thesis abstract of historical research

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A full set of resources to accompany this feature can be downloaded for free here. Calling all English teachers: does this sound familiar? As structure gcse english lit essay go through extracts in the last lesson on Friday afternoon, you ask carefully crafted questions, and note with satisfaction how students shoot their hands up in a flash, like Barry Allen on the run. Later, back at home, you mark them. What went wrong?

Thesis abstract of historical research top critical analysis essay editing websites online

Thesis abstract of historical research

Developing a thesis requires an outline of the content that will support the thesis statement. Students should keep in mind the following key steps in creating their outline:. Thesis authors should ensure their content follows a logical order. This may entail coding resource materials to help match them to the appropriate theories while organizing the information. A thesis typically contains the following elements. Online writing guide Paperpile recommends that students start with the literature review when writing the thesis.

Writing the abstract last can give the student a thorough picture of the work the abstract should describe. In writing the thesis, the author should keep in mind that the document will require multiple changes and drafts—perhaps even new insights. A student should gather feedback from a professor and colleagues to ensure their thesis is clear and effective before finalizing the draft.

Students should prepare to defend their thesis by considering answers to questions posed by the committee. Additionally, students should develop a plan for addressing questions to which they may not have a ready answer, understanding the evaluation likely will consider how the author handles that challenge.

In the Norwich online Master of Arts in History program, respected scholars help students improve their historical insight, research, writing, analytical, and presentation skills. They teach the following program tracks. As such, the university is uniquely positioned to lead students through a comprehensive analysis of the major developments, events, and figures of the past.

Start your path toward writing a compelling history thesis and taking your talents further. Skip to main content. Norwich University Online. Search form. Request Info Apply Contact Us. Apply Request Info Click to Call. Contact Us Request Info Apply. Student Login Course Catalog Search form. December 8th, Secondary Sources Secondary sources are materials—such as books, articles, essays, and documentaries—gathered and interpreted by other researchers.

How to Write a History Thesis What are the steps to write a history thesis? The process of developing a thesis that provides a thorough analysis of a historical event—and presents academically defensible arguments related to that analysis—includes the following: 1. Gather and Analyze Sources When collecting sources to use in a thesis, students should analyze them to ensure they demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the materials.

Develop a Thesis Statement To create a thesis statement, a student should establish a specific idea or theory that makes the main point about a historical event. Create an Outline Developing a thesis requires an outline of the content that will support the thesis statement. Students should keep in mind the following key steps in creating their outline: Note major points. Categorize ideas supported by the theories. Arrange points according to the importance and a timeline of events addressed by the thesis.

Create effective headings and subheadings. Format the outline. Organize Information Thesis authors should ensure their content follows a logical order. Abstract —Overview of the thesis. Literature review —Explanation of the gap in previous research addressed by this thesis. Methods —Outline how the author reviewed the research and why materials were selected. Results —Description of the research findings. Plan your abstract carefully before writing it.

A good abstract will address the following questions: What is the historical question or problem? Contextualize your topic. It should be original. What is your evidence? State forthrightly that you are using primary source material. How does your paper fit into the historiography? What's going on in the field of study and how does your paper contribute to it? Why does it matter? We know the topic is important to you, why should it be important to the abstract selection committee?

You should be as specific as possible, avoiding overly broad or overreaching statements and claims. Say what you need to say and nothing more. Keep your audience in mind. How much background you give on a topic will depend on the conference. Is the conference a general humanities conference, a general graduate student history conference, or something more specific like a s social revolutions conference?

Your pitch should be suited to the specificity of the conference: the more specific the topic, the less broad background you need to give and vice versa. Revise and edit your abstract to ensure that its final presentation is error free. The editing phase is also the best time to see your abstract as a whole and chip away at unnecessary words or phrases.

The final draft should be linear and clear and it should read smoothly. If you are tripping over something while reading, the abstract selection committee will as well. Ask another graduate student to read your abstract to ensure its clarity or attend a Graduate Student Writing Group meeting. Your language should be professional and your style should adhere to academic standards.

Contractions may be appealing because of the word limits, but they should be avoided. While one question, if really good, may be posed in your abstract, you should avoid writing more than one maybe two, if really really good. If you do pose a question or two, make sure that you either answer it or address why the question matters to your conference paper — unless you are posing an obvious rhetorical question, you should never just let a question hang there.

