women entreprenuers in food security thesis

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A full set of resources to accompany this feature can be downloaded for free here. Calling all English teachers: does this sound familiar? As structure gcse english lit essay go through extracts in the last lesson on Friday afternoon, you ask carefully crafted questions, and note with satisfaction how students shoot their hands up in a flash, like Barry Allen on the run. Later, back at home, you mark them. What went wrong?

Women entreprenuers in food security thesis best dissertation proposal ghostwriter for hire online

Women entreprenuers in food security thesis

Data was collected in three phases. The first phase collected qualitative data using two focus groups involving fourteen 14 women entrepreneurs. The second phase used a questionnaire survey to collect quantitative data from two hundred and thirty four women entrepreneurs.

Data collection was wrapped up with in-depth interviews with ten 10 women who had also participated in the questionnaire survey. Content analysis was used to analyse qualitative data, while descriptive and inferential statistics such as Principal Component Analysis and ANOVA were used to analyse quantitative data. The results revealed that economic empowerment has indeed improved the lives of women and their families.

The results also indicated that women are generally receiving support from the government in the form of agricultural inputs, training, agriculture equipment, with a few women receiving farming loans. In addition, the study revealed that the majority of women are involved in agriculture out of necessity to provide food for their families and as a result of poverty, rather than as an entrepreneurial venture. This has serious implications on economic development and food security in Zimbabwe, bearing in mind that the economy is mainly dependent on agriculture.

Therefore, policy makers should find ways of changing the mindset of Zimbabweans and encourage people, especially women and the youth to consider agriculture as a profitable business venture. In addition, more support is required to capacitate women with the necessary skills that would enable them to take agriculture entrepreneurship to a higher level that contributes significantly to the Zimbabwean economy.

Future research should focus on finding ways to economically empower women in rural areas, especially in Zimbabwe where the majority of the population is living in poverty. Collections Doctoral Degrees Management [91]. The results are now available for Kisumu, Kenya. The survey covers two slums, Nyalenda and Obunga.

The project aims to build inclusive business models for food security in the city slums of Kisumu and Ouagadougou. During the rainy month of March in , the Women Food Entrepreneurs research project conducted a baseline survey in the city slums of Kisumu. The focus of the study was to measure the quality of food and nutrition consumed in slum households so that the project research team can understand the initial nutritional conditions for the population in focus. In both project sites of the Women Food Entrepreneurs GCP-2 project — Kisumu in Kenya and Ouagadougou in Burkina Faso — geochemical surveys were required to find rocks suitable for producing powder for soil conditioning.

In the framework of the GCP project Women Food Entrepreneurs, a geochemical survey was carried out in Burkina Faso in order to find rocks suitable for producing powder for soil conditioning. Progress reports Year 1 : During a vibrant project kick-off meeting in Kenya the inter-disciplinary focus of the research was reascertained in detail.

Related articles. June 3, Research project. November 29, Event. April 17, Research project. February 27, Research project. January 28, Research project. December 14, Research project. June 27, Research project. March 9, Research project. December 21, Research project. July 19, Research project. March 23, Research project. March 21, Research project. January 25, Research project. June 8, Research project.

May 27, Research project. February 25, Research project. February 15, Research project. December 9, Research project. Related project items. By Nicolette Jonkman et al. Soil; Project research team Project research team February


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Countries want to understand the determinants of and obstacles to entrepreneurship, and they need to analyze the effectiveness of different policy approaches p. Ultimately, policy making must be guided, as far as possible, by evidence and facts. Different authors tried to define it in different manners. From the definition above it possible to conclude that in almost all definitions entrepreneurship there is agreement that we are talking about a kind of behavior that includes : 1 the acceptance of risk or failure, 2 discovering and evaluating mechanisms to create opportunity for goods and services and 3.

