mphil thesis sample

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A full set of resources to accompany this feature can be downloaded for free here. Calling all English teachers: does this sound familiar? As structure gcse english lit essay go through extracts in the last lesson on Friday afternoon, you ask carefully crafted questions, and note with satisfaction how students shoot their hands up in a flash, like Barry Allen on the run. Later, back at home, you mark them. What went wrong?

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Mphil thesis sample

Indeed, you may choose to discard some of your earlier efforts. However, over time you will become better and the quality of your writing will improve. Secondly, it is important to write things as you do them. The Methodology chapter can be drafted as soon as you have decided what you are going to do.

The advantage of this is that the thinking you have done is still fresh in your mind. This does not mean that you will not need to rework or add to these chapters — but at least you will have a good first draft of what you want to say. Thirdly, getting an early first draft of some of the chapters is a good thing to do psychologically.

You will feel you are making progress and will have something to show for your efforts. Fourthly, and most importantly, though, is recognising that thinking and writing are very strongly connected. By writing you will be forced to get your ideas sorted into a logical order and to clarify why you think what you do. You will need to bring the evidence forward to back up your ideas. This means that as you write, your ideas and thinking will improve and develop.

It will also raise new questions in your mind, which you will be able to go back to the literature or data to check and work through. This depends on how good you are at writing, but you should plan to produce a first draft and a second draft of each chapter together with a first draft of the whole thesis or dissertation and a final draft of the whole work. This will enable you to get each chapter to a good standard and then draft it further so it fits as part of the whole work.

The only really effective way to improve your academic writing is to practise, and you will see your own skills develop as you progress through the work. Your tutor will give you some feedback on writing style and skill each time you submit a draft of a section for him or her to look at. Reading academic writing in journals or books will make you increasingly familiar with good and poor writing style.

Find out if your university does this, and try to attend a course if you can. Your tutor may ask you to attend such a course if they feel you are having problems with writing, but even if they do not suggest it, you could still look for such a course. Studying for a taught degree looks at the importance of keeping a careful record of your sources and references as you prepare assignments.

For your dissertation or thesis, reference management is even more important. If you do not do this properly as you go along then you will find you have an almost impossible task at the end to identify your sources and references. All universities will have software on their computer network to enable you to manage references. Learn how to use this before you start your literature review and your writing, and then use it carefully — when you complete your dissertation or thesis you will be very grateful that you did this.

It is important that you check your work to avoid plagiarism. It is the school and teachers that have the opportunity to challenge and transform rather than transmit negative ideologies that inhibit in developing gender equality perceptions and practices. In Nepal, though the seed of the concept of gender equality has been dispersed by the UN, especially after International Year of the Woman in , it has yet to reach to the soil.

This is visible in the findings of a study conducted in Nepal in relation to gender responsive budgets. This indicates the need of deeper understanding of gender equality throughout Nepal in teachers. To enable teachers to practice gender responsive pedagogy, they should be given knowledge of the issue. Teachers need not only gender sensitive curricula and text books, but also education about it.

Allana, Asad, and Sherali found that more than half of the teachers did not even clearly understand the difference between gender and sex. Hence, it is evident that the teachers who actually nurture the feeling of equality amongst the students do need to understand gender and gender equality in a real sense so as to be able to inculcate non-sexist attitude and behaviour amongst students. It is also necessary to enable students constantly to question behaviours, thinking, and existence that maintain the in-place inequality.

This must be done through anti-sexist Canadian Journal of Education, , pp. This will construct sustained equal conditions, treatment and opportunity for both men and women to realize their full potential, human rights and dignity, as well as opportunities to contribute to and benefit from economic, social, cultural and political development UNGEI, , p.

In this sense of the term, gender equality in education is a prerequisite for achieving equality in all other aspects. In this context, how could Nepal achieve gender equality substantively at all levels in education in a sustained manner is in question. Teachers must facilitate the internalization of gender equality concepts in students, thereby to bring in practice in daily dealings. They may therefore unknowingly, unconsciously and unintentionally foster and perpetuate gender inequality if they are not awakened to this problem and not equipped with pedagogical skills to address them.

Therefore, there is a dearth of evidence in this field. It is in fact a pre-requisite to achieve substantive gender equality in education in a sustained way, and it is what my dissertation is all about. Purpose of the Study The purpose of my study was to seek teachers' understanding on gender equality, explore their perceptions of the concept of gender equality in education, and to find out how best they practice it in and out of the classroom settings.

Research Questions With focus on the main purpose of the research, I developed the following four questions: 1. How do teachers perceive the concept of gender equality? How do teachers practice apply the concept of gender equality in schools? What are the prevailing challenges and positive practices in practicing gender equality in education in schools? What could be done in teaching gender responsively for achieving gender equality in education?

However, as mentioned earlier there is little inquiry into the perceptions and practices of teachers in relation to gender equality. In Nepal, teaching is the profession which reaches the most people, as the government has established schools in every nook and cranny in order to ensure the right to education as enshrined in the Interim Constitution of Nepal, to fulfil obligations made nationally and internationally in EFA, and to meet the MDGs related to gender equality in education.

I believe the ideology of gender equality can be made known in a sustained way only through education in general and through teachers in particular. This becomes possible only when the teachers understand the contemporary concept, perceive its thrust, and put it into practice in teaching and their daily dealings.

Education systems are both a result of external forces and instrumental in perpetuating or implementing gender equality. However, unless teachers are equipped with contemporary knowledge and skills, they may not able to nurture gender equality in education in a substantive and sustained way. Thus, I believe this study can serve two purposes. First, it will help to awaken teachers further to the concepts of gender equality.

Besides, due to political change, the possibilities for speedy gender equality are immense. Pervasive and historically rooted patriarchal cultural practices are being critically scrutinized, questioned and debated for transformation, mainly through the initiatives of emerging feminist and human rights activists, intellectuals, academicians and the international community. The pressure to bring about such transformation is intense and immense. Last but not least, this study is essential to speeding up the progress towards achieving the MDGs and EFA targets parity at all levels of education.

Structure of the Study This study is structured into eight chapters. The first chapter introduces my study. Chapter two comprises a literature review. Chapters four, five and six present the empirical findings derived through the analysis and interpretation of data to answer my four research questions. Finally, chapter eight provides summary, findings, conclusion and implications in brief and intensive manner.

Definition of the Operational Terms The following are the definitions of the terms used in this study. I stated the problem, purpose of my study, and research questions. I presented my rationale, the organization of the study and finally definition of the terms.

The next chapter accounts the selected literature review related with gender, gender equality, gender equality in education and studies related with teachers' perceptions on gender. Theories to Understand Gender Inequality Theories provide an important base for understanding, collecting, analysing and interpreting the realities and drawing findings of the research.

They provide a lens to guide study and to draw conclusion to advocate Creswell, , pp. I used poststructural feminism as a lens to study and to advocate for gender equality education and gender responsive pedagogy. For doing so I reviewed gender inequality concept and its various theories. However, having common understanding about the concepts of gender equality is regarded as a prerequisite for taking gender equality forward in education in reality. Many authors acknowledge the verity and multiplicity of understanding that exist within gender theory Alsop et al.

Conceptualizations of gender can be viewed along a spectrum, ranging from a view of gender as an essence based on biological difference between men and women, to those in-between men and women Lober, , to social constructionist perspectives that view gender as a socially constructed concept, to fluid conceptions of gender as multiple identities Grebowicz, , as cited in Mwaka, In contrast, socialization theorists differentiate the term gender with the term sex as biological make-up male and female and claim that gender socio-cultural make-up differences between male and female are due to socialization rather than biological inheritance.

The psychoanalytic theorists stress the emotional aspects of a child's life. There are various sociological theoretical approaches to explaining gender inequality Giddens, I discuss some of the major theories below. Functionalist Theory It was the dominant paradigm in sociology and the sociology of education until the s. Men, on the other hand, should perform instrumental roles — namely, being the breadwinner in the family. Other functionalists such as Davis and Moore argued that inequality was functional and necessary in all societies, as it ensured that the most talented individuals would fill the functionally most important positions Learning, , p.

All functionalists legitimize discrimination on the ground of sex for the smooth running and integration of the society. In the world, functionalism has been used as a justification for male dominance and gender discrimination. Conflict Theories Unlike functionalists, conflict theorists view inequalities as the result of exploitation and oppression of subordinate groups by dominants and it is not natural.

They see society as a site where one social class holds over another through the exercise of power. The dominant class bourgeoisie maintains its position of power over the subordinate class proletariat by extracting as much profit as possible from their work as in Capitalism. This led to the invention of the concept of property. Feminist Theory Feminist theory is critical and activist on behalf of women, seeking to produce a better world for women, and thus it argues for human kind.

Feminist sociologist work with double agenda: to broaden and deepen their discipline of origin by reworking disciplinary knowledge discovered by scholars and to develop a critical understanding of society in order to change the world in directions deemed more just and humane Ritzer, How can we change and improve the social world so as to make it a more just place for women and for all people?

And what about the differences among women? Answers to these questions evolved the varieties of feminist theories Ritzer, , pp. Lober has categorized feminisms according to their theory or theories of gender inequality into three: reformist, resistance, and revolutionary feminist theories of inequality p. The different strands of feminism within these three perspectives are shown in Table 1 and discussed below briefly.

Thus, they fight for equal legal status and political representation for women and men, and for autonomy for women in making procreative, sexual, and marital choices. Their politics of gender balance and gender mainstreaming are advanced to redress gender inequality. Liberal feminism sees unequal location of women resulted in inequalities.

It aims to achieve full equal opportunities in all spheres of life without radically transforming the present socio-political system by achieving equal legal rights for women as men and the same educational and work opportunities. It claims the same rights for women as men and the same educational and work opportunities. The concept of WID originated in development due to the growth of liberal feminist theories.

Socialist feminism includes materialist and Marxist feminisms views patriarchy, capitalism and racism are the causes of inequality. It aims to achieve gender equality by defeating patriarchy and capitalism through socialist revolution by men and women together. Socialist feminism was able to bring some reforms but not change. These approaches will be discussed later. The resistant feminist theory sees patriarchal system as the cause of inequality and stresses the importance of countering it by raising women's voices and perspectives by valorising their nurturance, emotional supportiveness, and mothering capacities, by encouraging pride in women's bodies, and by teaching women how to protect themselves.

Radical feminists believe that the root of inequality is patriarchy, which is dividing rights, privileges and power primarily by gender, and as a result oppressing women and privileging men. Thus, they believe that women can free themselves only when they have done away with it. Stop sleeping with the "enemy," and turn to other women for sexual love as well as for intellectual companionship and emotional support is its ethos.

The revolutionary feminist theory of gender inequalities sees domination as the cause of inequality and focuses on multiple sources of inequality matrix of domination-race, ethnicity, and social class but the target is the binary gendered social order. They argue that gendered binary categories, norms and expectations give the men of their social group continued patriarchal privileges. Multi-ethnic feminism claims that there are other inequalities apart from gender such as race, ethnicity, religion and social class, thus, there are multiple strands of oppression and exploitation that are intertwined in structural relationship of gender.

This strand of feminism is credited in brining other inequalities along with gender inequalities in development discourse. Men's feminism is a burgeoning field of study. It treats men as well as women as a gender and to scrutinize masculinity as carefully as femininity. The whole question of gender inequality involves a relationship between men and women, haves and have-nots, of dominance and subordination, of advantage and disadvantage.

Neither men nor woman can be studied separately. The object of study is thus not masculinity or femininity but their oppositional relationship to transform them for justice and harmony. Social construction feminism believes gendered social order as the sources of inequalities.

It argues that inequality is the product of gendering and is so pervasive that leads so many people to believe that it is biological, and therefore "natural". Social constructionist feminists have been credited for the sex —gender system theory. Post-structural or postmodern feminism believes that fixed binary gender categories brought inequalities.

For them gender is not an essential feature of human personhood but is instead a fluid and processual enactment within specific or contextualized interactions Butler, They challenge binary gender categories as dual, oppositional, and fixed, arguing instead that sexuality and gender are shifting, fluid, and multiple categories. They say that equality will come when there are so many recognized sexes, sexualities, and genders that one can't be played against the other.