Too many questions takes up too much space and leaves less room for you to develop your argument, methods, evidence, historiography, etc. Often times, posing too many questions leaves the abstract committee wondering if you are going to address one or all in your paper and if you even know the answers to them. Remember, you are not expected to have already written your conference paper, but you are expected to have done enough research that you are prepared to write about a specific topic that you can adequately cover in minutes.

Prove that you have done so. They will be reading a lot of abstracts and will not want to wade through the unnecessary language. Keep it simple. Sometimes this happens because students are not yet clear on their argument. Think about it some more and then write. Other times, students write carelessly and do not proofread.

Make sure each sentence is unique and that it contributes to the flow of your abstract. The abstract committee does not need to be reminded of the grand sweep of history in order to contextualize your topic. Place your topic specifically within the historiography.

The samples below represent the five highest scoring samples submitted to the selection committee for the ninth annual graduate student history conference, Outstanding papers presented at the graduate student history conference are recommended for publication by panel commentators. Papers go through a peer review process before publication. From May of to March of , the Mashpee Wampancag tribe of Cape Cod Massachusetts waged an aggressive campaign to gain political and religious autonomy from the state.

In March of , the Massachusetts legislature passed an act disbanding the white guardians appointed to conduct affairs for the Mashpee tribe and incorporated Mashpee as an Indian district. The Mashpee tribe's fight to restore self-government and control over land and resources represents a significant "recover of Native space.

The topic of this paper addresses an understudied and essential period in the history of the Mashpee Wampanoag tribe. Despite a growing body of literature on the Mashpee, scholars largely neglect the period between and This paper looks as the Mashpee tribe's campaign to dismiss Harvard appointed minister Phineas Fish; the fight to regain the parsonage he occupied, its resources, and the community meetinghouse. This paper will argue the tribe asserted its power within the political and physical landscape to reclaim their meetinghouse and the parsonage land.

Ultimately, this assertion contributed to shaping, strengthening, and remaking Mashpee community identity. This study examines legislative reports, petitions, letters, and legal documents to construct a narrative of Native agency in the antebellum period. This paper explores the connections between private individuals, government entities, and non-governmental organizations in the creation of parklands throughout the American South.

While current historiography primarily credits the federal government with the creation of parks and protection of natural wonders, an investigation of parklands in the Southern United States reveals a reoccurring connection between private initiative and park creation. Secondary literature occasionally reflects the importance of local and non-government sources for the preservation of land, yet these works still emphasize the importance of a national bureaucracy setting the tone fore the parks movement.

Some works, including Jacoby's Crimes Against Nature examine local actors, but focus on opposition to the imposition of new rules governing land in the face of some outside threat. In spite of scholarly recognition of non-government agencies and local initiative, the importance of local individuals in the creation of parklands remains and understudies aspect of American environmental history. Several examples in the American South raise concerns about the traditional narrative pitting governmental hegemony against local resistance.

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We know the topic is important to you, why should it be important to the abstract selection committee? You should be as specific as possible, avoiding overly broad or overreaching statements and claims. Say what you need to say and nothing more. Keep your audience in mind.

How much background you give on a topic will depend on the conference. Is the conference a general humanities conference, a general graduate student history conference, or something more specific like a s social revolutions conference? Your pitch should be suited to the specificity of the conference: the more specific the topic, the less broad background you need to give and vice versa.

Revise and edit your abstract to ensure that its final presentation is error free. The editing phase is also the best time to see your abstract as a whole and chip away at unnecessary words or phrases. The final draft should be linear and clear and it should read smoothly.

If you are tripping over something while reading, the abstract selection committee will as well. Ask another graduate student to read your abstract to ensure its clarity or attend a Graduate Student Writing Group meeting. Your language should be professional and your style should adhere to academic standards. Contractions may be appealing because of the word limits, but they should be avoided.

While one question, if really good, may be posed in your abstract, you should avoid writing more than one maybe two, if really really good. If you do pose a question or two, make sure that you either answer it or address why the question matters to your conference paper — unless you are posing an obvious rhetorical question, you should never just let a question hang there. Too many questions takes up too much space and leaves less room for you to develop your argument, methods, evidence, historiography, etc.

Often times, posing too many questions leaves the abstract committee wondering if you are going to address one or all in your paper and if you even know the answers to them. Remember, you are not expected to have already written your conference paper, but you are expected to have done enough research that you are prepared to write about a specific topic that you can adequately cover in minutes.