Initiative taking 2. This is due to there being different organizations, laws, countries and agencies that all have their own ways of classification and definition Bloem, The first two are old definitions from the definition of MSE development strategy of Ethiopia and the Central Statistical Authority. The third definition is the new, improved definition of Micro and Small Enterprises of Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia [FDRE], , which was developed based on the experience of other countries, especially the case of South Africa.

The definition was simply based on paid capital or capital investment as most business was confined to family manpower and there was a lack of manpower information in the sector Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia [FDRE], 2. Entrepreneurial activities have been recognized as an important element in organizational and economic development, performance and wealth creation. They make the decisions.

They choose whom to do business with and what work they will do. They decide what hours to work, as well as what to pay and whether to take vacations. Most new entrepreneurs help the local economy. A few—through their innovations—contribute to society as a whole.

Entrepreneurship increase per capita output and income. By doing so it involves initiating and constituting change in the structure of business and society. As a result entrepreneurship contribute a lot in increasing countries output and productivity. This demanding and exciting field requires passion, focus and the willingness to take risks. Entrepreneurs take problems or inconveniences in life and see them as an opportunity to create a product or service.

Though salaries vary, working for a successful start-up can also end up being incredibly lucrative, not to mention an exciting experience. Enjoying what you do and feeling passionate about your work will make you a happier person in the long term. Furthermore, starting a business can be rewarding. Entrepreneurs are their own bosses. They can have more control over their working hours and conditions than they would have if they worked for someone else.

If they cannot find a job they want, they can go into business to create one. For example, they may have a new idea about a particular product or service. If they believe that others would be interested in it, they can go into business for themselves. They may make a profit, which is the money left over after paying their bills, from being creative and doing what they enjoy.

For this there are a number of factors. Samiti and Tan classified the basic factors that affect entrepreneurs in to two broad categories economic and social. The social factors include lack of social acceptability; having limited contacts outside prejudice and class bias; society looks down upon; attitude of other employees; and relations with the work force Besides this, Gemechis, , Hisrich and ILO added Social and cultural attitude towards youth entrepreneurship; entrepreneurship education; administrative and regulatory framework; and business assistance and support; barriers to access technology are crucial factors that affect entrepreneurial success.

Empowerment of women may not be feasible just by creating employment opportunities for them. The need of the hour is to inspire them to set up their own enterprises. Traditionally, women have been on stage, by playing a crucial role in the management of the family as well as in the society.

But their job has not been duly recognized. A broad, time dependent and forward-looking view is appropriate now for thinking about the engagement and standing of women entrepreneur in France. Women entrepreneurship is the desire of women or a group of women to start a new business, it makes them innovate, create, design, own, direct, organize, manage, control and effective running of a business enterprise.

Most of the women entrepreneurs have strong desire to start a business and powerful leadership qualities, which makes them find opportunities around them by analyzing internal strengths and weaknesses and external challenges and risks. These entrepreneurs can predict, accept, analyze and shows the willingness to face challenges, risk, and uncertainty.

The unique nature of women entrepreneurs differentiates them from others and from the rest of the world. New generations knowledge, skills, creativity, perceptions, attitude, positive thinking, self- motivating nature, need for self-actualization and hope towards success make them become strong entrepreneurs by overcoming all the entry barriers such as finance, fear, restrictions, gender variation and mainly family responsibilities.

Table 2. Research has found that there are some characteristics that are found in both men and women. There are some distinct differences that do exist between the two. The basic themes are their decision making styles, risk tolerance, goals for the business, financing of the business, management styles, networking ability, motivations.

Contemporary research has shown that there are some differences between men and women when it comes to entrepreneurship. According to Shmailan A Male and female entrepreneurs may be similar demographically and psychologically. They tend to be married and be the first born child. First born children are more likely to achieve according to a study conducted by Harvard and Columbia universities. Female entrepreneurs tend to pursue degrees in liberal arts rather fields like engineering or more technical disciplines.

It is a much more difficult decision for a woman to become an entrepreneur than men. Women are more sensitive to men when it comes to non-financial issues. Both men and women have experience prior to starting a business. They also may have role models and mentors who help them make their decision to become entrepreneurs. The social factors include lack of social acceptability; having limited contacts outside prejudice and class bias; society looks down upon; attitude of other employees; and relations with the work force.