They say as gender, sex and sexualities are not binary or fixed, there are at least six sexualities -- heterosexual woman, heterosexual man, lesbian, gay man, bisexual man, and bisexual woman. Similarly, biological sex is also not binary- male and female. One can add hermaphrodite and transsexual too. Their perspective is consistent with social constructionists, for whom gender is a verb; and is about doing.

However, I would like to discuss it here as a strand in itself separately as it is considered one of the approaches in gender and development in education UNGEI, and I use it as the major lens in this study. Post-structural Feminist Theory Post-structural feminism is a branch of feminism that uses insights from post- structuralism, which has its philosophical position based on social constructionist assumptions.

It raised critical questions about identity. It views gender as a malleable form of identification rather than a fixed definition present in conventional development discourse. Language is the key to poststructuralists. They believe that "Language enables people to think, speak, and give meaning to the world around them" Weedon, They argue that language limits women by framing and inscribing their lives.

Linking to gender, they argue that gender is socially constructed through language and gender differences dwell in language. Language works to both constrain and open up. Secondly, they challenge gender categories as dual, oppositional and fixed, arguing instead that gender comprises shifting, fluid, multiple categories. Post structuralist feminists have troubled these constructs since women are usually on the wrong side of binaries and at the bottom of hierarchies. Thus, it is about rebuilding; it is about looking at how a structure has been constructed, what holds it together, and what it produces.

It is not a destructive, negative, or nihilistic practice, but an affirmative one Pierre, For them the "subjectivity" refers to "conscious and unconscious thoughts and emotions of the individual" Weedon, , p. They say that subjectivity is the product of the society, culture and historical contexts. Post-structural feminists are concerned with power and institution.

They seek to reveal "how gender power relations are constituted, reproduced, and contested" Weedon, , p. They challenge dominant masculinist patriarchal views of knowledge by using strategies of opposition, resistance, and deconstruction.

She proposed parodic practices as performative subversions to trouble the gender to denaturalize and resignify bodily categories beyond the binary frame Butler, , p. Judith Butler explored the persistence of biological sex in feminist theory as the source and cause of the unequal social treatment and status of women in her book Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. She argued that sex was an effect rather than the cause of social gender difference, and that the fiction of a stable core gender identity was maintained through socially coerced performances of gender.

Pedagogy is a central concern for post-structural feminists in education. They say that it's where theory and practice meet. They believe that pedagogy has a great effect on how gendered knowledge and experience are produced Gore, , p. They see schooling is, in part, a process that should serve to acknowledge and critique set notions of identity, including gender and marginalized identities UNGEI, , p.

However, in reality patriarchy has turned it into a machinery of social and cultural regulation Gore, and helped to construct gender, race, and class differences. Moreover, it's functioning as a post-colonialist institution that disrupts and weakens the power of local or indigenous knowledge UNGEI, From the above discussion on post- structural feminist perspective, it is clear that gender is a malleable form of identification rather than a fixed identity with its key political and theoretical objectives UNGEI, , p.

A ubiquitous division of people into two unequally valued categories - the gendered social order girds gender inequality. Thus, degendering movement to deconstruct binary opposition Lober, , and for deconstruction of gender is required. In the late s and early s, the WID approach became popular in the development field as a result of the concern that women were being left out of economic development processes.

The approach focused on the inclusion of women in development as a tool to increase the economic and social efficiency of development processes DFID, , as cited in UNGEI, , p. Policies associated with the WID approach have concentrated on improving access for girls, through giving them scholarship, providing food in return for attendance at school, developing the infrastructure of training or accommodation to ensure that more women teachers are employed, digging latrines, and providing water.

However, the questions of exploitation, subordination, and social division are generally not considered in this approach. It focuses on unequal gender relations at all levels in society. By the late s, the GAD approach came to the forefront. Its theorists argued that inequality needed to be challenged politically and could not merely be ameliorated by a process of inclusion, by the provision of welfare support, or by a belief in the greater efficiency of projects of WID Moser, It also does not consider women as a uniform group.

Harmonization of social life without domesticating, marginalizing either gender is the mission of this approach Shrestha, , pp. It raised critical questions about gender identity and the binary construct through languages as discussed above see Post-structural Feminist Theory. Education and school play a vital role in these transmissions. Different critical educators consider the main functions of schools as the reproduction of the dominant ideology, forms of knowledge, and the distribution of skills needed to reproduce the social division of labor Giroux, , as stated in Poudyel, Pierre Bourdieu, who is the theorist of culture of reproduction, agrees that schooling reproduces inequalities by favouring the dominant group through the use of their cultural capital such as language, ideas, and knowledge of music, art, and literature in school's curriculum that put dominant group in advantaged position.

According to him, school is a place for the reproduction of culture. It is regarded as a place for reproducing social and cultural inequalities from one generation to another. Bourdieu explained how schooling contributes to reproduction of the dominant cultures, which includes patriarchal culture too.

Bourdieu has used different concepts such as habitus, field, capital, symbolic violence, and practice. It is through such schemes that people both produce their practices and perceive and evaluate them Ritzer, , p. The habitus both produces and is produced by the social world. The field is a network of relations within objective positions within it. It is a type of competitive market place, in which various kinds of capitals economic, cultural, social, and symbolic are employed and deployed Bourdieu, , p, 97 as cited in Ritzer, , p.

Fields are also considered the base-ground for a continuous struggle for positions where various forces interact with habitus in order to produce, preserve, change and improve a sense of legitimate value. The struggles for positions are determined by differential access to power and sources of capital or resources. Capitals are of four types: social capital various kinds of valued relations with significant others , cultural capital primarily legitimate knowledge of one kind or another symbolic capital prestige and social honour and economic capital.

Among these capitals, the school is responsible for reproduction of cultural capital. According to Bourdieu, cultural capital can exist in three forms - an embodied state as for example our ways of thinking, speaking and bodily movement , objectified state for example in the possession of works of art, books or clothes and institutional state - such as educational qualification Gidden, , p.

This theory of reproduction applies not only in reproduction of dominant class culture but in gender too as it reproduces patriarchal culture, which is considered the underlying cause of gender inequality as claimed by feminist theories. Educational institutions transmit dominating patriarchal values and norms through curriculum content and teaching practices.

In many instances both the formal and the informal curriculum reinforce traditional gender stereotypes and perpetuate the gender division of labour. Just as girls are socialized into viewing their own subordination as doxa in the family sphere, so do they - in the school system - become socialized into perceiving as natural the conventional female roles and the lower values attributed to these roles?

The reproduction of gender inequality occurs at all levels in the educational system. As poststructuralist feminists think, Bourdieu too thinks that the social basis of male domination is often concealed through powerful ideological mechanisms, such as the naturalization of gender inequality, so that women experience their subordination and men experience their domination as inevitable and natural.

According to these first term in binaries is male and privileged and the second term is female and disadvantaged. Women and men are thus attributed different roles, activities and tasks which legitimise the segregation between the sexes and the subordination of women. As habitus 'functions at every moment as a matrix of perceptions, appreciations, and actions' Bourdieu, P. Thus, the dominated women use the same dualistic categories as the dominating men. That means that the women themselves view women as inferior.

In this way, they contribute to their own subordination and reproduce the unequal gender relations. The theory was also used to draw recommendation for achieving gender equality in education. The concepts of gender and gender inequalities are already described at length above.

Equality is a normative concept. The overarching human right document the Universal Declaration of Human Rights UDHR , adopted by the United Nations in , recognizes and enforces rights to equality of human being by stating that all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.

Its principal aim is to avoid differential treatment of similarly situated persons. This model of equality recognizes biological differences and social assumptions and expectations. This approach recognizes women as a group needing different treatment because they are weak, subordinate to men and need protection, instead of addressing systemic causes of women's subordination. This approach endorses essentialist and binary categories of male and female.

In the guise of protecting women, it seeks to curtail or curb women's activities or freedoms. To achieve substantive equality in all spheres CEDAW requires two types of actions by the State: 1 actions to achieve equality of opportunity between men and women, and 2 actions to correct the inequalities of power between men and women p.

To achieve these require the differences and inequalities between men and women be taken into account CEDAW , because there are real biological differences between men and women obviously. But according to human rights theory and the principle of equality, these differences do not have to cause inequality; rather, such inequality is prohibited.

Like gender, gender equality is also a new concept in development and has been defined differently by different organizations. UNESCO defines gender equality as the equal valuing by society of the similarities and the differences of men and women, and the roles they play. It is based on women and men being full partners in their home, their community and their society. Gender equality underpins equal opportunity, equal treatment, equal support and cooperation and equal investment and equal achievement for the equal development of men and women - all sorts of discriminations against women are removed.

The search for what equality actually means for women and men will never stop. Over the past six decades since the establishment of the United Nations different layers of meaning surrounding an idea of gender equality, a value endorsed in the UN Charter, have been uncovered.

Gender equality in education as critical for elimination of other forms of gender inequalities was acknowledged internationally. However, most feminists view education as an integral part of the patriarchal system within which women take a subordinate position. For UNGEI, education systems are both a result of external forces and instrumental to perpetuating or alleviating gender disparity around the world.

Though increasing attention has been given to the importance of achieving gender equality in education internationally, to date, most efforts have focused on addressing gender parity — an equal number or proportion of girls and boys accessing educational opportunities, while gender equality encompasses a wider concept, which requires to ensure the same levels of experience of quality and outcomes of education to girls and boys UNGEI, , p.

In education sector, gender was not addressed initially. Economic growth for national development was the main driver for the expansion of education systems from the s through to the late s. Each of these is discussed briefly below. It called upon governments, the international community and civil society, including non -governmental organizations and the private sector to implement gender mainstreaming in all critical areas of concern.

Education is one of the critical areas United Nations, The BPFA states that education is a human right and an essential tool for achieving the goals of equality, development and peace. It outlined six strategic objectives. Its strategic objective B1 refers to eliminating gender disparities in access to all levels of education including tertiary education by ensuring women equal access to career development, training, scholarships and fellowships, and by adopting positive action when appropriate.

Similarly, its strategic objective B4 calls for developing non-discriminatory education by developing curricula, textbooks and teaching aids free of gender-based stereotypes for all levels of education including teacher training.

It argues that non-discriminatory education benefits both girls and boys, which ultimately contributes to more equal relationships between women and men. The MDGs were set in the summit held in September, At the regional and national levels, however, gender disparities persist. The global development agenda should seek not only to address and monitor the elimination of specific gender gaps, but also to transform the structural factors that underpin the widespread persistence of gender inequalities, gender-based violence, discrimination and unequal development progress between women and men, girls and boys.

UN, , as cited in Eamer, et al. However, in order to ensure universalization of compulsory quality primary education, more concrete and focused interventions are required. Two goals of EFA are distinguished as gender parity goals [achieving equal participation of girls and boys in all forms of education based on their proportion in the relevant age-groups in the population] and gender equality goals [ensuring educational equality between boys and girls].

She emphasized that gender equality is a stated goal of the EFA agenda for Attention needs to focus on the next goal — gender equality. Making that shift [to gender equality] requires getting a better grasp of what is meant by gender equality … and how institutions and systems can be strengthened to ensure that they uphold standards of gender equality that facilitate and stimulate social change processes Subrahmanian, , p.

She urges to understand gender equality in education as the right to education [access and participation], as well as rights within education [gender-aware educational environments, processes, and outcomes], and rights through education [meaningful education outcomes that link education equality with wider processes of gender justice]. She recommends following the pathways to equality which is shown below in figure 1. The pathway to equality focuses on agency and autonomy of people in enjoying their freedoms for achieving gender equality in education along with the equality of treatment and equality of opportunity.

She states that for achieving substantive de facto equality, mechanisms for ensuring equality of treatment as well as equality of opportunity for men and women are important. Achievements in these equalities in turn rest on a commitment to non- discrimination.

Non-discrimination is imperative to ensure the erasure of social norms that construct women and men as unequal in value in terms of their contributions and entitlements, to ensure that all social actors are committed to eliminating stereotypes and attitudes that reinforce and perpetuate inequalities in the distribution of resources between women and men, and to ensure availability of fundamental freedoms and choices equally to women and to men.

