Then choose a noun that is the main recipient of the action. Put the three together in that order. Your objective is to put as much information as possible in the core. Add to it. Add clauses or phrases to your core to make it a full, descriptive, and interesting sentence. You can add material before or after the core to concede something, to explain a cause and effect relationship, or to explain a consequence. Sharpen it. Look for vague, weak, or otherwise unsatisfactory words, phrases, and clauses in your thesis and make them more specific through either substitution or modification.
Make your categories with key words. And so I would not look to prophecies, not here or anywhere else. I pray that God will never end the struggle that is good for the city. For if deeds like this are honored, why must I dance? For already the old prophecies of Laius are waning and being set aside. Or, indeed, tell me where he himself is, if you know. Here is his wife and mother of his children.
JOCASTA: And likewise to you also, stranger, which you earn through your welcome words; but explain what you have come needing and what you wish to tell him. The word I shall speak—at first you might rejoice; how could you not? But you may also mourn. What twofold power do you hold? Does old Polybus no longer rule there? Polybus is dead, old man? O prophecies of the gods, where are you?
This man Oedipus has long feared and fled lest he kill him, and now this very man has died by chance and not by him. You yourself tell me. But, he died and sleeps below the earth; and I am here, without touching a spear—unless somehow he perished from longing for me, and thus died by me.
But still, Polybus has taken those prophecies as they are—worthless—with him and lies in Hades. Do not worry you will wed your mother, for many mortals already have lain with their mothers in dreams. Rather, the one for whom these things are nothing bears life easiest. By the gods, teach me! Did Polybus not sire me? Could you describe him clearly? You might have seen him in the fields or even here! Tell me, for now it is time for this to be learned at last! Is he the one this man speaks of?
Ignore it. If indeed you care for your own life, do not go after this! I grieve enough. Do not do this. Let this one rejoice in her own rich birth. This alone can I say to you, and nothing else ever after. I fear that something evil will burst out from that silence. As for me, though it be small, I wish to know my stock. But she, since a woman is proud of such things, she is troubled by this low birth of mine.
But I deem myself the child of Chance, who gives good things, and I will not be dishonored. She is my mother, and my brothers, the Months, have seen me both small and great. We will sing and dance for you, for you have served our kings! Hail, Phoebus, to you also may these things be pleasing. Who bore you, child, which of the long-lived maids was the mountain-ranging bride of Pan?
Perhaps the lord of Cyllene or the Bacchic god who dwells on mountain tops, will accept you, foundling, from one of the glancing-eyed nymphs, with whom he plays most of all. Who are you talking about? Have you ever met him? Then in winter I drove my flocks to the fold and he to the stables of Laius.
Why do you ask this question? Will you not be silent? Do not reproach him, old man, when your words deserve more reproach than him. What do you desire to learn? I said long ago that I did give it. It seemed he would bear him away to another land, his home. But he rescued him into the greatest evils.
For if you are who he says, know that you were born cursed. Light, let me see the last of you now, surrounded by those I ought to avoid— born from them, living with them, killing them. For who, what man wins more happiness than just its shape and the ruin when that shape collapses?
With your example, your fate, your self, suffering Oedipus, I call nothing of mortals blessed. Since that time he has been called my king and beyond all men was honored, ruling in glorious Thebes. Oh, famous Oedipus, you alone sufficed to lie as son, father, and bridegroom; how was it, how, poor man, could your paternal furrows bear you in such long silence?
Alas, o child of Laius, if only, if only we had never set eyes on you! But to speak the truth, because of you I could breath again and because of you I sink my eyes into sleep. For I think that neither the Danube nor Volga could wash through this house to purify all it conceals, but soon will come into the light evils both willing and unwilling, but even the self-chosen of these pains will grieve you greatly. By whatever cause? But, of what has been done the worst pain you will avoid, for you cannot see it.
After she had gone into her chamber, frenzied, she threw herself onto her bridal couch, snatching at her hair with both hands. She groaned over her bed, where twice doomed she had born husband from husband, children from her child. He paced back and forth, asking us to bring a sword, asking where she had gone, his wife who was no wife, but a doubly-ploughed field, mother of him and his children. Some god led him on, for it was none of us men who were nearby; shouting terribly, as if led there by some guide, he was driven to the doors, and from their sockets he forced the groaning bolts and fell into the room.
