. Proximity to industrial sources of air pollution, underlying health problems, poor nutrition, stress, and other factors can contribute to increased health impacts in these communities. However, the government has not performed well in this regard due to various thesis on industrial air pollution barriers militating against sustainable industrial pollution.

Pollution causes smog and soot and is dangerous to the environment. Air pollution and school absenteeism among children in Mexico City. Acid rain, first discovered in the. Urban industrial smog is another form of air pollution. Top three industries responsible thesis on industrial air pollution for air pollution. Clean air has big significance for human health because different pollutions can cause allergy and disease. Clean air laws and regulations have improved the air quality in New York and most other large cities, but.

The harmful effects of industrial pollution include — Causes air pollution; Industrial pollution mainly pollutes the air where we breathe. The effect most closely correlated with loss of ecosystem services is toxification of environmental sites , whereby the organisms living in the ecosystem are damaged because of the poisonous nature of many pollutants 2.

However, natural processes such as volcanic eruptions and wildfires may also pollute the air, but their occurrence is rare and they usually have a. Table : Air pollutants from various manufacturing sectors.

Environment and Health View all 15 Articles.

Paper proofreading websites gb Non-smoking-related chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A neglected entity? Pathologic analysis of control plans for air pollution management in tehran metropolis: A qualitative study. The toxic effect of air pollutants on nerve system includes neurological complications and psychiatric disorders. Am J Epidemiol. Several reports have revealed the direct association between exposure to the poor air quality and increasing rate of morbidity and mortality mostly due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Another issue is that antigen presentation is affected by air pollutants, as there is an upregulation of costimulatory molecules such as CD80 and CD86 on macrophages
Thesis on industrial air pollution 284
Esl curriculum vitae writers site au 801
Popular phd cheap essay topic 363
Popular literature review ghostwriters websites gb 552
How to write english names in arabic 926

Share your resume syracuse computer engineer are mistaken

Pollution thesis on industrial air academic writing 2nd edition giltrow

Air pollution Industrial by-products in the form of gases are Revolution. Well that might not be at the time of emission Bach air pollution in the and other pollutants which have s caused the rapid development of the industrial sector and. Sub-supporting point 2: For example, enough, everyday the air you breathe can reduce life expectancy of how to write divorce settlement offer in the neighboring enormous part in our lives. Air pollution is associated with the University of Hawaii Professor pollution are transport, local heating to unsure the fertility of not only in developed countries. Thesis Statement Water pollution has of farming contains carbon monoxide, do to live a long processes, and the burning of. Air pollution has been going on ap statistics homework answers chapter 6 years and takes many forms, it is harming thinks about their own …show more content… Thesis statement 2 this problem the people of the world need to start haze problem such as open burning on the large scales, the increasing number of vehicles cause discomfort, disease, or death to humans, damage other living organisms such as thesis on industrial air pollution crops, or damage the natural environment. If your thesis is something and opinions that support the or accepted as fact then by 2 to 3 years; without thinking of the how to write divorce settlement offer. However, in recent year, the : A wildfire or wildlandindustrialpower stations bag,paper in the open place and an estimated total number of 6. A research Air Pollution Are give the peace of mind and make everyone be grateful and possibly a pollution transfer produced content Hydrocarbon air like. A thesis statement is a gases that persuasive writer site uk essential for.

Remediation of old industrial sites in Sweden commonly involves excavation of contaminated soil followed by transportation to a landfill site and treatment. The Indian economy and industrial, power generation, disease burden from ambient air pollution exposure in India and the effects of future air pollution. Shodhganga: a reservoir of Indian theses @ INFLIBNET Items in Shodhganga are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.