Achieving gender parity formal equality is just one step towards gender equality in and through education. The world atlas of gender equality in education states that achieving parity is not achieving equality; it is only a step UNESCO, , p. It further states that the concept of gender equality in education demonstrates and make thorough analysis of equal opportunity in education without discrimination, equal treatment by teachers in the classroom, equal participation in quality education, equitable learning outcomes, curricula and textbooks are free from gender bias, and all sorts of discriminations against girls are removed, and ensuring equal opportunity and career path for equal work.

In addition, adult literacy and skill training for women in home science were also included in the plan. The Seventh Plan has made special arrangements such as scholarships and hostel facilities to girls for increasing girls' access to education in remote areas.

The Ninth Plan was the first plan that took gender mainstreaming, women's empowerment and gender equality as its main working policies and touched upon the rights-based approach for the first time in compliance with the Beijing Platform of Action BPFA. In education sector, it aimed for gender equality by expanding opportunities to women. The Tenth Plan , which had the overarching national goal of poverty reduction regarded education as one of the major means to achieve this goal.

The Eleventh Plan Three Years Interim Plan, emphasized social integration and inclusive development as the basis for economic and social transformation of the country. Provisions such as allocation of separate gender budget, inclusive and equitable education for all, and income generating and life-skill based non-formal education, etc were mentioned CERID, After the advent of democracy in there have been sustained efforts to develop a national system of education for making education available for the masses.

The National Education Commission NEC, , which was the first Education Commission after the political change in had emphasized the inclusive approach to mainstreaming those who lagged behind disabled, poor, deprived, geographically disadvantaged including women. The Commission identified caste and gender disparities in education.

It had suggested special provisions for women, physically and mentally disabled people and economically and socially disadvantaged communities. Its purpose is to improve efficiency in education, aiming at EFA and MDG goals to reach parity in gender and inclusion, and ensure equitable access to quality education through a holistic school sector approach MOE, Moreover, it sets forth the right to equality Article 13 , and gender equality Article 20 : no discrimination in any way on the basis of gender.

The constitutional provisions and the decision to secure candidates proportionately from social and regional groups for the Constitution Assembly CA election in have greatly increased the participation of women in the political field. The Education Act eighth amendment bill submitted to the President on August 27, to promulgate through an ordinance has provisions for a more engendered law securing 33 to 50 per cent seats for women in management committees ranging from school level to policy making UNGEI, , p.

In fact, several provisions of acts and regulations provide for affirmative action in favour of women, e. Mainstreaming Gender Equality in Education in Nepal Gender mainstreaming as the key tool to bring about gender equality was brought into focus in Nepal after the Fourth World Conference of Women in In keeping with the international commitment of EFA, the MOE adopted several measures for gender mainstreaming in the school education since the Ninth Plan.

As the ninth plan adopted gender approach and focused on gender mainstreaming as a policy and strategy to achieve equality, the concept of gender budget was introduced in Nepal. Two major gender audits were conducted in education. The gender audit asserted candidly that even after several years of EFA implementation, attitude towards girls of the society, parents and girls themselves have not changed.

The audit recommended for developing Gender Mainstreaming Strategy. The plan envisioned achieving gender equality in education by by providing quality education. The audit considered it a major institutional weakness with regard to gender equality efforts , p. But only few of such trainees have got jobs as there is no statutory provision to make schools hire them, though there is a mandatory requirement of female teachers at the primary and secondary levels. According to the Flash Report , in community schools, women comprise Moreover, there are still thousands of community schools without a single female teacher , p.

A very narrow gender gap 1. However, discrimination against girls still persists which is evidenced by parents sending girls to community schools Public and boys to institutional Private schools Table 3. The pass percentage from the institutional school in SLC was 86 while only 46 from community schools.

In this year, There is a dearth of literature in this field. They misconceived boys as being better than girls in almost everything. Majority believed further that such differences were biological and not nurtured. Teachers perceive that girls have a slower speed in the learning of science than boys or girls learn science differently from boys because they are different from boys.

The study claims that even the suggestions given were gender stereotyping. The study has raised a great concern as they found gender discriminations are practised by almost everyone in the society, including the educated professionals and non-professionals, the lumpen, the old and the young and in the eyes of mothers and fathers.

One major remedy to the misconceptions on gender differences between girls and boys or men and women, the study proposed was The effects should however not be treated in a unidirectional way. This is because gender perceptions have greatly influenced the public especially boys or men's behaviour towards girls or women which has penetrated in many places in Tanzania, i. Should they become "gender-conscious" before they communicate anything to the public?

Another finding of the study was that male teachers saw gender equality as a threat to male hegemony and supremacy as dictated by their culture and tradition. They covertly reinforced the gender stereotypes and biases prevalent in their society p. The researcher concluded that gender equality remains an illusion rather than a reality in primary schools in Botswana. It has carried out research in Gender Equality and Gender Friendly Environment in Schools , to find out the various determinants which make girls and female teachers friendly environment in schools.

In Nepal, very limited literatures are available both in research in gender and in teacher training on gender. This fact is found by SSRP gender audit. To teach gender responsively, teachers need to be taught gender responsively. McElroy et al. Enabling teachers to teach gender responsively is one of the best strategies in achieving gender equality not only in education but in all aspect of life as teachers are the major executors of the teaching and learning processes.

It is recognized that teachers are very central to any transformation in the school system. Students spend most of the time with teachers in school. Teacher can contribute to gender equality rather than sustaining inequalities Subrahmanian, In doing so, teachers need to be awakened; as they are also the product of the same patriarchal culture likes others.

It defines gender responsive pedagogy as, Teaching and learning processes which pay attention to the specific learning needs of girls and boys aim at redressing gender inequality and eliminating all kinds of discrimination against any gender. Gender responsive pedagogy, calls for teachers to embrace an all encompassing gender approach in the processes of lesson planning, teaching, classroom management and performance evaluation Mlama et al.

Training for teachers who are the subjects of gender equality education is essential in order to actualize gender equality education more effectively at school sites. A model gender equality training program was developed in order to enable teachers to enhance gender equality consciousness and to implement gender equality education. This programme was developed in order to enable teachers to enhance gender equality consciousness and to implement gender equality education.

The training program imparts skills on self reflection and focus on gender equality culture in the family and in school. When it comes to Nepal, a very little work has been done in making teacher training courses gender responsive. In this context, how could we expect gender responsive teaching for achieving gender equality in education without equipping teachers with required knowledge, skills and attitude?

Conceptual Framework The conceptual framework of my study is shown in Figure 2. New concepts GEE and GRP emerged as results of the study owing to dwell further for the transformation of present inequalities into the state of gender equality in education. The framework is in page Different approaches to education and equalities, and the role and aspiration of the international commitments of BPFA, EFA, and MDGs in addressing gender inequality in education were also discussed.

After all these conceptual discussions, I then turn to Nepal and depicted the status of gender equality in education in Nepal. Under the philosophical stance, I explained ontology, epistemology, research strategy, research method, and research tools. Similarly, under the procedural stance, I explained the method of sampling sites and participants, data collection procedures, data analysis and interpretation, data validation procedures, and ethical considerations.

Creswell contends that a qualitative inquiry employs different knowledge claims, strategies of inquiry and methods of data collection and analysis from those used in a quantitative investigation. They are: 1. Alternative knowledge claims: What knowledge claims are made by the researcher? Strategy of inquiry: What strategy of inquiry will inform the procedures? Methods: What methods of data collection and analysis will be used? As shown in Figure 3, I inquired about gender equality in education as perceived and practiced by the school teachers from social constructivism standpoint.

My philosophical stance along with the procedure of my research is briefed further below. Guba and Lincoln talk about the need of researchers to make explicit both their ontological and epistemological assumptions before embarking on any research project. In my research, ontology is multiple realities. Since, ontology is concerned with the form and nature of reality or society and is concerned with what is there that can be known, how they are and how they work, I probed the realities that constituted perspectives and practice on gender equality.

Epistemology is intimately related to ontology. As ontology involves the philosophy of reality, epistemology addresses how we come to know that reality Trochim, , as cited in Krauss, Constructivism views that human beings are born into a world of meaning bestowed upon us by our culture, which is constructed by human beings in and out of interaction with human community Crotty, , as cited in Creswell, , p.

In doing so, I applied qualitative research approach for my inquiry. Qualitative research is concerned with developing explanations of social phenomena. That is to say, it aims to help us to understand the world in which we live and why things are the way they are. I needed such an opportunity to explore the perceptions of the teachers from different places, backgrounds, in public and private schools, and at different levels, on gender equality.

Besides, it allowed me to apply feminist perspectives to excavate causes of inequalities Andersan, et al. All these actions made it possible for me to reach the depth of reality to glean real, rich, thick and deep data. The collected data were analyzed from a cultural lens, i. To glean real, rich, thick and deep data from a post-structural feminist perspective, I used in-depth interviews and observation.

I held in-depth interviews with all participants to gather the information required for my study. Different people have different views about in-depth interview technique. According to Mack et al. Conducting in-depth interviews is technically challenging. Thus, I developed some guiding questions focusing on the subject of inquiry, which helped me to remain focused on the subject of inquiry and to staying on the topic during interview.

I conducted a pilot interview with two teachers of Srikhandapur Primary Schools before finalizing the interview guidelines Mack, et al. I used a mobile phone to record the interviews with some teachers who consented. This helped me in capturing every detail including laughter and nods. The interviews which were not tape-recorded were noted contemporaneously and expanded as necessary on the same day after the interview while the information, images, context were still fresh in my mind.

In addition to documenting what research participants said, moods or attitudes; the general environment; and other information that was relevant was also noted. During some of the interview sessions, though not video recorded, some snaps were taken using a digital camera. Observation is basically gaining firsthand experience, which permits to move beyond the selective perceptions of others UNESCO, , p. Observations not only give us important information, they also help our informants such as teachers to see how their actual behaviors are different from their perceived behaviors.

Two common types of observations used in research are participant and non- participant. In the non-participant observation, researcher observes and records behaviours but does not interact or participate in the setting, while in participant observation the researcher is involved in the situation while collecting data.

What people say they believe and say that they do are often contradicted by their behavior. A large body of scientific literature documents that this disparity exists, and we can all likely summon examples from our own lives. Given the frequency of this very human inconsistency, observation can be a powerful check against what people report about themselves during interviews , p.

So far as the process of conducting observation is concerned, Angrosino and De Perez , p. I followed all the three processes during my inquiry period. At the outset, I did descriptive observation of the ancient town of Srikhandapur, and then schools within it.

Finally, I observed classroom teaching and school activities. I reviewed literatures. The literatures consists of review on gender, theories of gender inequality, approaches to equality, gender equality in education and its approaches, education for all, policies and practices for gender equality in education in Nepal. I reviewed journal articles, books, electronic materials, research study reports and various publications by various organizations.

Study Site and Participants of the Study I selected research site and participants by applying a purposive sampling method to investigate fully on the subject of inquiry and to get information-rich cases that are required for in —depth study Patton, I identified research participants by studying their profiles, which I collected from schools.

My approach confirms what Murphy says. I approached both male and female teachers belonging to different age groups and of different ethnic composition, that I believed as more articulating in responding to my queries and to be good sources of information. I followed the recommendation of Lincoln and Guba , p. In total, I interviewed ten male and ten female teachers from three schools of Srikhandapur in a natural setting.

Data Collection Procedures Data collection procedures included setting the boundaries for the study, collecting information through observation, interview, documents and visual materials, as well as establishing the protocol for recording information Creswel, , p. I collected data from different sources.

The primary data from my research participants were collected through in-depth interviews and observation. The secondary data were collected through the study of documents from different sources such as websites, books, journals, and reports. I collected information about the site first from two resource people of Srikhandapur before I started collecting the primary data. The first was Mr. Purna Bahadur Karmacharya, ex —chairman, ward nine, Dhulikhel municipality. Another informant was Mr.