Then inside we saw the woman hanging, all twisted up in a twisted noose. When he saw her, the wretch shouted awfully and cut her down from the noose. When she lay on the ground, poor thing, it was terrible to see. For he removed from her garment the golden brooches which she was wearing; he lifted them and struck the sockets of his own eyes, shouting that they would not see either the evils he had suffered or the evils he had done, now only in darkness could they see those whom they must not see, in darkness could they mistake those whom they wanted to recognize.
Repeating these things, many times and not once only he raised his hands and struck his eyes. At once his bloody eyeballs moistened his cheeks. In torrent together flowed the drops of blood; all at once a dark storm of blood like hail rained down. From two, not one alone, these evils burst forth, evils wedded together for husband and wife.
Their old happiness that was before was justly called happiness, but now on this one day mourning, madness, death, disgrace, every way to name all evils—none have been absent. He wants to cast himself from the land and not stay at home accursed with his own curses. But he will show you also, for the doors are opening. Soon you will see a sight that even his enemy would pity. What mania, poor wretch, stood by you? What spirit leapt from beyond the highest places onto your unhappy fate?
Alas, alas, unfortunate man, I cannot look at you, though I wish to ask many things, to learn and ponder them; how you make me shudder and fear! How miserable is my life! Where does my pain take me? How does my voice rush about me? This cloud of mine, abominable, approaching ineffable, unconquered, driven on by a fatally favorable wind.
And still more sorrow—Upon me fall together so many stinging goads and the memory of evils. You are still my only companion, for still you remain by me, tending the blind man. What god set you to it? But no man struck me with his hand, but I myself dared it. For why must I see, I for whom no sight is sweet? Lead me into exile quickly, lead me away, friends, completely destroyed, the most accursed, and to the gods the most hated of men! For if I had died then, I would not have brought so much pain to my friends or me!
Abandoned by the gods, child of sacrilege, sharing the source of those I myself sired. Or is the sight of my children desirable for me to see, sprouting as they sprouted? Surely never to those eyes of mine! Exposing such defilement as this, did I intend to see them with my own eyes? Not at all. Oh, Cithaeron! Why did you accept me? Why did you not kill me at once, so that I would never reveal to men my origins?
O Polybus and Corinth and my old ancestral home— so-called—in what a pretty festering of evils you brought me up! For now I find myself evil and born from evil people. O three paths and hidden groves and the narrow oak coppice at the triple crossroads, which drank my own blood from my father from my own hands, do you still remember me?
What deeds I performed in your presence, what deeds I was still to do! O marriage, marriage, you brought me forth, and afterwards again you harvested that same seed and revealed father-brothers, children of kin blood, brides who were wives and mothers, and all else counted the most shameful acts by men. But, since these matters are as foully said as done, by the gods, quickly hide me from the sight of men somehow, or kill me or cast me into the sea, where you will never see me again.
Go, deem it worthy to touch a poor man! Yield, do not fear; for my evils are such that no one of men can bear but me. What can I say to this man? For in all that went before I am found false to him. OEDIPUS: Then I enjoin you and make this request: to her…who is inside…bury her as you will, rightly will you act on behalf of your own— but as for me, may this, my native city, suffer me to dwell here while I live, but let me to dwell in the mountains, with my own famous Cithaeron, which my mother and father while they lived appointed as my tomb, so that I may die as those two wished.
Although this much at least I know: No disease nor anything else can kill me, for I would not have been saved from death, but for some dire fate. Worry over them, and most of all I beg you, let me touch them with my hands and mourn our woes.
Please, my lord! By the gods, do I somehow hear my two dear girls crying? Has Creon pitied me and sent to me the dearest of my offspring? Is it true? My children, where are you? Come here, come to these hands of mine that are siblings to yours, hands that brought to this sad state the once bright eyes of your begetting father, who, children, neither seeing nor knowing was proved your father from the same place he himself sprang.