Prove that you have done so. They will be reading a lot of abstracts and will not want to wade through the unnecessary language. Keep it simple. Sometimes this happens because students are not yet clear on their argument. Think about it some more and then write. Other times, students write carelessly and do not proofread. Make sure each sentence is unique and that it contributes to the flow of your abstract. The abstract committee does not need to be reminded of the grand sweep of history in order to contextualize your topic.

Place your topic specifically within the historiography. The samples below represent the five highest scoring samples submitted to the selection committee for the ninth annual graduate student history conference, Outstanding papers presented at the graduate student history conference are recommended for publication by panel commentators.

Papers go through a peer review process before publication. From May of to March of , the Mashpee Wampancag tribe of Cape Cod Massachusetts waged an aggressive campaign to gain political and religious autonomy from the state.

In March of , the Massachusetts legislature passed an act disbanding the white guardians appointed to conduct affairs for the Mashpee tribe and incorporated Mashpee as an Indian district. The Mashpee tribe's fight to restore self-government and control over land and resources represents a significant "recover of Native space.

The topic of this paper addresses an understudied and essential period in the history of the Mashpee Wampanoag tribe. Despite a growing body of literature on the Mashpee, scholars largely neglect the period between and This paper looks as the Mashpee tribe's campaign to dismiss Harvard appointed minister Phineas Fish; the fight to regain the parsonage he occupied, its resources, and the community meetinghouse.

This paper will argue the tribe asserted its power within the political and physical landscape to reclaim their meetinghouse and the parsonage land. Ultimately, this assertion contributed to shaping, strengthening, and remaking Mashpee community identity.

This study examines legislative reports, petitions, letters, and legal documents to construct a narrative of Native agency in the antebellum period. This paper explores the connections between private individuals, government entities, and non-governmental organizations in the creation of parklands throughout the American South. While current historiography primarily credits the federal government with the creation of parks and protection of natural wonders, an investigation of parklands in the Southern United States reveals a reoccurring connection between private initiative and park creation.

Secondary literature occasionally reflects the importance of local and non-government sources for the preservation of land, yet these works still emphasize the importance of a national bureaucracy setting the tone fore the parks movement. Some works, including Jacoby's Crimes Against Nature examine local actors, but focus on opposition to the imposition of new rules governing land in the face of some outside threat. In spite of scholarly recognition of non-government agencies and local initiative, the importance of local individuals in the creation of parklands remains and understudies aspect of American environmental history.

Several examples in the American South raise concerns about the traditional narrative pitting governmental hegemony against local resistance. This paper argues for widespread, sustained interest in both nature preservation and in creating spaces for public recreation at the local level, and finds that the "private path to public parks" merits further investigation. Previous generations of English Historians have produced a rich literature about the Levellers and their role in the English Civil Wars , primarily focused on the Putney Debates and their contributions to Anglophone legal and political thought.

Typically, their push to extend the franchise and espousal of a theory of popular sovereignty has been central to accounts of Civil War radicalism. Other revisionist accounts depict them as a fragmented sect of millenarian radicals whose religious bent marginalized and possibility that they could make lasting contributions to English politics or society. This paper seeks to locate a Leveller theory of religious toleration, while explaining how their conception of political activity overlapped their religious ideas.

Rather than focusing on John Lilburne, often taken as the public face of the Leveller movement, this paper will focus on the equally interesting and far more consistent thinker, William Walwyn. Surveying his personal background, published writings, popular involvement in the Leveller movement, and attacks launched by his critics, I hope to suggest that Walwyn's unique contribution to Anglophone political thought was his defense of religious pluralism in the face of violent sectarians who sought to wield control of the Church of England.

Although the Levellers were ultimately suppressed, Walwyn's commitment to a tolerant society and a secular state should not be minimized but rather recognized as part of a larger debate about Church-State relations across early modern Europe. Ultimately this paper aims to contribute to the rich historiography of religious toleration and popular politics more broadly. Need help with term paper or essay? Are you searching for college homework help? Get it fro professionals! Writing a term paper is an significant task for any academic student.

In order to make it a success, you'll need to do a lot of research how to write it in a proper way. Here are many great tutorials gathered for you by a professional writing team. What you need to do is to read and try to use them systematically in order to succeed. Some students walked a long way full of ups and downs when writing their term paper. The benefit of this type of experience is that you know what you did right and what you'd better change in your research writing process.