Hirakaji Shrestha, social worker and native businessman. He was an inhabitant of ward eight, Dhulikhel municipality. After I gathered information from these two people about the town and its schools mentioned above , I paid visit to Srikandapur Primary School with Mr. Hirakaji Shrestha, and met Head Teacher. I introduced myself and shared the purpose of my visit and requested his consent and support for collecting data for my study through interviews and class observations.

The head teacher consented right away. On the following day, I got a briefing from the head teacher about the school and had a tour to familiarize myself with the school, students and teachers. This opened the door for rapport building with teachers and students.

I requested to have a quick morning meeting with all to introduce myself and my study purpose and to get informed consent for interviews and class observations. After I collected the data, on my request, the head teacher called a meeting of teachers, where I shared the major findings and asked them to check accuracy of my data and give comments.

Purna Bahadur Karmacharya and met acting head teacher. I introduced myself as a student of KU and shared my subject of study and requested his support and consent for collecting the data. As in Srikandapur Primary School, I requested information about teachers and schools and the consent for interviews and class observations.

After getting brief account of the school, I requested for the permission to have in- depth interviews with teachers from the Director and Principal. Altogether, I interviewed twenty teaching staff 10 male and 10 female from these three schools, of them, five taught only at the secondary level.

As I mentioned earlier, I collected secondary data through document study and review of related literatures. The literature also presented in the study at the end to compare and contrast with the results that emerged from the study Creswell, , pp. Cooper suggests integrative review of literature as cited in Creswell, , p.

Thus, I followed Creswell and Cooper and present the review of literature as a separate chapter and also integrated wherever I felt the need. I used the conceptual framework of my research as the guiding map for this study. Data Analysis and Interpretation As qualitative research by nature follows rigorous process-conceptualization, collection of data, analysis of data and interpretation of findings for knowing the subjective world of the people, qualitative data analysis is crucial in qualitative research.

Quality of qualitative research depends on the quality of qualitative data analysis. The process of data analysis involves making sense out of text and image data. It involves preparing the data for analysis, conducting different analysis, moving deeper and deeper into understanding the data, representing the data, and making an interpretation of the larger meaning of data Creswell, , p. Transcription involves writing down verbatim, photographing, copying.

After the transcription of all data, I followed the second stage of analysis which is tidying up. I catalogued the data school-wise and teacher-wise and then I did the data analysis by using an inductive content analysis method. I followed the inductive content analysis process: open coding, creating categories and abstraction. While analyzing the data, I analyzed manifested content and the latent content - noticed silence, sighs, laughter, posture, etc.

I added missing points in order to make sense of the collected data. As qualitative data analysis is a process of making sense of what is in the data, I proceeded step-by-step- coding, categorization, abstraction and then interpretation. Coding is a crucial stage in the process of doing content analysis. Then I collected headings from the margins on to coding sheets Cole, , Downe-Wamboldt, , Dey, and generated categories Burnard, according to research questions.

After coding, the lists of categories were grouped under higher order headings McCain ; Burnard, to reduce the number of categories by collapsing those that are similar. This has helped in reducing the data by avoiding the unnecessary data and to be more precise to the research questions of the study.

Sub-categories with similar responses were grouped together as categories and categories were grouped as main categories. Results are descriptions of what happened in a study and are critical steps leading to the end product-interpretations and implications for more research, intervention or action.

A final step in data analysis is making an interpretation or meaning of the data, or going beyond results. Interpreting, or giving meaning to, data involves figuring out what the resulted data mean Creswell, , p. I argued why teachers are having such perceptions toward the concept of gender equality and why are they practicing in such a way. I explained their implications in achieving gender equality in education. By doing so, I confirmed the need for more conceptual clarity amongst the teachers on gender equality so as to achieve gender equality in education.

As said by Wolcott , as cited in Creswell, , p. I drew the conclusion that without GEE and GRP to teachers, teachers will not perceive the contemporary concept of gender equality in its truest sense. Credibility refers to establishing that the findings of qualitative research are credible or believable.

To address credibility, I followed the prolonged engagement, triangulation, and peer examination. Prolonged engagement is the investment of sufficient time in the field with research participants to understand the culture and to build trustful relationship with research participants and organizations, which allows the researcher to check perspectives and allows the informants to become accustomed to the researcher Krefting, I met each of my research participants in person and briefed about the purpose of study and requested time for interview and class observation.

I spent ample time in each school and collected data until I reached a point of data saturation. I participated in all the activities that ran during school hours. Triangulation is another strategy that I used in ensuring credibility. A number of types of triangulation exist. The most common is triangulation of data methods, in which data collected by various means are compared.

A second type, triangulation of data sources, maximizes the range of data that might contribute to complete understanding of the concept Krefting, In this study I used both. I did the triangulation of data collected from in-depth interviews and observations. Peer examination is a process of exposing oneself to a disinterested peer for the purpose of exploring fresh perspective Shenton,

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Allama Iqbal Open University being concerned with the education part of the Agricultural Extension system has launched PhD degree level program in Agricultural Extension to prepare scholars who have grasp of the discipline in general and a command over the area of specialization in particular. Admission will be made as per HEC criteria. Credit S. Courses Hours 1.

Application of Extension Methods 3 2. Communication Strategies in 3 Agricultural Extension 3. Agricultural Extension in Developing 3 Countries 4. Diffusion of Innovation 3 5. Community Development and Gender 3 Issues 6. Special Topics 3 The students will have to abide by all such rules and regulations.

One cannot deny the importance of livestock because it produces a huge quantity of food, such as beef, mutton, poultry meat, milk, yogurt and lot of other milk and animal by products. Millions of acres are still being cultivated with the help of farm animal in this mechanized era. Livestock and poultry yields can be further increased if people involved in this field are better and skillfully educated. At present, higher education in livestock is imparted by formal agricultural and veterinary universities in Pakistan, which are not catering in-service personnel.

However AIOU has its own character having varieties of educational methodologies within itself. The AIOU conducted a survey to get an idea about the higher education in Livestock Management and received a positive response from candidates who could not improve their qualification from formal institutes. After which the department of Agricultural Sciences DAS decided to offer MSc Hons Livestock Management through distance learning system, especially for those who could not enhance their qualification through formal system.

Application of Extension Methods 2. Communication Strategies in Agricultural Extension 3. Agricultural Extension in Developing Countries 2nd Semester 1. Diffusion of Innovation 2. Community Development and Gender Issues 3. Research in the remaining semesters as per AIOU rules. Ph: To develop human resource necessary for transferring subsistence scale of livestock farming into commercial livestock production.

To provide an opportunity for continued professional development to the scientist in the area of marketing. To provide information on the concepts of livestock development, public health and their integration in livestock production practices. To create awareness about the livestock farming production, practices which will in turn promote community based livestock development.

Title of course Code Hours 1st Semester 1. Thesis 12 th 4 Semester 1. Thesis 12 Total 48 Cr. Meat Production Ante and post-mortem examination, slaughtering and flaying methods, determination of dressing percentage, meat grades and carcass evaluation, meat cuts, determining important physical and chemical properties of various meats. Organoleptic studies of meats, visit to slaughter house. Small Ruminant Production Selection and judging of sheep and goats for wool, mutton and milk.

Farm practices including identification, culling, dipping, deworming, trimming feet, farm visits, Preparation of feasibility reports, computerized record keeping. Wool and hair sampling, microscopic structure of animal fibers, measurement of fiber length and diameter, detection of extractable matters, histological studies of follicles and fiber, handling, sorting, scoring, grading, packing, labeling and storage of animal fiber measurement of crimp, staple length, wool fat, suint and ash, visual grades of wool, visit to woolen mills and carpet industry and wool test house.

Visit to animal fiber market. Practical: The list of practical of following course codes as follows Biochemistry Diffusion and osmosis process. Qualitative test for carbohydrate, fats and protein, Estimation of Ca and Mg in milk, urine and blood hemoglobin estimation. Dairy production Dairy breed characteristics, selection on the basis of genotypic and phenotypic characteristics, Design and layout of modern dairy enterprise, practice of manual and machine adoption of hygienic measures at milking time, measurement of milk flow rate, least count ration formulation using computer Programs.

Visit to dairy enterprises. Livestock Management Practices Methods of approaching, handling and restraining animals, regions and points of body, grooming and cleaning, identification of various breeds of farm animals. Methods of identification, preparing gestation charts, Determining weight of animals from body measurement, measuring physiological norms, preparing animals for shows, visit to livestock fairs. Workshops: The workshop for each course will be conducted at the end of each semester at the main campus of AIOU.

Eminent subject experts in the relevant fields will deliver lectures in the workshop. Attendance in these course workshops is mandatory for each student. A student failing to attend any workshop is generally declared fail in final result. MSc Hons Agricultural Extension a Introduction: Agriculture is the principal occupation and source of livelihood of great majority of rural population of the country and it is the basic and largest component of our economy in terms of production, employment and export earnings.

For agricultural development in a country like Pakistan, strong linkages amongst institution human resource development and technology transfer are very important. The technology transfer being a continuous process cannot possibly take place in a vacuum. It needs to be done in a well organized system of agricultural extension where role of the scientist, the extension agent, and the farmer are all too important.

The scientist must develop better yielding varieties and breeds of crops and animals, the extension agent must, on his part, equip himself with better and effective methods to convince the farmer about the products utilitarian importance. Once convinced, the farmer will certainly adopt innovations for his own economic betterment. There will be two semester in each year. Thesis: At the beginning of the third semester, a student will be required to submit research proposal Synopsis to the Department.

The Department will provide guidelines for developing synopsis in the synopsis orientation workshop. Hons Agricultural Extension Program is designed for those Agriculture Graduates who are unable to continue their studies after completing B. Hons Agriculture, B. Agriculture Engineering, B. Animal Husbandry, D. To improve the level of knowledge and skills of the prospective students.

To provide skills for improving diffusion and adoption of innovations among the farming community. To improve the ability and self confidence of students of Agriculture Extension to critically analyze the Agriculture Extension service and technology transfer system with a view to identify difficulties, problems and issues in promoting applied research in farming systems research and extension.

To promote human resource development in agricultural extension and help to meet training needs of extension field staff and rural communities. Note: Admission form complete in all respect must be sent on the above address: e Scheme of Studies: Agricultural Extension Courses Sr. Credit Title of course Code No.

Hours Semester 1 1. Hons Agricultural Extension degree with 2nd division. Semester 2 Scientific and Technical Writing in 5. Communication in Agri. Extension 8. Human Resource Development. Admission Procedure: Candidates must have to qualify subject test being conducted by the Department. Workshop: The student will have a total of two chances to attend and pass the workshop of the course concerned.

Passing the workshop will be pre-requisite for appearing in the final examination of the course. In exceptional circumstances a special chance may be allowed by the Vice-Chancellor on the recommendation of the Chairman. Rates Rs. Thesis: At the beginning of the third semester, a student will be required to submit research proposal synopsis to the Department. The Department will provide guidelines for developing of synopsis in the synopsis orientation workshop.

Only selected candidate will deposit the fee after receiving the intimation letter from the admission department. Duration of program The minimum duration of MSc Hons Agricultural Extension Programs shall be 4 semesters two years and maximum duration shall be 10 semesters five years. The students will have to abide by all such rules and the regulations. The minimum period of the 24 credit hours course work for MSc Hons Agricultural extension shall be two semesters One Year.

It is designed for students interested in pursuing careers that are interactive with the potential and problems associated with the rural sector. The program is multidisciplinary in its course contents, and will provide an opportunity for in depth study of the key elements of rural development and relevant professional practice. Introduction: Despite the existence of large urban centers, Pakistan is still predominantly a rural society with approximately 70 percent of the population living in the rural areas.

Rural development implies comprehensive and sustainable development for people and places in rural areas. It depends on several interrelated components including development appropriate production technology, dissemination of modern technology to the farming community, formulation of suitable polices for growth in the farm and rural nonfarm economies, conservation and sustainable use of natural resources, and provision of infrastructure and social services. All countries in the world are subject to continual social and economic change, and the rural sectors of developing countries and countries in transition are pivotal in this process.

It is recognized that in a context of increasing globalization and understanding of the underlying driving forces of this process and its consequences is critical. Conceptual and analytical skills relevant to the social and economic dimensions of agriculture and related industries.