Besides thisGemechis, Hisrich and ILO added Social and cultural attitude towards youth entrepreneurship; entrepreneurship education; administrative and regulatory framework; and business assistance and support; barriers to access technology are crucial factors that affect entrepreneurial success. A variety of studies have revealed that enterprises owned by women experience the same challenges as those owned by men; however certain characteristics are typical for many women-owned firms.

In addition Women entrepreneur have grown in large number across the glove over the last decade and increasingly the entrepreneurial potentials of women have changed the rural economies in many parts of the word point but this does not mean that the problems are totally resolved. Access to Finance Access to finance is a key issue of women. Women often have fewer opportunities than men to gain access to credit for various reasons, including luck of collateral, an unwillingness to accept household asset as collateral and negative perceptions of female entrepreneurs by loan officers Mahbub, Access to Market The ability to tap in to new market requires experts, knowledge and contacts.

Women often luck access to training experience in on how to participate in market place and are therefore unable to market goods and services strategically. Thus, women-owned MSEs are often unable to take both the production and marketing of their goods. In addition they have often not been exposed to the international market and therefore luck knowledge about is what is internationally acceptable.

They high cost of developing new business contacts and relationship in a new country or market is a big determent and obstacle for many MSEs in particular women-owned business. Women may also fear or face prejudice or sexual harassment and may restricted in their ability to travel to make contacts UNECE, Access to Training Women have limited access to vocational and technical training in south Asia.

In fact, women on average have less access to education than men, and technical and vocational skills can only be developed on strong foundation of basic primary and secondary education. South Asia is characterized by low enrolment among women in education, high dropout rate and poor quality of education..

Access to Network Women have fewer business contacts, less knowledge of how to deal with the governmental bureaucracy and less bargaining power, all of which further limit their growth. Since most women entrepreneurs operate on small scale, and are generally not member of professional organizations or part of other networks, they often find it difficult to access information.

Most existing networks are male dominated and sometimes not particularly welcoming to women but prefer to be exclusive. Even when a woman does venture into these networks, her task is often difficult because most networks activates take place after regular working hours. There are hardly any women-only or women-majority networks where a woman could enter, gain confidence and move further. Lack of network also deprives women of s awareness and exposure to good role models. Large companies and men can more easily influence policy and have access to policymakers, who are seen more as their peers.

Women tend not to belong to, and even less reach leadership position in, mainstream business lack of access to information also limits their knowledgeable input into policymaking Wube , OECD and ILO added that the key factors that affect women entrepreneurs performance especially in developing continent like Africa are: vulnerability of women to adverse effects of trade reform; restraints with regard to assets land ; lack of information to exploit opportunities; and poor mobilization of women entrepreneurs; lack of management skills; lack of awareness among young women of entrepreneurship as a career option; conflicting gender roles; gender inequality inappropriate technology; and constraints at the legal, institution and policy levels.

The participation of women is increasingly being viewed as one of the prime contributors in economic growth. Women entrepreneurship is not only necessary for their economic survival but also for strengthening the social system. Participation of women entrepreneurs in small business enterprises is very encouraging in some African countries.

The participation of women entrepreneurs in MSE sector in Kenya is lower Out of these 1. Eshetu Zeleke and ILO also identified that the following are the main challenges that women entrepreneurs in Ethiopia face in a sequential order from very Sevier to least important. Over the years women participation in the economy has increased rapidly and they constitute almost half of the total population.

In an increasingly international marketplace, many companies are finding that prosperity is best achieved from specialization, as opposed to diversification. As the global marketplace continues to develop women entrepreneurs in MSEs provide an effective tool for economic growth through participation in global supply chains World Bank, Women entrepreneurs create new jobs for themselves and others and also provide society with different solutions to management, organization and business problems.