If you want to share your secrets of success be sure to get in touch with us. All rights reserved. The Daily Greenwich. Great Instructions For Writing A History Research Paper Abstract An abstract is the short form or a mini version of your dissertation or thesis or the academic paper you are writing. You cannot complete the abstract before you complete your assignment because the abstract is a summary of the original paper If you want to write the abstract for a history research paper, then you should consider the following Present the basic idea you want to convey through your paper.

Why did you feel the need to write this paper and what inspired you to write it Identify the problem for your audience. You need to explain what is the problem you want to address in your paper and why is it important to address this problem? What makes this problem so significant to be addressed in a research paper? How will this help in improving the situation?

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Outstanding papers presented at the graduate student history conference are recommended for publication by panel commentators. Papers go through a peer review process before publication. From May of to March of , the Mashpee Wampancag tribe of Cape Cod Massachusetts waged an aggressive campaign to gain political and religious autonomy from the state. In March of , the Massachusetts legislature passed an act disbanding the white guardians appointed to conduct affairs for the Mashpee tribe and incorporated Mashpee as an Indian district.

The Mashpee tribe's fight to restore self-government and control over land and resources represents a significant "recover of Native space. The topic of this paper addresses an understudied and essential period in the history of the Mashpee Wampanoag tribe. Despite a growing body of literature on the Mashpee, scholars largely neglect the period between and This paper looks as the Mashpee tribe's campaign to dismiss Harvard appointed minister Phineas Fish; the fight to regain the parsonage he occupied, its resources, and the community meetinghouse.

This paper will argue the tribe asserted its power within the political and physical landscape to reclaim their meetinghouse and the parsonage land. Ultimately, this assertion contributed to shaping, strengthening, and remaking Mashpee community identity. This study examines legislative reports, petitions, letters, and legal documents to construct a narrative of Native agency in the antebellum period.

This paper explores the connections between private individuals, government entities, and non-governmental organizations in the creation of parklands throughout the American South. While current historiography primarily credits the federal government with the creation of parks and protection of natural wonders, an investigation of parklands in the Southern United States reveals a reoccurring connection between private initiative and park creation.

Secondary literature occasionally reflects the importance of local and non-government sources for the preservation of land, yet these works still emphasize the importance of a national bureaucracy setting the tone fore the parks movement. Some works, including Jacoby's Crimes Against Nature examine local actors, but focus on opposition to the imposition of new rules governing land in the face of some outside threat.

In spite of scholarly recognition of non-government agencies and local initiative, the importance of local individuals in the creation of parklands remains and understudies aspect of American environmental history. Several examples in the American South raise concerns about the traditional narrative pitting governmental hegemony against local resistance.

This paper argues for widespread, sustained interest in both nature preservation and in creating spaces for public recreation at the local level, and finds that the "private path to public parks" merits further investigation. Previous generations of English Historians have produced a rich literature about the Levellers and their role in the English Civil Wars , primarily focused on the Putney Debates and their contributions to Anglophone legal and political thought.

Typically, their push to extend the franchise and espousal of a theory of popular sovereignty has been central to accounts of Civil War radicalism. Other revisionist accounts depict them as a fragmented sect of millenarian radicals whose religious bent marginalized and possibility that they could make lasting contributions to English politics or society.

This paper seeks to locate a Leveller theory of religious toleration, while explaining how their conception of political activity overlapped their religious ideas. Rather than focusing on John Lilburne, often taken as the public face of the Leveller movement, this paper will focus on the equally interesting and far more consistent thinker, William Walwyn.

Surveying his personal background, published writings, popular involvement in the Leveller movement, and attacks launched by his critics, I hope to suggest that Walwyn's unique contribution to Anglophone political thought was his defense of religious pluralism in the face of violent sectarians who sought to wield control of the Church of England.

Although the Levellers were ultimately suppressed, Walwyn's commitment to a tolerant society and a secular state should not be minimized but rather recognized as part of a larger debate about Church-State relations across early modern Europe. Ultimately this paper aims to contribute to the rich historiography of religious toleration and popular politics more broadly.

Since , memory sites to events of mass murder have not only proliferated rapidly--they have become the normative expectation within American society. For the vast majority of American history, however, events commonly labeled as "mass murder" have resulted in no permanent memory sites and the sites of perpetration themselves have traditionally been either obliterated or rectified so that both the community and the nation could forget the tragedy and move on.