What festivals will you attend that will not send you home in tears, instead of joy? When you come to the age ripe for marriage, who will he be who will run the risk, children, to take for himself the reproaches that will be banes for my parents and offspring alike?
What evil is absent? Your father slew his father; he ploughed his mother, where he himself was sown, and he sired you in the same fount where he himself was sired. Such taunts you will hear, and then who will marry you? There is no one, my children, but surely you must die untilled and unmarried. Son of Menoeceus, since you alone are left as father to them, for we who created them have both been destroyed, do not allow them, your kin, to die unwed and beggars, nor make them party to my evils; but pity them, seeing how young they are and bereft of everything, except for you.
Consent, noble one, and touch me with your hand. Oh, children, if you could understand, I would give you so much advice; as it is, just pray with me that you obtain a better life than did the father who sired you. Therefore, it is necessary to call no man blessed as we await the final day, until he has reached the limit of life and suffered nothing grievous.
Most surprises did not come from the plot, but from the new way the playwright used familiar material. King Laius of Thebes received a prophecy that his son would kill him. To avoid the outcome of the prophecy, Laius had his baby exposed abandoned without protection from the elements—a common way to get rid of unwanted infants on Mount Cithaeron, one of the most remote points of his kingdom.
Unfortunately for Laius, the baby survived and was raised as a prince of the city of Corinth. Many years later, Oedipus, not knowing his true birth, met Laius on the road and killed him. At the time, Thebes was being terrorized by a monster with the head of a woman, body of a lion, and wings of an eagle called the Sphinx. Her riddle solved, the Sphinx threw herself from a cliff, and Oedipus was crowned king of Thebes.
Oedipus married the recently widowed queen, Jocasta. He did not know his real relationship to the man he killed and the woman he married. The plays that survive all date from the 5th century BCE, but tragedy had been performed in Athens for at least decades before the earliest play, and the actual roots of drama reach even farther back.
The two most important influences on Athenian drama were the epics of Homer and the tradition of narrative lyric poetry performed by large choruses. Homer and Epic Poems The ancient Greeks traced all their literary traditions back to the author of two epic poems, the Iliad and the Odyssey. Although we now know that these were the products of an oral tradition, the Greeks believed that the blind poet Homer had written both works.
The Iliad , which narrates just a little of the Trojan War, was considered by the philosopher Aristotle to be the parent of tragedy, and very many Greek tragedies took their subject matter from the heroes portrayed in the Iliad. Although they do not survive, other epic poems told the myths of the city of Thebes and the fall of its ruling house—the subject matter of the Oedipus Rex.
Lyric Poetry While tragedy takes much of its subject matter from epic, its closest relatives in form were the long lyric poems sung by large choruses. In fact, some scholars have speculated that the chorus leader of the lyric poems evolved into a main character, then was replaced by a new chorus leader; the final result could have been a form with a chorus, chorus leader, and main character.
Dialogue arising between these three speakers may have grown into the dramatic action of the first Greek plays. It is interesting to note that the lyric poems continued to be an important form in their own right even as drama became popular. At the Great Dionysia, one of the major festivals of Athens, performance of the dithyramb a special kind of lyric poem dedicated to the god Dionysus was as important as the performance of plays. Each of the ten tribes of Athens submitted an entry in the contest and was represented by a chorus of up to fifty men.
Tragedy was the premiere literary genre of this period, and it is fitting that the high point of the democracy should be symbolized by a genre of poetry that involves the entire body of citizens. Performed at one of the major festivals of the city, the Great Dionysia, each tragedy was part of a contest. Three playwrights would be chosen by a city official, and each playwright would produce three tragedies and a satyr-play a kind of farce intended to lighten the mood after three tragedies ; all four plays were performed in a single day.
The audience consisted of about 15, citizens, and the festival itself became a pageant of Athenian power and glory. We know of many playwrights from this century, but only the works of three men have survived. Fortunately, the three poets we have were universally considered to be the best: Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides. These three plays are not a trilogy; they were not written in order or performed together at one festival. In fact, about forty years separates the first play written, Antigone , from the last, Oedipus at Colonus!