However, they still represent a minority of all entrepreneurs. The Internal factors limiting small firm growth are the characteristics and attitude of the entrepreneur s and the firm as a whole. These factors can be impacted by the decisions made in the firm either by the entrepreneur s or the staff in the firm. The External factors limiting small firm growth are the factors have to do with decisions, rules and policies that affect a small firm directly, and in response the firm has not really control over the decisions made but an influence to a change of their existence is possible.

The other major constraints identified by various studies on MSEs in Ethiopia are associated with market and finance problems. The causes of market-related problems of MSEs engaged in metal and wood work are shortage or absence of marketing skills, poor quality of products, absence of marketing research, shortage of market information, shortage of selling places, and absence of sub-contracting FMSEDA.

Some micro enterprises shift from one product to another, and in doing so, capture better market opportunities. Nevertheless, as soon as the market has established itself, a multitude of further micro enterprises start off in the same business and this causes the selling price to fall immediately 2.

And, they are permitted to mobilize savings deposits from their clients as well as from the public at large. The credit delivery modality of all the MFIs is group-based group guarantee , thereby waiving the usual requirement for collateral in fixed asset form. Furthermore the group-based credit delivery modality does not fit the requirements of MSEs that want to take individual loans based on particular business needs, either as working capital or as a medium-term investment loan AEMFI, The Revised Definition of Micro Enterprises in Ethiopia Industrial sector includes manufacturing, construction, and mining sub-sectors.

In another study conducted by Singh and Belwal , Ethiopian Women owned MSEs faced challenges that can be described as lack of capital, limited access to markets, to network, to premise, lack of training and cultural oppressions. Another study in Ethiopia conducted by Hagos Yared revealed that high competition as a result of open entry to the business affected newly born MSEs.

Region wise various studies were conducted and provided plenty of challenges. According to Yonas Abera unfair practices, unattractive market, lack of advertisement and market linkage were identified as market challenges of MSEs in Diredawa city administration. Fesseha Mulu Gebremariam cited The FDRE Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia [FDRE], , also identified potential challenges faced by MSEs as those related to finance supply , production and sales cluster development , industrial extension service, human resource development , technological development and growth , market and marketing system , one-center service, a lack of detailed understanding of the MSE development package and work commitments.

The primary objective of the national strategy framework is to create an enabling environment for small and micro-enterprises. Since then, the Government has taken a number of actions to change the regulatory environment for MSEs, simplify the business registration and licensing process, revise the Investment Law, create new MSE agencies, and establish a legal framework for private sector development.

Every relationship should be arranged thematically positive, negative and insignificant findings. The researcher tried to assess different previous research findings to link with the study for further investigation of the specific research. In other hand, The major economic factors that affect women entrepreneurs according to their severity order are lack of own premises or land, lack of financial access, training, lack of access to technology, and raw materials. Infrastructure problems and access to information are serious economic problems for women entrepreneurs in metropolitan.

The major social factors that affect the respondent women entrepreneurs in Addis Ababa according to their severity order are networking society, attitude towards local products besides, positive relationship with the workforce, gender inequality, attitude of employees to the business, and conflicting gender roles are among the serious problems that affect the performance of women entrepreneurs. As, Mulugeta Chane research finding The performance of women entrepreneurs in MSEs in Dessie town are highly affected by economic factors such as lack of own premises land , financial problems, stiff competition in the market, inadequate access to trainings, lack of technology and raw material.

With regard to socio-cultural conditions, conflicting gender roles, lack of social acceptability and network with outsiders are the Sever factors that affect women entrepreneurs in Dessie. However, class biases, gender inequalities, attitude of employees towards the business and harassments are other problems of entrepreneurs in the town. But, issues related to government incentives, legal, instructional and policy constraints, assistance and support from government bodies and request of collateral for borrowing money are not found to be problems of women entrepreneurs in MSEs.