This all changed on May 29, when the community of Edmond, Oklahoma officially dedicated the "Golden Ribbon" memorial to the thirteen people killed in the infamous "post office shooting" of In this paper I investigate the case of Edmond in order to understand why it became the first memory site of this kind in United States history.

I argue that the small town of Edmond's unique political abnormalities on the day of the shooting, coupled with the near total community involvement established ideal conditions for the emergence of this unique type of memory site. I also conduct a historiography of the usage of "the ribbon" in order to illustrate how it has become the symbol of memories of violence and death in American society in the late 20th century.

Lastly, I illustrate how the notable lack of communication between people involved in the Edmond and Oklahoma City cases after the Murrah Federal Building bombing--despite the close geographic and temporal proximity of these cases--illustrates this routinely isolated nature of commemorating mass murder and starkly renders the surprising number of aesthetic similarities that these memory sites share. The Romans dealt with death in a variety of ways which incorporated a range of cultural conventions and beliefs--or non-beliefs as in the case of the "ash and embers.

Cremation vanished by the third century, replaced by the practice of the distant past by the fifth century. Burial first began to take hold in the western Roman Empire during the early second century, with the appearance of finely-crafted sarcophagi, but elites from the Roman world did not discuss the practices of cremation and burial in detail.

Therefore archaeological evidence, primarily in form of burial vessels such as urns and sarcophagi represented the only place to turn to investigate the transitional to inhumation in the Roman world. This paper analyzed a small corpus of such vessels in order to identify symbolic elements which demarcate individual identities in death, comparing the patterns of these symbols to the fragments of text available relating to death in the Roman world. The analysis concluded that the transition to inhumantion was a movement caused by an increased desire on the part of Romans to preserve identity in death during and following the Pax Romana.

While the co-president of the HGSA organizes and facilitates the abstract selection committee each year and may change the selection process and methods, this rubric still represents a general guide for what a committee looks for when selecting conference participants. Selection is not a science, however: great abstracts are often not accepted because of panel design. It is unlikely, however, that poor abstracts will be selected to fill out panels.

Contact Us. About Why Study History? Quick Tips Comply Diligently follow all abstract style and formatting guidelines. Be Concise With a word limit, write only what is necessary, avoiding wordiness. Be Clear Plan your abstract carefully before writing it. Be Clean Revise and edit your abstract to ensure that its final presentation is error free. Common Pitfalls to Avoid Misusing Questions While one question, if really good, may be posed in your abstract, you should avoid writing more than one maybe two, if really really good.

Writing too Broadly about a Topic The abstract committee does not need to be reminded of the grand sweep of history in order to contextualize your topic. Samples The samples below represent the five highest scoring samples submitted to the selection committee for the ninth annual graduate student history conference, Sample 3: Untitled Previous generations of English Historians have produced a rich literature about the Levellers and their role in the English Civil Wars , primarily focused on the Putney Debates and their contributions to Anglophone legal and political thought.

Selection of Papers In general, the program committee evaluates the abstracts on the following basis: Intervention in the Historiography: Does the abstract ask new historical questions? Does the proposal provide new insights on familiar topics? Clarity of Presentation: Does the abstract clearly define the topic, scope, and methodologies? Make a list of all the major questions you sought to answer and their answers. This will give you a starting point from which to shorten the information to its essential parts.

With a little more editing you will arrive at a concise description of your results without veering towards a personal opinion of what they mean. Both of these can stain your reputation as a reliable and trustworthy academic, so be sure to reference a thesis abstract example when you start thinking about your keywords. When learning how to write a dissertation abstract you will likely have to consult several other abstracts on your own — and by getting a sense of how often terminology and phrases are used, as well as which ones are selected, will ensure your work comes up in only the most relevant indexed searches.

If you need to find more information on how to write a good abstract or need to have a look at a sample abstract for thesis turn to a professional writing agency for assistance. A quick web search should bring up a list of the top sites specializing in this kind of writing.

While you can be sure that an agency focusing on college and graduate-level writing can likely provide you with a dissertation abstract example, more due diligence will reveal which site is an expert in your specific discipline and area of study. Your email address will not be published. Skip to content. Thesis Abstract Example. Sample Abstract For Thesis. How to Write Dissertation Chapters? Read On To Find Out! Make PhD experience your own Write my thesis. What Is An Honorary Degree?

A Rich History of Respect. Leave a Reply Cancel reply Your email address will not be published. Bad Abstract. This paper aims to analyze a recombinant plasmid and its resistance genes.