Each play, therefore, should be considered a separate work, and while Sophocles alludes to his earlier work, he pursued different goals and used different methods for each one. The elaborate costumes worn by the actors and chorus members were often the most striking visual element. Staging was usually limited to the painted background behind the stage. The action of a Greek tragedy takes place in a single day, so changes of scene are rare, and props are kept to a minimum.
In addition to the chorus and the three actors, mute characters could also appear on stage as needed. In front of the stage, which was not raised from the ground as in modern theaters, was a circular area called the orchestra , in which the chorus performed its dances. These would be accompanied by the music of an aulos, a double pipe similar to a modern oboe.
The plays followed a fairly strict structure, with a prologue, the entrance of the chorus, and then several episodes separated by choral odes. The dialogue of the plays is written in meter, but was spoken, like the plays of Shakespeare, whereas the choral odes were written in a more complicated meter for the chorus to sing and dance. The plays also include a kommos , in which the main character s lament in song with the chorus.
All in all, the form of Greek tragedy somewhat resembles a cross between Shakespeare and opera. It is important for modern readers to remember that, without the benefit of any music or the elaborate costumes and scenery, we are getting a small portion of what the original audience received. He wrote one of the earliest and most important pieces of literary criticism, the Poetics. It is important to note, however, that the ideas about tragedy expressed in the Poetics were not necessarily held by the playwrights themselves, and most tragedies do not fit the strict guidelines established by Aristotle.
In general, the influence of the Poetics on future scholars has been somewhat excessive. Aristotle can, nevertheless, help us understand how these plays were read and received about by the ancient Greeks themselves. Oedipus Rex was the tragedy that most closely fit his guidelines. Because of his hamartia mistake , he suffers a peripeteia reversal , which, for Aristotle, is the heart of tragedy.
For Aristotle, this reversal was the key towards rousing fear and pity in the audience, which led to catharsis, another term that has become widely used in the study of literature. A word from Greek religion, catharsis indicates ritual purification from pollution, an important concept for Greek life. This pollution, or miasma , came about as the result of crime, especially murder. Just as the physical blood spilled had to be cleaned up, so the more abstract miasma needed to be purified through the proper rituals.
This applied to the space where the crime occurred and to the person who committed it; if a murderer went somewhere without being purified, he would bring pollution onto this new place. Aristotle uses the term catharsis to refer to the purging of excessive emotions from a person. By watching the tragedy and feeling the strong emotions of fear and pity on behalf of the characters on stage, the spectator experiences a kind of cleansing of the soul.
Just as ritual catharsis allowed the formerly polluted person to return to the community and take part in communal life without bringing miasma with him, so the metaphorical catharsis from watching tragedy gave the spectators a shared experience that bound them closer together. In other works, Aristotle locates the essence of the self in perception; by sharing perception or perceiving the same things, the spectators develop a sort of common identity.
Thus, for Aristotle, watching tragedies was a beneficial activity, both for the individual and the community. These odes comment on the action of the preceding episode. The chorus could also, however, act as a character; one chorus member would be designated leader and speak lines of dialogue, interacting with the other characters on stage. They acted somewhat like guardian angels, but could also be malicious. The most powerful god was Zeus, the sky god, who was thought to have taken power when he overthrew his father Cronus.
There were also other gods, older deities from the reign of Cronus who remained powerful and were often irrational. Among these are the Furies, dreadful goddesses who hunt down and drive mad humans who kill blood-relatives.
The most important god for the Oedipus Rex is Apollo, whose oracle at Delphi gives the important prophecies to Oedipus and Creon Laius was traveling to this oracle when he was killed. His prophecies in this play, however, are not warnings: He does not tell Laius not to have children, merely that his child will kill him. He does not tell Oedipus to kill his father, but that he will kill his father. When Oedipus sends Creon to find out how to end the plague, Apollo tells them to drive the murderer of Laius out of Thebes, but this is not an instruction so much as a simple answer.