This highlights that there are some beginnings in encouraging women entrepreneurs in MSEs even though this is not believed to be satisfactory. From the major factors that affect the performance of women entrepreneurs in MSEs, the impact of the economic environment is significant even though the influence of social factors is minimal. This implies, the impact of globalization is reflected in women entrepreneurs in MSEs; but the attitude of the society towards women entrepreneurs seems to be relatively changed.

In the contrary, marketing trainings, plan and reporting trainings, entrepreneurship trainings, financial supports, machine gifts, raw material supports and customer service trainings are weak. They do not give a comparable value to business trainings and other supports. Fesseha Mulu concluded the study that MSEs are deemed vital for the overall development of society. They are at the core of empowering citizens economically and socially, as governments cannot simply create jobs for all citizens.

MSEs are one of the best places where the youth can be business innovative, create new technologies, and come up with substitute products that can replace imported goods. In Ethiopia, women mostly participate in the service and trade sector of MSEs, where there are low-level capitals requirements and are often short-term profit gaining enterprises with low sustainability. Women should be encouraged to participate in the other sectors of the enterprises, where more capital is needed, and more technology is employed so that they are more robust and sustainable.

According to Gemechu Abdissa and Teklemariam Fitwi research finding shows that, most of the MSEs operators have no efficient experience and management knowhow to perform their activities effectively and efficiently. These lead to them unsuccessful because they run their business activities without having adequate knowledge about the business environment. Lack of managerial know-how places significant constraints on MSE development. Regarding infrastructural facilities, most of MSEs operators had no adequate infrastructural facilities at the given study area, specially insufficient and interrupted electric power and water supply.

These lead to them, unable to generate adequate profit by satisfying the needs of the customers. Infrastructural problem is not only the problem of the study area problem it is a country wide problem, therefore this problem is not solved by the MSEs operators rather than by the government of the country.

The result of the finding shows that majority of MSEs operators in the study area does not have enough working premises. Because of this, the MSEs operators are not perform their business related activities effectively and efficiently. Regarding other external environmental factors, majority of MSEs operators activities are affected by external related problem such as technological related problems i.

And the other external problem is, there was a problem of market linkage with the external parties such as vendor, suppliers and customers. Because of there was a problem of marketing linkage through external parties, most of the time the MSEs operators are kept their products in the store. It is true that, finance, working place, infrastructural, marketing factors are factors that affect the performance of MSEs, this does not mean that all factors are equally affect the performance of the business enterprises.

As compared with the other factors, technological factors, lack of infrastructural facilities, shortage of working premises and shortage of finances for start-up and expansion purposes are the top most factors that affect the growth and success of MSEs activities at Bench Maji, Sheka and Kefa Zone. As Wambu K study finding the major economic factors affecting women small and medium entrepreneurs are limited financial access, as a result of high interest rates on loans as well as demand of collateral security by financial institutions.

Financial support from family as well as personal savings was not adequate to support women small and medium enterprises. Educational training is seen as a key factor as those enterprises run by women with limited education were on the verge of collapsing. Technology support, financial skills training and also marketing trainings are key areas which women small and medium entrepreneurs need to be well conversant with if they are to excel in their businesses.

Performance is the act of performing; of doing something successfully; using knowledge as distinguished from merely possessing it. However, performance seems to be conceptualized, operationalised and measured in different ways Srinivasan, The above diagram shows women entrepreneurs performance is a function of social, economic, entrepreneurial, legal and administrative factors, ability, leadership, motivation and opportunity seeking.

The picture also depicts the interaction among like economic, culture, Entrepreneurial factors,and demographic, legal and administrative factors affecting women entrepreneurs in Gambella. It also shows the challenges and strategic support that need to be provided to them by all concerned stakeholders. Summary of Literature This chapter has reviewed the literature on factors affecting performance of women entrepreneurs in micro and small enterprise globally and locally.

Although women are faced by several challenges, they have managed to succeed but at a slow pace. The literature explains the challenges women face and if well addressed, then unemployment cases will be minimal resulting to economic growth and reduction of dependency syndrome and more so Gambella Town have so many youths who have turned to drug abuse as their best alternative. Successful micro and small entrepreneur projects was also mean good utilization of natural resources in the city creating a better environment for tourist attraction.