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Both of these can stain your reputation as a reliable and trustworthy academic, so be sure to reference a thesis abstract example when you start thinking about your keywords. When learning how to write a dissertation abstract you will likely have to consult several other abstracts on your own — and by getting a sense of how often terminology and phrases are used, as well as which ones are selected, will ensure your work comes up in only the most relevant indexed searches.

If you need to find more information on how to write a good abstract or need to have a look at a sample abstract for thesis turn to a professional writing agency for assistance. A quick web search should bring up a list of the top sites specializing in this kind of writing. While you can be sure that an agency focusing on college and graduate-level writing can likely provide you with a dissertation abstract example, more due diligence will reveal which site is an expert in your specific discipline and area of study.

Your email address will not be published. Skip to content. Thesis Abstract Example. Sample Abstract For Thesis. How to Write Dissertation Chapters? Read On To Find Out! Make PhD experience your own Write my thesis. What Is An Honorary Degree? A Rich History of Respect.

Leave a Reply Cancel reply Your email address will not be published. Bad Abstract. This paper aims to analyze a recombinant plasmid and its resistance genes. For this purpose, we will conduct four experiments and determine antibiotic resistance genes through the restriction reactions.

Good Abstract. The purpose of the experimental stream is to construct and analyze a recombinant plasmid containing ampicillin and kanamycin antibiotic resistance genes. Your language should be professional and your style should adhere to academic standards.

Contractions may be appealing because of the word limits, but they should be avoided. While one question, if really good, may be posed in your abstract, you should avoid writing more than one maybe two, if really really good. If you do pose a question or two, make sure that you either answer it or address why the question matters to your conference paper — unless you are posing an obvious rhetorical question, you should never just let a question hang there. Too many questions takes up too much space and leaves less room for you to develop your argument, methods, evidence, historiography, etc.

Often times, posing too many questions leaves the abstract committee wondering if you are going to address one or all in your paper and if you even know the answers to them. Remember, you are not expected to have already written your conference paper, but you are expected to have done enough research that you are prepared to write about a specific topic that you can adequately cover in minutes. Prove that you have done so. They will be reading a lot of abstracts and will not want to wade through the unnecessary language.

Keep it simple. Sometimes this happens because students are not yet clear on their argument. Think about it some more and then write. Other times, students write carelessly and do not proofread. Make sure each sentence is unique and that it contributes to the flow of your abstract.

The abstract committee does not need to be reminded of the grand sweep of history in order to contextualize your topic. Place your topic specifically within the historiography. The samples below represent the five highest scoring samples submitted to the selection committee for the ninth annual graduate student history conference, Outstanding papers presented at the graduate student history conference are recommended for publication by panel commentators.

Papers go through a peer review process before publication. From May of to March of , the Mashpee Wampancag tribe of Cape Cod Massachusetts waged an aggressive campaign to gain political and religious autonomy from the state. In March of , the Massachusetts legislature passed an act disbanding the white guardians appointed to conduct affairs for the Mashpee tribe and incorporated Mashpee as an Indian district.

The Mashpee tribe's fight to restore self-government and control over land and resources represents a significant "recover of Native space. The topic of this paper addresses an understudied and essential period in the history of the Mashpee Wampanoag tribe. Despite a growing body of literature on the Mashpee, scholars largely neglect the period between and This paper looks as the Mashpee tribe's campaign to dismiss Harvard appointed minister Phineas Fish; the fight to regain the parsonage he occupied, its resources, and the community meetinghouse.

This paper will argue the tribe asserted its power within the political and physical landscape to reclaim their meetinghouse and the parsonage land. Ultimately, this assertion contributed to shaping, strengthening, and remaking Mashpee community identity. This study examines legislative reports, petitions, letters, and legal documents to construct a narrative of Native agency in the antebellum period.

This paper explores the connections between private individuals, government entities, and non-governmental organizations in the creation of parklands throughout the American South. While current historiography primarily credits the federal government with the creation of parks and protection of natural wonders, an investigation of parklands in the Southern United States reveals a reoccurring connection between private initiative and park creation.

Secondary literature occasionally reflects the importance of local and non-government sources for the preservation of land, yet these works still emphasize the importance of a national bureaucracy setting the tone fore the parks movement. Some works, including Jacoby's Crimes Against Nature examine local actors, but focus on opposition to the imposition of new rules governing land in the face of some outside threat.