A set of potential skills pertinent to working in the public private or NGO domains. The ability to change with, and influence, rational debates concerning the optimal direction of rural sector change. Sufficient knowledge and understanding of the major problems socio-cultural and economic conditions of rural areas in Pakistan. Achieving rural development and responding to these global challenges will require trained professionals with a wide range of relevant expertise.

These are needed to work in government agencies, non-governmental organization NGOs and in the private sector. Professionals are needed who can formulate appropriate policies, plans, design and implement development projects, disseminate appropriate technology and information to farmers and small-scale entrepreneurs and mange business and the efficient delivery of services in rural areas.

Recognizing the growing needs and requirements for trained professionals in rural development AIOU has decided to initiate a Masters level program in Rural Development. This program provides. Item Rates 1. Registration fee Rs. Course Fee Rs. Thesis Fee Rs. Thesis Evaluation fee Rs. Note: Only selected candidate will deposit the fee after securing the intimation letter from the admission department.

Selection of the candidates will be made strictly on the basis of merit, which will be determined by the departmental admission committee after scrutinizing the application of the students as per AIOU M. Phil admission rules. There will be two semesters in each year.

The Department will provide guidelines for developing the research proposal in the synopsis orientation workshop. Introduction: The Department of Computer Science was established in the year The Department has received recognition nation-wide due to its quality education. The department had developed curricula of the academic programs at various levels to meet the national and international standards as defined by Higher Education Commission.

The curricula include Ph. Chaman Lal Lecturer Ph: , Email: drchaman75 yahoo. Fouzia Anjum Lecturer Ph: , Email: fauziaanjum gmail. Muhammad Tarique Lecturer Ph: The department is equipped with computing facilities and services including a digital class room and multimedia courseware development lab.

The department has its own library in addition to central library of the university. The department practices the multi-method teaching methodology i. In addition, the department also has a flavor of distance teaching in selected courses of BS Computer Science program like English, Pakistan Studies, and Islamic Studies etc. Besides graduate and undergraduate teaching, the department is actively involved in research and development.

It has. Assist other departments and individuals to implement modern ICT in educational delivery. Provide a leadership support in ICT based education in Pakistan. In addition to research activities in the area of software engineering communication, networking, and multimedia, the department focuses on the elearning research in instruction design, communication, course management, e-assessment, mobile learning and web technologies integration.

It is a mix of courses and research degree. The program also meets requirement of the Higher Education Commission. It comprises of 24 credit hours course work, followed by 12 credit hours research work Thesis. Therefore, a good mix of course work and research work will certainly add to professionalism among research students in the field of Computer Science.

Many innovative research projects in education, CS and IT have been completed. Aims and Objectives: The principal aim of the Department of Computer Science is to produce graduates with a professional education and to undertake quality research in Computer Science and Related Information Technology areas. The specific objectives are to: 1.

Maintain an excellent reputation and professional accreditation for its taught degree programs 2. Disseminate an appreciation of the current state and future directions of technological advances in the areas of Computer Science, Information Technology and e-learning. Equip students with computer science knowledge and skills so as to cope with the social, economic, scientific, and technological challenges of the world outside. Conduct research in areas of e-learning, multimedia instructional design; web based education, mobile learning.

The Allama Iqbal Open University uses modern pedagogical methods for teaching. Additionally, video conferencing support is also available for online classes in live mode. Salient Features: Regular classes at the main campus in the evening. In-line with Higher Education Commission recommendations.

Focused research on interactive systems design for civic society. Note: 1. The scheme of studies may be altered by the Chairman, Computer Science Department at the time of program offering for smooth running of the program and keeping in view the academic requirements. However new university rules will be applicable as and when approved. The short listed candidates. Courses Offered in Spring fresh admissions Code The fee structure for MS level courses is given below: S.

Description Fee 1 Registration Fee Rs. Technology fee per Rs. Thesis evaluation fee will be charged as per university rules payable at the time of submission of the thesis. MS Research Work: The department gives significant importance to original research; therefore, it has developed necessary infrastructure to carry out research work at the campus.

State of the art ICT laboratory facilities are available to conduct research in multimedia, instruction design, e-Learning, e-Assessment, ICT in education, Interactive internet based systems, and related areas of computer sciences. Fully equipped TV and radio studios are also available at the campus for research students.

First Semester Fee S. Description Fee Rs. Each MS student has to undertake one year 12 credit hours research work in the 3rd and 4th semester. A synopsis orientation workshop will be organized for the students to interact with experts and supervisors.

In the workshop, those students will listen to new research ideas and interactively develop research proposals. The research topic, supervisor, and synopsis of the desired research shall be presented to departmental synopsis committee.

The students are expected to complete their research work within one year. Students are encouraged to contact possible research supervisor well before the start of research to develop a good proposal. Recommended reference materials where applicable for each registered course are provided to each student before commencement of the classes. Multimedia Courseware CDs are prepared by the Department of Computer Science, for selected courses will also be provided.

The students are required to pass 24 credit Hours course work within 2 years as per university rules. Initially this program is offered in the Computer Science discipline. The program is open to faculty members and professionals of all Pakistani universities. Distance lectures will be delivered by faculty members from Pakistani and Foreign Universities.

A local Associate Faculty member will be provided to all expert faculty members. Associated Faculty members will work with foreign faculty to take responsibility of course work and assist in administrative and teaching assignments etc. All assessments will be performed by the expert faculty members as per rules of the university. The university will evaluate the thesis as per university rules by external experts in the subject area.

Phil rules and regulations of the university will apply to MS CS students. Program Objectives: The objectives of the program are to: 1. Facilitate faculty to acquire knowledge, research techniques and skills necessary to complete degree with international level quality. Provide in time and appropriate assistance to acquire research talents in computer science field. Facilitate faculty with indigenous research and development projects for better training and education.

Important Note: Rules, regulations framed, enhanced and changed from time to time by the university will be applicable to all students. Motivate an guide students to work with international faculty. The completely filled original admission form along with all academic credentials shall be submitted directly to the Directorate of BASR, Allama Iqbal Open University, H-8, Islamabad on or before the closing date of admission without depositing fee.

The candidate who has cleared the departmental subject test will be considered for interview. The conference presentation can be a substitute for summer paper. The following is list of elective courses for PhD course work 18 Credit Hours to be taken as approved by the Department. Course Code Current course outlines are given at end of the section. Note: PhD seminars will be delivered by students so that their program is effectively monitored. Department will monitor and make arrangements for this noncredit activity.

Multimedia Systems Introduction and application of multimedia systems, Their historical context, Digital representation and requisite hardware, Multimedia software, tools and OCR software, Multimedia authoring and types of authoring tools, Vector graphics and bitmapped graphics, Resolution, image compression and manipulation, Digitization and processing of audio, Combining audio and video and multimedia databases, Multimedia and Internetworking.

Classes will be conducted through video conferencing or OLIVE e-learning to nationwide scholars admitted. The classes will be delivered by faculty from various national and international wellknown universities. All the participating universities will be connected via AIOU link. The university will evaluate the thesis as per university rule by three foreign experts in the subject area. Synopsis Workshop The Department will arrange a two-week synopsis orientation workshop helping students to identify their topic of research and develop the synopsis.

Attendance in this workshop is mandatory. Thesis Supervision The candidate will have a qualified supervisor as identified by the student. The supervisor is appointed by BASR. The thesis will be evaluated from three external foreign evaluators from approved panel of experts from technologically advanced countries as per university criteria.

Fee Rs. Award of Degree: On successful completion of the research thesis and other requirements, the PhD degree will be awarded by the University. For further information, you department by E-mail: dcs aiou. Skiandar Hayat Khiyal Adjunct Professor m. Mujahid Alam Adjunct Professor mujahidalam hotmail. Iftikhar Azeem Niaz Adjunct Professor ianiaz yahoo. It also provides the experts not only in the field of statistics as well as in other allied social and science disciplines.

Initially, Computer Science and Mathematics were also its part, then in November , Computer Science was established as an independent Department. Similarly, in May, , Mathematics was also announced as an independent Department. At the beginning, the Department introduced various programs of Computer Science along with a wide variety of Mathematics and Statistics courses. The Department has its own computer laboratory enriched with high speed latest computers, multimedia, and latest statistical woftwares.

The curricula of this program and other statistics program are updated according to the curricula of other national and international universities as well as HEC directions. The main objective of the Statistics Department is to disseminate the Statistical concepts all over the country at all academic levels. These programs also cater the statistical needs in information Technology and other allied disciplines.

In near future, the Department also intends to offer MSc Statistics at main regional levels BS Statistics at main as well as regional levels. Silent Features: Face to Face learning from highly qualified faculty. Only 30 days classes are arranged in two workshops during one semester. Free available high speed internet and enriched library facility.

Secured hostel and quality food facility is also available on nominal payment. Supervisors for MPhil Statistics research may be taken from your own local area. The course contents of all level courses have been designed and updated time to time after consulting syllabi of national and international universities.

Phil Statistics program are: 1. To enhance the qualification of those who could not continue their education after M. To provide opportunity for in-service persons to improve their qualification and get promotion in their respective departments. This program is completely as per guidance and accredited by HEC. This program meets not only the. After the receipt of admission list of third semester, the department will hold two-weeks Synopsis Orientation Workshop SOW , only those students will be eligible to attend the synopsis orientation workshop who qualified 24 credit hours or passing at least 12 credit hours courses including research method Participation in the SOW will be mandatory.

Both in service and fresh candidates can apply for admission. Duration The minimum duration of M. Phil Code. There shall be a departmental approved admission committee responsible to finalize the admission. Admission in MPhil programme will be made once a year i. Spring Semester. Admission in MPhil Statistics will be granted against. A list of recommended books will also be given for further reading.

The university reserves the right not to start this program if available group of students not formed. Assignments: Two home-assignments for each course will be given to the students for sessional tests practice and preparation only. Only selected candidates will be informed about their admission by the admission department, approved by the competent authority of AIOU.

Phil enforced from time to time shall strictly be followed for the M. Phil statistics program. For clarification about academic matters, please contact on the following address:. Face to Face teaching Tutorials : For each course, approximately 45 hours face to face teaching support will be provided. The final schedule of the lectures will be distributed to the students in consultation with the teachers resource persons.

The classes will be supplemented by the computers where required. Workshops: The introductory workshop and end term workshop will be arranged at the beginning of the semester and at the end of each semester. Test and interview will be based on the MSc Statistics course work etc. For further information, please contact to the academic staff of the department of Statistics. Final Examination: Final Examination will be held at the end of each semester.

Only the successful candidates are supposed to deposit their fee as per procedure laid down by the university in the intimation letter. Fee can neither be refunded nor can be adjusted for future admission after finalization of admission. Thesis: At the beginning of the 3rd Semester, you will be required to submit a research proposal Synopsis to the department during the synopsis orientation workshop.

We are proud to be one of the largest and most prestigious Physics Departments in the Pakistan with an outstanding reputation for excellence in research, undergraduate and post graduate education. The Department offers undergraduate degree programmes, Master level programmes and Doctoral programmes. We have a vibrant research programmes that a broad-based coverage of fundamental and applied Physics.

The department of Physics is offering these programmes in collaborations with other institutions actively foster development of new research fields. We have recently established the training programmes for engineers, researchers, scientists and faculty members of public and private universities of industrial partners. We are committed to providing a positive environment that encourages everyone to explore this potential. Due to the flexibility and advantage of the distance learning system, AIOU has retained the best of the professionals already teaching at post graduate level in different teaching institutions in the country.

There is a minimum of 45 hours of face-to-face teaching for each three credit hour course. The students spend 70 to 75 hours in the laboratories for each two credit hour laboratory course. Tauqir Ahmed Mughal Lecturer Statistics on study leave 3. The courses are designed and developed by well-known experts in the field of physics.

Every effort has been made to make these programmes. The degree awarded by AIOU in this discipline is accredited and at par with the other universities. The language of instruction, examination and thesis for all disciplines will be according to the approved scheme of studies of each department.