Strong micro and small enterprises by women will rise up only when the highlighted challenges are tackled. The government also needs to defend the girl child and save her from early marriage. The chapter also presents conceptual framework to enable a study and assessment of challenges that face women micro and small enterprises in Gambella Town.

Chapter Three 3. Research Methodology This section presents the study design, population of study area, sampling size and techniques, data sources, data collection instruments and method of data analysis. Study Design The type of Research design that was employed for this study wasexplanatory.

TheMixed approachwasemploying qualitative and quantitative to this study. In relate to this approach concurrent form of mixed methods design the quantitative and qualitative data was gathered during on the same time period. The total labor forces of women operators in town were 1, The target population for the study was women owned enterprises, head of urban job opportunity creation and food securityoffice and experts, head of town microfinance institution and their experts.

Table 3. Sample size and Sampling Technique Both Stratified and purposive sampling was technique used to collect enough and adequate data from the sample. Stratified sampling technique was used to assist in minimizing bias when dealing with the population. With this technique, the sampling frame can be organized into relatively homogeneous groups strata before selecting elements for the sample.

According to Janet , this step increases the probability that the final sample is representative in terms of the stratified groups. In generally, sample sizes was the total sample size for this study. As to the sample size determination, from among different methods, the one which was developed by Carvalho , as cited by Zelalem was used. The method was presented in table below. While secondary data was both published and none published documents, and reports.

Primary and Secondary Data Collection To gather the required primary information for this study, various instruments were used. They were presented as follows. Questionnaire consists of both open and closed ended questions, were used to obtain information from the selected samples of women Enterprise in MSEs. Questionnaires were prepared in English and translating into Amharic and local language by orally.

Method of Data Analysis This study was required establishing the extent to which the independent variables influence the Dependent variables. It was suitable to analyze data by using explanatory research design on this case. Following the completion of the data collection, the information was analyzedby using inferential statics. The quantitative data obtained from respondents wasanalyzed and interpretby inferential statistics using Statistical Package for Social Sciences SPSS versions Qualitative data wereanalyzedby using through narrative technique since these data were qualitative and non numerical.

Operational Definition of Key Terms A good operational definition tells a person how to perform or take a measurement. The following variables were defined as per the research objectives. Result and Discussion Introduction The focus of this study was to analyze and interpret data on the factors that undermine the Performance of women entrepreneurs in Micro and Small enterprises. Data was collected through questionnaires and interviews. Which were formulated and guided by the objectives of this study and operational definition of variables found in chapter one and three respectively.

The data was analyzed using the statistical package of social science SPSS. This chapter illustrates the result of the fieldwork conducted by the researcher. The descriptive analyses were presented first, followed by the inferential analysis. It is organized based on the research questions. The purpose of this study is to critically assess the factors affecting the performance of women entrepreneurs MSEs in Gambella Town. The results were obtained from questionnaires Administered to women entrepreneurs who are found in Gambella Town Administration.

The chapter presents the data collected and their findings. Analysis is also made based upon the Findings in collaboration with the literature reviewed. Generally, this section is organized in the following manner: First, the general information about MSEs were presented and analyzed. Second, data collected through questionnaires and interviews were analyzed concurrently.

On the other hand, those in the age group of and above 40 were Figure 4. Moreover, around Around Only around The rest 46 percent were single, divorced and widowed. Married We can see here there was high early marriage in the study area. Descriptive Analysis 4. The limited the sector to meet the demands of its customers, the difficult it was to perform at its. The Table 5 shows the reasons that women entrepreneurs in MSEs are motivated to start their own enterprises.

Table 5 vividly shows that most of the respondent entrepreneurs Only 9. The study sought to find out if the respondent entrepreneurs had a business plan and the findings were as shown below. Table 4. Table 6 shows a The study sought to find out if the women entrepreneurs had been trained in business entrepreneurship ownership. From the interview it was understood that the major challenges were social and cultural factors that undermine the performance of women entrepreneurs in micro and small enterprise.