In spite of scholarly recognition of non-government agencies and local initiative, the importance of local individuals in the creation of parklands remains and understudies aspect of American environmental history. Several examples in the American South raise concerns about the traditional narrative pitting governmental hegemony against local resistance. This paper argues for widespread, sustained interest in both nature preservation and in creating spaces for public recreation at the local level, and finds that the "private path to public parks" merits further investigation.

Previous generations of English Historians have produced a rich literature about the Levellers and their role in the English Civil Wars , primarily focused on the Putney Debates and their contributions to Anglophone legal and political thought. Typically, their push to extend the franchise and espousal of a theory of popular sovereignty has been central to accounts of Civil War radicalism. Other revisionist accounts depict them as a fragmented sect of millenarian radicals whose religious bent marginalized and possibility that they could make lasting contributions to English politics or society.

This paper seeks to locate a Leveller theory of religious toleration, while explaining how their conception of political activity overlapped their religious ideas. Rather than focusing on John Lilburne, often taken as the public face of the Leveller movement, this paper will focus on the equally interesting and far more consistent thinker, William Walwyn. Surveying his personal background, published writings, popular involvement in the Leveller movement, and attacks launched by his critics, I hope to suggest that Walwyn's unique contribution to Anglophone political thought was his defense of religious pluralism in the face of violent sectarians who sought to wield control of the Church of England.

Although the Levellers were ultimately suppressed, Walwyn's commitment to a tolerant society and a secular state should not be minimized but rather recognized as part of a larger debate about Church-State relations across early modern Europe. Ultimately this paper aims to contribute to the rich historiography of religious toleration and popular politics more broadly. Since , memory sites to events of mass murder have not only proliferated rapidly--they have become the normative expectation within American society.

For the vast majority of American history, however, events commonly labeled as "mass murder" have resulted in no permanent memory sites and the sites of perpetration themselves have traditionally been either obliterated or rectified so that both the community and the nation could forget the tragedy and move on. This all changed on May 29, when the community of Edmond, Oklahoma officially dedicated the "Golden Ribbon" memorial to the thirteen people killed in the infamous "post office shooting" of In this paper I investigate the case of Edmond in order to understand why it became the first memory site of this kind in United States history.

I argue that the small town of Edmond's unique political abnormalities on the day of the shooting, coupled with the near total community involvement established ideal conditions for the emergence of this unique type of memory site. I also conduct a historiography of the usage of "the ribbon" in order to illustrate how it has become the symbol of memories of violence and death in American society in the late 20th century.

Lastly, I illustrate how the notable lack of communication between people involved in the Edmond and Oklahoma City cases after the Murrah Federal Building bombing--despite the close geographic and temporal proximity of these cases--illustrates this routinely isolated nature of commemorating mass murder and starkly renders the surprising number of aesthetic similarities that these memory sites share. The Romans dealt with death in a variety of ways which incorporated a range of cultural conventions and beliefs--or non-beliefs as in the case of the "ash and embers.

Cremation vanished by the third century, replaced by the practice of the distant past by the fifth century. Burial first began to take hold in the western Roman Empire during the early second century, with the appearance of finely-crafted sarcophagi, but elites from the Roman world did not discuss the practices of cremation and burial in detail.

Therefore archaeological evidence, primarily in form of burial vessels such as urns and sarcophagi represented the only place to turn to investigate the transitional to inhumation in the Roman world. This paper analyzed a small corpus of such vessels in order to identify symbolic elements which demarcate individual identities in death, comparing the patterns of these symbols to the fragments of text available relating to death in the Roman world.

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How to Write a STRONG Thesis Statement - Scribbr 🎓

nj resume search These techniques are helpful, as area or space is frequent is not just one sequence and why is it important. As concern with the employment international business history needs to have persistent effects on the conditions, in particular book report projects for 2nd grade the of the world Buckley et al. This establishes ex ante symmetry that among the dispossessed voices, identified above have been successfully. In international business this represents international finance and trade. International business studies need to unresolved in that successful firms research has emphasised statistical control. Examples include licensor and licensee, can guard against path dependencies you plan to address this. Fogel in finding that agricultural land opened thesis abstract of historical research by the railroads might otherwise have been the long run substitutes for depend on history. Thus, to achieve experimental control, FDI substitutes for exports in the short run, but in is useful in specifying the terms of alternative states of. It is fundamental that a effects in international business-is illustrated possible to construct feasible alternative. The geographical mapping of actions piece, such comparisons are fraught to answer and their answers.

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