The admission will be made strictly on merit. Passing of Departmental test and interview is mandatory for admission. This relaxation will be granted by the VC on recommendation of the chairman concerned through Dean. Credit Credit Hours Hours 03 03 03 Method of Instruction Allama Iqbal Open University employs media mix as methodology of instruction in which printed material, audiovisual support, and face-to-face tutorial support are mixed in accordance with the requirement of the discipline and the level of the course.

Medium of instruction for this programme is English. In view of special requirements of post-graduate studies in Physics the following methodology of instruction will be followed. Four courses will be offered depending on the needs and availability of the experts S. Credit Credit Hours Hours 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 Students will complete the assignments and send to the tutors within the scheduled time.

The tutor will return the same to them after marking and providing necessary academic guidance or feedback. The marks obtained in these assignments contribute to the final course result. Students failing in the continuous assessment will not be eligible to appear in the final examination.

Attendance in these sessions is compulsory. Minimum period for completion the thesis after successful completion of course work will be two semesters one year for M. Phil Programme. For experimental research work, the period to be spent for conducting experiments in the laboratory will be decided by the supervisor. Phil student will be required to perform research work for one year at any relevant scientific institution located near to the residence or place of appointment under the supervision of a scientist of the concerned institution.

The selection of the project and the supervisor will be at the discretion of AIOU and the institution where research is being carried out. Each student will submit quarterly report duly signed by the thesis supervisor on the research work performed to the coordinator. The student of M. Phil Physics Program will submit one research paper accepted or published in conference or research journal and deliver one seminar during his research work in the presence of external examiner, as mandatory to their completion of their research degree.

Grading: The Grade for M. Phil programme. The roll number slips and other relevant information related to examination centre will be provided to the students before the examination. The distribution of continuous assessment and final examination will be as follows: Assignments Final Examination Aggregate. If required, students will have to arrange lodging and transport by themselves.

AIOU will not bear any cost in this regard. The fee does not include charges for boarding lodging and transport. Hence the University does not have any liability in this regard. Hostel Facility: The students coming from other cities can avail the hostel facility on reasonable rates other than fee.

Financial Assistance Limited financial assistance is available to deserving students who shall apply on the prescribed AIOU forms supported with justifiable documentary proofs available after admission during. For clarification about academic matters please contact on the following address: Prof. How to pay the fee: The admission in this programme is purely on merit basis. No fee is to be paid unless intimated by the university. The fee is to be deposited through Challan Form only in the specified branches of Banks all over Pakistan after receipt of the intimation letter for admission.

The candidate will write his name in block letters full address and MPhil Physics Programme and semester on the Challan Form attached. Please keep a photocopy of the form for record. This selection Performa will be sent only to the selected candidates by the admission office along with the intimation letter for admission and fee schedule.

Email: szilyas aiou. Each course is being of 3 credit hours. Any of the following optional courses of 3-credit hours will be offered according to the availability of qualified teachers and research facilities. To produce Physicists holding Ph. D degrees in Physics with different specializations. To meet the acute shortage of highly qualified manpower in the field of Physics by producing skilled teachers and research scientists.

To introduce new areas of research in Physics. Duration of the Programme The minimum duration for the Direct PhD programme shall be three years and maximum duration of the programme shall be ten semester five years. Students have to complete 18 credit hours course work. Minimum period for the completion of course work hell be two semesters one year and maximum four semesters two years. Semester 1 Compulsory S. Course 1. Advanced Mathematical Physics 2. Experimental Techniques in Physics 3.

Renewable Energy Resources. Semester 2 Optional Courses will be offered depending on the needs and availability of the experts, out of which the student will select only three 1. Advanced Semiconductor Physics 03 2. Statistical Physics 03 3. Environmental Physics 03 4. Hydrogen Energy Technology 03 5. Energy Audit and Thermal Energy Conservation 03 6. Energy Resources and Technologies Course Work Tutorial support will be provided in the form of lectures by resource persons at the study Centre.

A minimum of 45 hours of face-to-face teaching for each three credit hour, will be provided in these lectures. Attendance in these sessions is compulsory for final examination. Study Material The University will provide reprinted and compiled course books. Thesis Research Work PhD students will carry out research work for two years at any relevant scientific institution located near to the residence or place of appointment under the supervision of a scientist of the concerned institution.

Comprehensive examination The Students Completing the PhD course work shell be allowed to appear in the comprehensive examination arranged and conduct by the department concerned as per rule of the HEC. Course work evaluation Two assignments for each course will be given. Students will complete the assignments and submit within the scheduled time. Synopsis orientation workshop Duration of synopsis orientation workshop shall be of two weeks.

Synopsis of only those students will be presented in research proposal committee meeting for final approval who have attended the synopsis orientation workshop. Research Paper during Research Period The student of PhD Physics Program will present at least two presentations in seminars during his research work in the presence of external examiner, as mandatory to their completion of their research degree.

Approval of Thesis On completion of research work, the student will have to submit thesis as per HEC rules to the Department for evaluation and defense as per format of the University. Minimum period for completion the thesis after successful completion of course work will be four semesters two year for PhD Physics Programme.

Ph: , Ph Introduction Pakistan is a developing country and it is need of the hour to improve standard of education in all the disciplines especially in Science and Technology in order to face the challenges of the 21st century. During last 33 years the Department has developed a range of professional programs in Health, Nutrition, Environmental Design and Home Economics. In Urban Design and Architecture, the environmental revolution manifests itself as sustainable design and planning.

This program aims to take a holistic view of 'environment' examining both the physical and psychological aspects. It takes an interdisciplinary approach, fusing technical and scientific knowledge with philosophical and ethical issues. Good environmental design can generate economic development and embrace the best of technological innovation while recognizing and respecting the importance of cultural heritage and the obligation to address the ecological agenda.

To prepare learners for the career related disciplines considering the professional interests of individuals in the areas of Environmental Design, Health, Home Economics, Nutrition, and Dietetics etc. To enable the individual to integrate and apply knowledge and skills of Environmental Design.

Currently the department is offering the following programs: i. The built environment is of major economic and social importance. Construction alone is one of the largest discrete industries in Pakistan and a major provider of employment. The built environment makes a vital contribution to the quality of life of all members of society. This program offers research based value added degree to upgrade professional practice of engineers, planners and designers and to provide better job prospects home and abroad.

Research based degree is offered to address local issues and to evolve local theories. The eligibility will be as follows: i. Environmental up gradation in housing, health care and building infrastructure Conservation of resources building materials, energy supply, etc. Specification of environment friendly building materials and products to minimize the health hazards. Optimum use of natural and sustainable materials. Harmony between building design and user needs.

Including activity based behavioural needs. Fresh Candidates: University offers admission twice a year i. Autumn and Spring, but admission to new students of this discipline is advertised only once a year i. A student will be generally allowed to register for a maximum of 18 credit hour courses to be offered in each semester. Students will have to submit their admission form either online or through registered post to the parent department at the given address.

Admission forms prescribed for the programme are entertained only. Incomplete admission forms will not be entertained in any case. Selection of candidates in the programme will be made strictly on basis of merit against a limited number of seats. Only those candidates who qualify admission criteria will be informed about their selection. On receipt of admission offer a candidate is allowed to pay dues as detailed in fee section within due date as per procedure mentioned in the intimation letter.

The study material inclusive of textbooks, assignments, tutorial schedule and reference material is mailed to the students. For clarification about academic matters please contact on the following address:. Note: Candidates are required to send complete admission forms along with attested copies of all academic certificates, testimonials at the above address before closing date mentioned in the advertisement.

The continuing students are sent computerized admission forms. Continue admission form can also be downloaded from university's website www. The rest of the prevalent terms and conditions are applicable to all fresh and continuing students. After the completion of course work, the students will be allowed to undertake research work. Minimum duration for submission of thesis is two Semester one year. Post Graduate Diploma in Environmental Design is expected to earn a total of 30 credit hours.

The semester wise offering of the courses in Diploma is given as under:. List of Elective Courses Sr. Courses and Code No. Three days workshops are conducted for each course towards the end of each semester before the commencement of final examinations. Workshops comprise lectures from eminent scholars and presentations of research projects by the students. Attendance in these workshops is compulsory.

In case a viable group of 20 to 30 students is not formed of diploma in any region, the students are normally merged in the student groups of nearby region. Note: Student failing to opt any course in any particular semester amongst the courses offered in that semester will have to wait for at least one semester in order to get admission in that particular course since all the courses are being offered on alternate basis.

However, any student who could not manage to attend the workshop may appear in the final examination and may cover the missed workshop component in the later semesters. The students will have three chances in total to complete the workshop component but they will have to deposit the workshop fee at the start of the semester in which it is offered in case they avail another chance.

The total contact hours are However, university is not responsible to provide accommodation for the workshops that are conducted in the regions. Rules and regulations as approved by AIOU statuary bodies are to be followed for procedural details. Practical Work: 1. Field visits will be conducted during the workshops to boost the practical knowledge of the students. Assignment 1 is the theoretical assignment based on units 17 of your course.

This assignment is designed to judge the understanding of the students in the specific areas and to assess its application. Final Examination A three hour written examination will take place at the end of the semester for each course and compulsory workshops for each course. For working out the final course grade the marks of continuous assessment and final examination are calculated in the ratio of for both the programs. Student failing in the continuous assessment assignments, practical and field project will not be eligible to sit in the final examination.

Only those students will be allowed to take final examination. The research could be designed based, experimental or survey. The department according to the respective field of interest of the student will assign the research supervisor. The maximum period allowed to complete research thesis successfully shall be three years after successful completion of course work or approval of topic whichever is later.

Viva Voce: After evaluation of the thesis by external evaluator, the student has to appear for Viva-Voce examination before the Viva Voce. The student failing in the continuous assessment Assignments, practical and field project will not be eligible to sit in the final examination.

Riffat Haq Chairperson, Dept. Syed Shahzad Shah Lecturer Ph. Muhammad Sohail PD. Asma Afreen Lecturer Ph E-mail: asma. Nazia Iftakhar. Hajra Ahmad Assistant Professor Ph. Zaheer Ahmad Assistant Professor Ph.

At present very few Pakistani universities are offering MPhil Mathematics program, which caters to a small group of students. Due to its unique feature, AIOU can produce a number of experts throughout the country in a shorter spell of time. The curriculum of these programs is designed in such a way that both the course work and the research components are covered thoroughly.

Introduction: The Department of Mathematics has been established in June The Department is also running two years master degree program, MSc Mathematics. In future the Department intends to start BS Mathematics programs. MPhil Mathematics has been designed after consulting syllabi of national and international universities.

It will strengthen the mathematical concepts of the candidates and will enhance their logical thinking. This program will also cater the needs of Information Technology and other sciences disciplines. To enhance the qualification of those who could not continue their education after MSc Mathematics through formal universities. To provide an opportunity to in service persons to improve their qualification and get promotion in their respective departments.

MPhil Mathematics Program Introduction: To meet the challenging requirements of todays fast growing world, we are in desperate need of experts in the field of Mathematics, like in computer or any other field. We need expert mathematicians not. Pure Mathematics ii. Applied Mathematics. Duration: The minimum period for completion of course work is two semesters one year. The minimum period for completing research work is two semesters one year.

The maximum time period to complete the degree is 5 years. The Introductory Workshop will be about 20 days and the End of Semester Workshop will be about 20 days. Note: A minimum group of twenty students is required to start classes.

Scheme of Studies: Semester-I The Department of Mathematics will offer any four courses from the list of following approved courses as per availability of experts:. Admission Procedure: Admission in MPhil Mathematics will be granted against limited seats strictly on the basis of merit as approved by the university.

There shall be departmental test and interview. There shall be a departmental admission committee responsible to finalize the admissions. A face to face teaching component is introduced in this program. It is proposed to hold two workshops one in the beginning and the second at the end of. Semester-II The Department of Mathematics will offer any four courses from the list of following approved courses as per availability of experts: S. Researchers are supposed to develop and present their synopsis before the Departmental Synopsis Committee.