One of the underlying causes was job in- training and education, poor communication and unresolved problems in the workplace for our female creative entrepreneurs Table 4. The respondents were of the view that there should be deeper trainings on women micro and small entrepreneurs as compared to male ones so as to lay a strong foundation on women micro and small entrepreneurs. It is possible to conclude that about Moreover, And about The following shows the main sources of start-up fund.

It is also clear that In addition personal saving and family is Women entrepreneurs in MSEs now-a-days have started approaching banks and NGOs as a source of financing their business. However, it does not mean that totally economic problems are not factors.

Especially, as the size of the support and scope provided by NGOs and government the women owned enterprise performance not developed. According to head office explanation the co-operation or collaboration with other institutions was weak. And we have no exceptional financial or other support for female entrepreneurs. But they encourage women to come to work.

With the aid of these statistical techniques, conclusions are drawn with regard to the sample and decisions are made with respect to the research hypothesis 4. The table below indicates that the correlation coefficients for the relationships between performance and its independent variables are linear and positive ranging from substantial to strong correlation coefficients9.

A value of 0 correlations represents no relationship. Correlation is significant at the 0. Source: own survey, As it is clearly indicated in the above table 4. The correlation coefficient of r value start from 0. Moreover, the table presents the association between the selected variables and performance of women entrepreneurs in MSEs for a sample of operators in Gambella Town Administration.

The correlation coefficient value of r start from 0. This allows us to more formally check that our predictors or IVs are not too highly correlated. We can use VIF and Tolerance statistics to assess this assumption. For the assumption to be met we want VIF scores to be well below 10, and tolerance scores to be above 0.

Residual performance Value Residual 94 Dependent Variable: performance Source: own survey, The above table of case wise diagnostics results suggest that the performance predicted by the regression model. Therefore the residuals are normally distributed. This assumption can best be checked with a histogram or a Q-Q-Plot.

Normality can be checked with a goodness of fit test. The above two test result shows that all variables are multivariate normal and fit. As you can see the expected and observed cumulative probabilities, while not matching perfectly, are fairly similar. This suggests that the residuals are approximately normally distributed. In the above P-P plot the data points hardly touch the line at all, indicating that assumption is met.

Therefore the above Scatter plot showing homscedasticity assumption met. The data points seem fairly randomly distributed with a fairly even spread of residuals at all predicted values. This assumption is probably ok.

Source: own survey, Linear regression needs the relationship between the independent and dependent variables to be linear. It is also important to check for outliers since linear regression is sensitive to outlier effects. Source: own survey, The assumption of Multiple Regression is that the relationship between the IVs and the DV can be characterized by a straight line. The above partial regression plot shows that there is relationship between cultural factor and performance.

Source: own survey, The above P-R pilot indicates that there is linear relationship between entrepreneurial factor and performance. The results of such analysis are narrated under. Error Constant -. Table 6 revealed that, the correlation between the observed value of performance and the optimal linear combination of the independent variables is 0. As indicated by multiple R. Besides, given the R Square value of 0.

The standardized beta coefficient column shows the contribution that an individual variable makes to the model. The beta weight is the average amount the dependent variable increases when the independent variable increases by one standard deviation all other independent variables are held constant.

As these are standardized we can compare them. Thus, the largest influence on the performance of women entrepreneurs in MSEs is from the cultural factor 0. From the interview it was understood that the performance of women entrepreneurs in MSEs in Gambella town are highly affected by social, cultural and entrepreneurial factors for instance in social factors, lack of social acceptability and network with outsiders are the Sever factors that affect women entrepreneurs in Gambella town.

In addition to this, regarding to entrepreneurial factors lack of professional training, lack of to exploit business opportunities and lack of education to improve and change are other problems related to performance of women entrepreneurs as head office explanation. On the other hand economic with the beta value of. The finding got from interview was also showing that the economic factors are not such an influential problems compared to above mentioned factors.