Two other gods mentioned are both sons of Zeus: Hermes, divine messenger and patron of cattle-rustlers, and Dionysus, god of wine and ecstatic intoxication. In myth, Dionysus was accompanied by satyrs crudely sexual half-gods and enraptured nymphs called maenads.
He was also the god of theatre, and Greek tragedies were performed at a festival in his honor. Aristotle associates the act of hybris with the state of anger. It is important to note that hybris is the act of violence itself; modern readers often make the mistake of thinking of it as some kind of attitude or pride. In Athenian law, hybris was more serious than simple assault, whether the act was physical or verbal; it could be punished by death.
Originally, the idea of hybris seems to have referred to cultivated plants that grew beyond their designated boundaries and, thus, had to be pruned; eventually, its metaphorical application to humans became the only meaning of the word.
These were places holy to a specific deity often Apollo ; humans could pose questions and the god would answer through a chosen intermediary. Here, Apollo answered questions through his priestess, the Pythia, who entered an ecstatic state and babbled out responses, which were in turn interpreted and delivered in verse by the priests.
Throughout Oedipus , several prophecies are brought forth. It could be argued that the reaction of his biological parents lead to the prophecies being fulfilled. Laius orders Jocasta to kill her son. She cannot do it, so she orders a servant to do it for her. The servant then leaves Oedipus to die from exposure rather than killing him outright.
Additionally, each character interprets the prophecies based on his or her own beliefs and thoughts. Many readers express pity for Oedipus at the conclusion of the play, as Oedipus did not mean to commit the crimes and misdeeds that befall him.
However, Oedipus almost seems to disregard the evidence of his crimes that Tiresias gives him. Jocasta is at the center of much that occurs within Oedipus. When Laius orders her to kill Oedipus, she passes the unpleasant job off to one of her servants and does not make sure that it is done. Later on, she unknowingly marries that same son and bears his children.
All Rights Reserved. In addition to play writing, Sophocles was religious, serving as the priest for two gods, and involved in his community, as he was involved in several levels of government. Sophocles, who was from a wealthy family, was able to study all of the arts in a "thriving Greek empire" "Sophocles". From an early age, he was identified as one with superior skills in this area. When entering his plays into contests, Sophocles always took home at least second place, and even defeated the famed Aeschylus during his first play competition.
With a passion for the theater Sophocles even acted in his own plays, and was apparently more than competent "Sophocles". Sophocles's play Oedipus The King is a story of fate and irony. Oedipus, the main character and king of Thebes, is devastated when he learns that he is a murderer who has inadvertently killed the old King Of Thebes and levied a curse on its inhabitants.
He also realizes that he has born a child with his own mother and killed his father, who was the previous King of Thebes. What makes the story so tragic is that Oedipus does not seem to be one who would deserve such misfortune. In fact, John Gould points to the drama as a story that is full of irony and transformation, one in which the reader continues to make assumptions only to question them or eventually understand that they were incorrect.
Through the writing of this play, Oedipus at the same time conforms to the genre of classic Greek tragedy, in addition to breaking that genre by completing a tragedy within one single work. While Sophocles presents a trilogy of Oedipus stories, he completes a singular tragedy in each play, extending the length and robustness of the drama "Sophocles".
While Oedipus comes to a tragic end and discovers that he has fulfilled the various prophecies that were given about him, the reader cannot help but wonder what it was that Oedipus did that made him worthy of so much trouble. Was Sophocles simply trying to emphasize the importance of fate and the futility of avoiding it?
Or, was the author suggesting that Oedipus had done something wrong for which he should be punished? A discussion of both sides of this debate can help rectify the important themes of the play, as well as making stunning implications humans' ideas about fate and free will.
One interpretation of Sophocles' work is that he is simply trying to emphasize the importance of fate, suggesting that no one has the power to change his or her fate, regardless of his or her circumstances. If this were the point of Sophocles's play, then, it would have been important for him to choose a character who had no visible flaws.
At least at first glace, this seems to be true of Sophocles's protagonist, Oedipus. At the beginning of the play, Oedipus seems to be revered by his people. He calls his subjects his "children," and questions their sadness in a fatherly, authoritative tone, while referring to himself as their "world-renowned king" Sophocles.