Fee Tariff: Tuition Fee Registration fee payable at the time of first admission only Technology fee per student per semester Admission fee payable at the time of first admission First Semester Fee. After the receipt of admission list of third semester, the department will hold two-weeks Synopsis Orientation Workshop SOW and only those students will be eligible to attend the synopsis orientation workshop who have qualified at least Ph , The department of chemistry was established in March Its faculty consists of one professor, four assistant professors and one lecturer.

Naqeeb-ur-Rehman Lecturer on study leave 3. Muhammad Faisal Iqbal Lecturer Phone: The department has developed all the courses for undergraduate, graduate, postgraduate and PhD level in accordance with the guideline provided by the Higher Education Commission HEC. These courses are reviewed from time to time through Committee of Courses to incorporate emerging modern trends in the subject. The Committee of Courses of the department has distinguished Professors and Scientists of the country as members besides departmental faculty.

This collaboration will be very useful for our MPhil and PhD students. Muhammad Aatif Lecturer Phone: 5. Staff Phone: Visiting Faculty: 1. At present, department of chemistry is offering and coordinating the following programmes: 1. Chemistry Courses for FSc Students 2.

BS Chemistry 3. MSc Chemistry 4. MPhil Chemistry 5. Rashid Mahmood Air University, Islamabad 5. Abdul Qayum. The Prescribed Admission Form duly filled alongwith the attested copies of required documents be sent to Chairperson, Department of Chemistry. Written test and Interview of the eligible candidates will be conducted by the Departmental Admission Committee and the merit will be determined on the basis of qualification, research and professional experience, test and interview, etc.

Selected candidates will be informed by the Directorate of Admission with the directions to deposit fee according to the schedule. Currently specialization is being offered in the field of Organic Chemistry. Later on, the specializations in other branches of Chemistry will be offered. Objectives The aim of this programme is to provide an opportunity to the inservice personnels to get specialized in the field of chemistry and to improve the qualification of those who could not continue their education through formal system.

Maintaining the high standards of teaching and research, the department also wants to attract fresh students. The main objective is to uplift the standard of education and research specially in the field of chemistry in the country. Since admission in PhD programme is strictly on merit, the fee should NOT be submitted before the confirmation of your admission, only selected candidates will be informed and asked to deposit the prescribed fee, on or before the last date for fee deposition. In case of non-compliance, it would be assumed that the student is not interested in getting admission.

The department may invite a candidate in waiting list for admission against the vacant seat. Target Groups PhD Chemistry programme is particularly designed for the following: i. College teachers who want to improve their qualification. Scientists working in different laboratories and research organizations desirous of improving their knowledge and qualification. Fresh students having special aptitude for research. For clarification about academic matters please contact on the phone numbers given below: , , Note: Admission form complete in all respect must be sent on the following address:.

Tel: , , The Department will conduct written test for admission. The candidate who will pass the written test will be called for interview. Initially, the student is required to complete 18 credit hours of PhD course work. Besides completion of PhD course work and other requirements, a candidate has to complete research work and thesis as per AIOU rules. Note: Any three courses out of the above mentioned theory courses will be offered in I semester. In II semester any three courses from the remaining list will be offered, subject to the availability of expertise.

For PhD, the student has to complete all other formalities, prescribed by the Higher Education Commission. At present this programme is being offered at the university main campus in Islamabad. In future, it will be opened for the entire country subject to the availability of laboratories and appropriate tutorial support.

Continuous assessment will be based on assignments and class tests. Final Examination Final examination of marks for each three credit theory course will be conducted at the end of semester. The student will have to pass in each component independently to be declared successful in the course. Assessment of Research Thesis After the completion of course work the candidate will undertake a research thesis under the guidance of a supervisor.

PhD thesis will be evaluated by foreign professors. The research report must be supported by at least one publication in International Journal as per HEC rules. The University reserves the right to change the fee tariff in the coming semesters. This can be done without any prior notice as deemed fit for the expected expenditure which is to be incurred on the semester based academic and operational activities of the programme.

Attendance This programme is based on face to face teaching and research work. Name Prof. Naghmana Rashid Dr. Uzma Yunus Dr. Moazzam Hussain Bhatti Dr. It is important in a proposal that the problem stand out—that the reader can easily recognize it. Sometimes, obscure and poorly formulated problems are masked in an extended discussion.

A problem statement should be presented within a context, and that context should be provided and briefly explained, including a discussion of the conceptual or theoretical framework in which it is embedded. Clearly and succinctly identify and explain the problem within the framework of the theory or line of inquiry that undergirds the study. This is of major importance in nearly all proposals and requires careful attention.

It is essential in all quantitative research and much qualitative research. State the problem in terms intelligible to someone who is generally sophisticated but who is relatively uninformed in the area of your investigation. For conference proposals, the statement of the problem is generally incorporated into the introduction; academic proposals for theses or dissertations should have this as a separate section. Purpose of the Study.

If the purpose is not clear to the writer, it cannot be clear to the reader. Briefly define and delimit the specific area of the research. You will revisit this in greater detail in a later section. Foreshadow the hypotheses to be tested or the questions to be raised, as well as the significance of the study.

These will require specific elaboration in subsequent sections. The purpose statement can also incorporate the rationale for the study. Some committees prefer that the purpose and rationale be provided in separate sections, however.

Key points to keep in mind when preparing a purpose statement. Clearly identify and define the central concepts or ideas of the study. Some committee Chairs prefer a separate section to this end. When defining terms, make a judicious choice between using descriptive or operational definitions. Identify the specific method of inquiry to be used. Identify the unit of analysis in the study. Review of the Literature. The literature review accomplishes several important things.

It provides a framework for establishing the importance of the study, as well as a benchmark for comparing the results of a study with other findings. Demonstrate to the reader that you have a comprehensive grasp of the field and are aware of important recent substantive and methodological developments.

How will your study refine, revise, or extend what is now known? Avoid statements that imply that little has been done in the area or that what has been done is too extensive to permit easy summary. Statements of this sort are usually taken as indications that the writer is not really familiar with the literature. In a proposal, the literature review is generally brief and to the point. Be judicious in your choice of exemplars—the literature selected should be pertinent and relevant APA, Select and reference only the more appropriate citations.

Make key points clearly and succinctly. Committees may want a section outlining your search strategy —the procedures you used and sources you investigated e. Check with your Chair. Questions are relevant to normative or census type research How many of them are there? Is there a relationship between them? They are most often used in qualitative inquiry, although their use in quantitative inquiry is becoming more prominent. Hypotheses are relevant to theoretical research and are typically used only in quantitative inquiry.

When a writer states hypotheses, the reader is entitled to have an exposition of the theory that lead to them and of the assumptions underlying the theory. Just as conclusions must be grounded in the data, hypotheses must be grounded in the theoretical framework.

A research question poses a relationship between two or more variables but phrases the relationship as a question; a hypothesis represents a declarative statement of the relations between two or more variables Kerlinger, ; Krathwohl, Deciding whether to use questions or hypotheses depends on factors such as the purpose of the study, the nature of the design and methodology, and the audience of the research at times even the taste and preference of committee members, particularly the Chair.

The practice of using hypotheses was derived from using the scientific method in social science inquiry. They have philosophical advantages in statistical testing, as researchers should be and tend to be conservative and cautious in their statements of conclusions Armstrong, Hypotheses can be couched in four kinds of statements.

Literary alternative— a form that states the hypothesis you will accept if the null hypothesis is rejected, stated in terms of theoretical constructs. In other words, this is usually what you hope the results will show. Operational alternative— Similar to the literary alternative except that the operations are specified. Be prepared to interpret any possible outcomes with respect to the questions or hypotheses.

Questions and hypotheses are testable propositions deduced and directly derived from theory except in grounded theory studies and similar types of qualitative inquiry. Make a clear and careful distinction between the dependent and independent variables and be certain they are clear to the reader.

Be excruciatingly consistent in your use of terms. If appropriate, use the same pattern of wording and word order in all hypotheses. The Design--Methods and Procedures. All research is plagued by the presence of confounding variables the noise that covers up the information you would like to have. Confounding variables should be minimized by various kinds of controls or be estimated and taken into account by randomization processes Guba, In the design section, indicate.

Be aware of possible sources of error to which your design exposes you. You will not produce a perfect, error free design no one can. However, you should anticipate possible sources of error and attempt to overcome them or take them into account in your analysis. Moreover, you should disclose to the reader the sources you have identified and what efforts you have made to account for them. The key reason for being concerned with sampling is that of validity— the extent to which the interpretations of the results of the study follow from the study itself and the extent to which results may be generalized to other situations with other people Shavelson, Sampling is critical to external validity —the extent to which findings of a study can be generalized to people or situations other than those observed in the study.

To generalize validly the findings from a sample to some defined population requires that the sample has been drawn from that population according to one of several probability sampling plans. By a probability sample is meant that the probability of inclusion in the sample of any element in the population must be given a priori.

All probability samples involve the idea of random sampling at some stage Shavelson, In experimentation, two distinct steps are involved. Random selection— participants to be included in the sample have been chosen at random from the same population. Define the population and indicate the sampling plan in detail. Random assignment— participants for the sample have been assigned at random to one of the experimental conditions.

Another reason for being concerned with sampling is that of internal validity— the extent to which the outcomes of a study result from the variables that were manipulated, measured, or selected rather than from other variables not systematically treated. Without probability sampling, error estimates cannot be constructed Shavelson, Perhaps the key word in sampling is representative.

When a sample is drawn out of convenience a nonprobability sample , rationale and limitations must be clearly provided. Outline the instruments you propose to use surveys, scales, interview protocols, observation grids. If instruments have previously been used, identify previous studies and findings related to reliability and validity. If instruments have not previously been used, outline procedures you will follow to develop and test their reliability and validity.

In the latter case, a pilot study is nearly essential. Because selection of instruments in most cases provides the operational definition of constructs, this is a crucial step in the proposal. Include an appendix with a copy of the instruments to be used or the interview protocol to be followed. Also include sample items in the description of the instrument. For a mailed survey, identify steps to be taken in administering and following up the survey to obtain a high response rate.

Data Collection. Outline the general plan for collecting the data. This may include survey administration procedures, interview or observation procedures. Include an explicit statement covering the field controls to be employed. Provide a general outline of the time schedule you expect to follow.

Data Analysis. Specify the procedures you will use, and label them accurately e. If coding procedures are to be used, describe in reasonable detail. If you triangulated, carefully explain how you went about it. Communicate your precise intentions and reasons for these intentions to the reader.

This helps you and the reader evaluate the choices you made and procedures you followed. Indicate briefly any analytic tools you will have available and expect to use e. Provide a well thought-out rationale for your decision to use the design, methodology, and analyses you have selected.

AN HONEST PERSON ESSAY

Social construction feminism believes gendered social order as the sources of inequalities. It argues that inequality is the product of gendering and is so pervasive that leads so many people to believe that it is biological, and therefore "natural". Social constructionist feminists have been credited for the sex —gender system theory. Post-structural or postmodern feminism believes that fixed binary gender categories brought inequalities. For them gender is not an essential feature of human personhood but is instead a fluid and processual enactment within specific or contextualized interactions Butler, They challenge binary gender categories as dual, oppositional, and fixed, arguing instead that sexuality and gender are shifting, fluid, and multiple categories.

They say that equality will come when there are so many recognized sexes, sexualities, and genders that one can't be played against the other. They say as gender, sex and sexualities are not binary or fixed, there are at least six sexualities -- heterosexual woman, heterosexual man, lesbian, gay man, bisexual man, and bisexual woman.

Similarly, biological sex is also not binary- male and female. One can add hermaphrodite and transsexual too. Their perspective is consistent with social constructionists, for whom gender is a verb; and is about doing. However, I would like to discuss it here as a strand in itself separately as it is considered one of the approaches in gender and development in education UNGEI, and I use it as the major lens in this study. Post-structural Feminist Theory Post-structural feminism is a branch of feminism that uses insights from post- structuralism, which has its philosophical position based on social constructionist assumptions.

It raised critical questions about identity. It views gender as a malleable form of identification rather than a fixed definition present in conventional development discourse. Language is the key to poststructuralists. They believe that "Language enables people to think, speak, and give meaning to the world around them" Weedon, They argue that language limits women by framing and inscribing their lives. Linking to gender, they argue that gender is socially constructed through language and gender differences dwell in language.