Because of Gambella is a seat or abode for numbers of refugees in different parts of the region. As a result, many NGOs were available in the area. These organizations was come to support and manage immigrants, but in addition to this, they work to solve the problem of the local community. These include financial and material support for the growing number of young people, both organized and unorganized. The organization is specifically working to empower women's social and economic potential.

For example cash assistance, cattle, goats, sheep, chickens, beehives, fisheries traps are of the support provided by the organization. A multiple regression was run to predict performance from cultural, entrepreneurial and social factors. As this study shows, most women entrepreneurs in MSEs in Gambella are engaged in the service sector. Hence, the finding matches with the report. Similarly, the entrepreneurs are organized under micro and small enterprises and use NGO and micro finances as main sources of funding.

The finding of this research indicates that about The performance of women entrepreneurs in micro and small enterprises in Gambella town are affected by social factors like lack of social acceptability; class biases, society attitude and network with outsiders are the Sever factors that affect women entrepreneurs in Gambella town. This is also supported by other study conducted in Ethiopia in a different area Abebe Z, and Mulugeta Chane A, and Zinash Abebe and Mulugeta Chane On other hand the entrepreneurial factors lack of professional training, lack of to exploit business opportunities and lack of education to improve and change are very highly challenging factors of MSEs.

This indicates that are those organization emphasizing on technical trainings. That is the municipalities in providing working premises land , the TVETs in training entrepreneurs, the micro finances in providing financial supports, smooth follow up, and MSEs in recruiting and selecting the youth. Culture and tourism eliminating harmful traditional practice, women affairs minimizing gender inequality and discrimination university teaching and awaking community All these are joint responsibilities among these stakeholders in bringing women entrepreneurs in MSEs in to high performance.

Chapter Five 5. Conclusions and Recommendations 5. Specifically, the study attempted to examine the External and Internal factors affecting the performance of women entrepreneurs in MSEs. Based on the findings of the study, the following conclusions were drawn. Regarding to social factors like lack of social acceptability; class biases, society attitude and network with outsiders are the Sever factors that affect women entrepreneurs in Gambella city.

Economic factor is not such challenging factor in this research finding as the reason there is alternative sources NGOs to run business in the study area. Entrepreneurial factors lack of professional training, lack of to exploit business opportunities and lack of education to improve and change are very highly challenging factors of micro and small enterprises in Gambella city. On the other hand the formal financial institutions was not easily accessible because poor governance and difficult bureaucracy these situations led women entrepreneurs in MSE forced to use more of the informal institutions.

So lack of sources of finance is other related factors affecting startup and expansion of business by many women entrepreneurs in the area. Based on the findings and conclusions of the study, the following recommendations are forwarded. Gambella town administration and urban job opportunities and food security office using the NGOs as one golden opportunity to improve performance of women owned Business.

This is grand responsibility to local government. There was need to increase access to vocational and technical training for women in Gambella town. It has been proven that women from the majority in entrepreneurship development and thus empowering women with more education and skills through technical and vocational skills could be develop a strong foundation on the business development. By creating awareness of whole society toward women business is also crucial issues.

Avoiding or minimizing the cultural influences facing in women entrepreneurs is the main agenda or problem needs to be improved. It needs to be important to hold discussions with stakeholders. MSE office should persuade for women entrepreneurs and deliver various trainings. Micro finance must give regular support and follow up to women owned enterprises. Technical support ways to plan, ways to keeping record etc… and Cooperation network with TVET, micro finance, revenue, and trade and industry institution must require for better achievements.

The women entrepreneurs must give attention for business plan before performing their any business. To identify the success and failures both financial and stock record keeping is mandatory. Without preparation of cash flow and income statement it is difficult to measure performance. Group canvasses varsity status for Yaba College of Technology. Entrance examination into 42 Ogun flagship schools hold Aug. Teachers Council inducts new members in Kwara.

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