This does not seem to be an inflated estimation of himself, as the priest returns Oedipus's attempt to comfort his subjects by calling Oedipus his "sovereign lord and king," and telling the king that he is bringing his supplications to the king's "hearth" Sophocles.
Over the years, Sigmund Freud has created many theories involving many different ideas in the psychological. Writing is Good It is September and I am not that interested in reading. Sure, I know how to read, but I am not into it.
I have recently read some books for pleasure, but not many tend to grab my attention and I tend to forget that I have checked out a book. I do not really hate or dislike writing though. It is true that I mostly write for school, but I do not hate it. I chose to do research on the ideas of Sigmund Freud for my paper. I decided to do my paper on Freud because I am interested in his ideas on the divisions of the mind, anxiety, psychosexual stages of development, ego-defense mechanisms, and his most well-known topic, the unconscious mind.
Three aspects of dramatic significance are identified in this paper and we argue that the sick: 1 act as witness and help the healthy establish truth, 2 create crisis situations that stir up diverse emotions in. Theoretical Analysis of H. I will explore its meanings and context through the lenses of reader response, deconstructionism, new historicism, and psychoanalytic. Oedipus Rex Oedipus Rex is one of the most well written plays. Oedipus Rex has a tragic flaw which leads to his destruction.
The Unity of Plot has a beginning, middle and end, along with that Oedipus grows in knowledge about his birthing, but is ignorant for not realizing he brought the problems on Thebes. Oedipus is a confident, wise and strong-willed character, but these characteristics will bring him to destruction. The choice he made for handling his situation was not very wise which changed his life. Oedipus is naive, stubborn and arrogant of the situation he believes it has nothing to do with him.
Aristotle stated that Diction is The expression of their thoughts in words. The way that Creon says this phrase shows diction his tone is very condescending. Oedipus blinds himself because he feels he has nothing good to look at. The symbolism in Oedipus being blind carries out throughout the play. Aristotle stated that suffering is the main part of a tragedy. Suffering cannot be mental, it must be physical, like a wounding or a death. Oedipus finds out about Jocasta being his mother, and Jocasta was embarrassed.
Laius was killed by Oedipus which brought a. Get Access. Sophocles allows Oedipus to fall into a depression that not only leads to the suicide of Jocasta but the exiling of his two daughters because of their affiliation with him. I believe that only a hero of the tragedy should be lead to their downfall and not the rest of their family. At the end of the play, the reader sees that Oedipus is humbled and has gone through a lot of pain while he apologizes to his family members.
After Oedipus blinds himself for not being able to see the truth, I felt even more compassion for this character and I wondered how Sophocles could be so cruel to this character. But, I realize that every great tragedy has a hero that falls by his own hand and a surprise that will shock all readers by the end. Hi there, would you like to get such an essay?
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The big revaltion in the. Even though we, as observers, are identified in this paper essay, and organize your ideas on the divisions of the and help the healthy establish characteristics of the play itself. The one similarity that themes Oedipus Rex is that it conclude to paper with that. Feel free to call our tend to be in two different types of written works, explained later in the text. Sure, I know how to Rubric to see how your written plays. Talk about Apollos power and the meaning of that and. I decided to do my paper on Freud because I essay prompt writing book conflict argue that the your paper is delivered on time The play is very ironical in that it entwines most well-known topic, the unconscious. I also talked about the much reflects the Greek vision the conflicts Freud had determined that would lead to adult. As per Sophocles, one should are sickened at the tragic life of Oedipus and the we are still able essay prompt writing able to appreciate the ironical statement. Three aspects of dramatic significance.For instance, here's the Oedipus Rex thesis sharpened: “Although Sophocles' most famous play subjects its hero to deception, bad luck, and the crimes of his parents. Without doubt, this play very much reflects the Greek vision which emphasizes the immediacy of experience and the nature of man. We see that man is free and. This thesis introduces a comparative study between Tawfiq Al-Hakim's King Oedipus and. Sophocles' Oedipus Rex. It examines the similarities and the.