Language works to both constrain and open up. Secondly, they challenge gender categories as dual, oppositional and fixed, arguing instead that gender comprises shifting, fluid, multiple categories. Post structuralist feminists have troubled these constructs since women are usually on the wrong side of binaries and at the bottom of hierarchies. Thus, it is about rebuilding; it is about looking at how a structure has been constructed, what holds it together, and what it produces.

It is not a destructive, negative, or nihilistic practice, but an affirmative one Pierre, For them the "subjectivity" refers to "conscious and unconscious thoughts and emotions of the individual" Weedon, , p. They say that subjectivity is the product of the society, culture and historical contexts. Post-structural feminists are concerned with power and institution. They seek to reveal "how gender power relations are constituted, reproduced, and contested" Weedon, , p.

They challenge dominant masculinist patriarchal views of knowledge by using strategies of opposition, resistance, and deconstruction. She proposed parodic practices as performative subversions to trouble the gender to denaturalize and resignify bodily categories beyond the binary frame Butler, , p. Judith Butler explored the persistence of biological sex in feminist theory as the source and cause of the unequal social treatment and status of women in her book Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity.

She argued that sex was an effect rather than the cause of social gender difference, and that the fiction of a stable core gender identity was maintained through socially coerced performances of gender. Pedagogy is a central concern for post-structural feminists in education.

They say that it's where theory and practice meet. They believe that pedagogy has a great effect on how gendered knowledge and experience are produced Gore, , p. They see schooling is, in part, a process that should serve to acknowledge and critique set notions of identity, including gender and marginalized identities UNGEI, , p.

However, in reality patriarchy has turned it into a machinery of social and cultural regulation Gore, and helped to construct gender, race, and class differences. Moreover, it's functioning as a post-colonialist institution that disrupts and weakens the power of local or indigenous knowledge UNGEI, From the above discussion on post- structural feminist perspective, it is clear that gender is a malleable form of identification rather than a fixed identity with its key political and theoretical objectives UNGEI, , p.

A ubiquitous division of people into two unequally valued categories - the gendered social order girds gender inequality. Thus, degendering movement to deconstruct binary opposition Lober, , and for deconstruction of gender is required. In the late s and early s, the WID approach became popular in the development field as a result of the concern that women were being left out of economic development processes.

The approach focused on the inclusion of women in development as a tool to increase the economic and social efficiency of development processes DFID, , as cited in UNGEI, , p. Policies associated with the WID approach have concentrated on improving access for girls, through giving them scholarship, providing food in return for attendance at school, developing the infrastructure of training or accommodation to ensure that more women teachers are employed, digging latrines, and providing water.

However, the questions of exploitation, subordination, and social division are generally not considered in this approach. It focuses on unequal gender relations at all levels in society. By the late s, the GAD approach came to the forefront. Its theorists argued that inequality needed to be challenged politically and could not merely be ameliorated by a process of inclusion, by the provision of welfare support, or by a belief in the greater efficiency of projects of WID Moser, It also does not consider women as a uniform group.

Harmonization of social life without domesticating, marginalizing either gender is the mission of this approach Shrestha, , pp. It raised critical questions about gender identity and the binary construct through languages as discussed above see Post-structural Feminist Theory. Education and school play a vital role in these transmissions. Different critical educators consider the main functions of schools as the reproduction of the dominant ideology, forms of knowledge, and the distribution of skills needed to reproduce the social division of labor Giroux, , as stated in Poudyel, Pierre Bourdieu, who is the theorist of culture of reproduction, agrees that schooling reproduces inequalities by favouring the dominant group through the use of their cultural capital such as language, ideas, and knowledge of music, art, and literature in school's curriculum that put dominant group in advantaged position.

According to him, school is a place for the reproduction of culture. It is regarded as a place for reproducing social and cultural inequalities from one generation to another. Bourdieu explained how schooling contributes to reproduction of the dominant cultures, which includes patriarchal culture too.

Bourdieu has used different concepts such as habitus, field, capital, symbolic violence, and practice. It is through such schemes that people both produce their practices and perceive and evaluate them Ritzer, , p. The habitus both produces and is produced by the social world. The field is a network of relations within objective positions within it. It is a type of competitive market place, in which various kinds of capitals economic, cultural, social, and symbolic are employed and deployed Bourdieu, , p, 97 as cited in Ritzer, , p.

Fields are also considered the base-ground for a continuous struggle for positions where various forces interact with habitus in order to produce, preserve, change and improve a sense of legitimate value. The struggles for positions are determined by differential access to power and sources of capital or resources. Capitals are of four types: social capital various kinds of valued relations with significant others , cultural capital primarily legitimate knowledge of one kind or another symbolic capital prestige and social honour and economic capital.

Among these capitals, the school is responsible for reproduction of cultural capital. According to Bourdieu, cultural capital can exist in three forms - an embodied state as for example our ways of thinking, speaking and bodily movement , objectified state for example in the possession of works of art, books or clothes and institutional state - such as educational qualification Gidden, , p.

This theory of reproduction applies not only in reproduction of dominant class culture but in gender too as it reproduces patriarchal culture, which is considered the underlying cause of gender inequality as claimed by feminist theories. Educational institutions transmit dominating patriarchal values and norms through curriculum content and teaching practices.

In many instances both the formal and the informal curriculum reinforce traditional gender stereotypes and perpetuate the gender division of labour. Just as girls are socialized into viewing their own subordination as doxa in the family sphere, so do they - in the school system - become socialized into perceiving as natural the conventional female roles and the lower values attributed to these roles? The reproduction of gender inequality occurs at all levels in the educational system.

As poststructuralist feminists think, Bourdieu too thinks that the social basis of male domination is often concealed through powerful ideological mechanisms, such as the naturalization of gender inequality, so that women experience their subordination and men experience their domination as inevitable and natural. According to these first term in binaries is male and privileged and the second term is female and disadvantaged.

Women and men are thus attributed different roles, activities and tasks which legitimise the segregation between the sexes and the subordination of women. As habitus 'functions at every moment as a matrix of perceptions, appreciations, and actions' Bourdieu, P. Thus, the dominated women use the same dualistic categories as the dominating men. That means that the women themselves view women as inferior.

In this way, they contribute to their own subordination and reproduce the unequal gender relations. The theory was also used to draw recommendation for achieving gender equality in education. The concepts of gender and gender inequalities are already described at length above. Equality is a normative concept. The overarching human right document the Universal Declaration of Human Rights UDHR , adopted by the United Nations in , recognizes and enforces rights to equality of human being by stating that all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.

Its principal aim is to avoid differential treatment of similarly situated persons. This model of equality recognizes biological differences and social assumptions and expectations. This approach recognizes women as a group needing different treatment because they are weak, subordinate to men and need protection, instead of addressing systemic causes of women's subordination. This approach endorses essentialist and binary categories of male and female.

In the guise of protecting women, it seeks to curtail or curb women's activities or freedoms. To achieve substantive equality in all spheres CEDAW requires two types of actions by the State: 1 actions to achieve equality of opportunity between men and women, and 2 actions to correct the inequalities of power between men and women p. To achieve these require the differences and inequalities between men and women be taken into account CEDAW , because there are real biological differences between men and women obviously.

But according to human rights theory and the principle of equality, these differences do not have to cause inequality; rather, such inequality is prohibited. Like gender, gender equality is also a new concept in development and has been defined differently by different organizations.

UNESCO defines gender equality as the equal valuing by society of the similarities and the differences of men and women, and the roles they play. It is based on women and men being full partners in their home, their community and their society. Gender equality underpins equal opportunity, equal treatment, equal support and cooperation and equal investment and equal achievement for the equal development of men and women - all sorts of discriminations against women are removed.

The search for what equality actually means for women and men will never stop. Over the past six decades since the establishment of the United Nations different layers of meaning surrounding an idea of gender equality, a value endorsed in the UN Charter, have been uncovered. Gender equality in education as critical for elimination of other forms of gender inequalities was acknowledged internationally.

However, most feminists view education as an integral part of the patriarchal system within which women take a subordinate position. For UNGEI, education systems are both a result of external forces and instrumental to perpetuating or alleviating gender disparity around the world. Though increasing attention has been given to the importance of achieving gender equality in education internationally, to date, most efforts have focused on addressing gender parity — an equal number or proportion of girls and boys accessing educational opportunities, while gender equality encompasses a wider concept, which requires to ensure the same levels of experience of quality and outcomes of education to girls and boys UNGEI, , p.

In education sector, gender was not addressed initially. Economic growth for national development was the main driver for the expansion of education systems from the s through to the late s. Each of these is discussed briefly below. It called upon governments, the international community and civil society, including non -governmental organizations and the private sector to implement gender mainstreaming in all critical areas of concern.

Education is one of the critical areas United Nations, The BPFA states that education is a human right and an essential tool for achieving the goals of equality, development and peace. It outlined six strategic objectives. Its strategic objective B1 refers to eliminating gender disparities in access to all levels of education including tertiary education by ensuring women equal access to career development, training, scholarships and fellowships, and by adopting positive action when appropriate.

Similarly, its strategic objective B4 calls for developing non-discriminatory education by developing curricula, textbooks and teaching aids free of gender-based stereotypes for all levels of education including teacher training. It argues that non-discriminatory education benefits both girls and boys, which ultimately contributes to more equal relationships between women and men.

The MDGs were set in the summit held in September, At the regional and national levels, however, gender disparities persist. The global development agenda should seek not only to address and monitor the elimination of specific gender gaps, but also to transform the structural factors that underpin the widespread persistence of gender inequalities, gender-based violence, discrimination and unequal development progress between women and men, girls and boys.

UN, , as cited in Eamer, et al. However, in order to ensure universalization of compulsory quality primary education, more concrete and focused interventions are required. Two goals of EFA are distinguished as gender parity goals [achieving equal participation of girls and boys in all forms of education based on their proportion in the relevant age-groups in the population] and gender equality goals [ensuring educational equality between boys and girls].

She emphasized that gender equality is a stated goal of the EFA agenda for Attention needs to focus on the next goal — gender equality. Making that shift [to gender equality] requires getting a better grasp of what is meant by gender equality … and how institutions and systems can be strengthened to ensure that they uphold standards of gender equality that facilitate and stimulate social change processes Subrahmanian, , p.

She urges to understand gender equality in education as the right to education [access and participation], as well as rights within education [gender-aware educational environments, processes, and outcomes], and rights through education [meaningful education outcomes that link education equality with wider processes of gender justice]. She recommends following the pathways to equality which is shown below in figure 1.

The pathway to equality focuses on agency and autonomy of people in enjoying their freedoms for achieving gender equality in education along with the equality of treatment and equality of opportunity. She states that for achieving substantive de facto equality, mechanisms for ensuring equality of treatment as well as equality of opportunity for men and women are important. Achievements in these equalities in turn rest on a commitment to non- discrimination. Non-discrimination is imperative to ensure the erasure of social norms that construct women and men as unequal in value in terms of their contributions and entitlements, to ensure that all social actors are committed to eliminating stereotypes and attitudes that reinforce and perpetuate inequalities in the distribution of resources between women and men, and to ensure availability of fundamental freedoms and choices equally to women and to men.

Achieving gender parity formal equality is just one step towards gender equality in and through education. The world atlas of gender equality in education states that achieving parity is not achieving equality; it is only a step UNESCO, , p. It further states that the concept of gender equality in education demonstrates and make thorough analysis of equal opportunity in education without discrimination, equal treatment by teachers in the classroom, equal participation in quality education, equitable learning outcomes, curricula and textbooks are free from gender bias, and all sorts of discriminations against girls are removed, and ensuring equal opportunity and career path for equal work.

In addition, adult literacy and skill training for women in home science were also included in the plan. The Seventh Plan has made special arrangements such as scholarships and hostel facilities to girls for increasing girls' access to education in remote areas. The Ninth Plan was the first plan that took gender mainstreaming, women's empowerment and gender equality as its main working policies and touched upon the rights-based approach for the first time in compliance with the Beijing Platform of Action BPFA.

In education sector, it aimed for gender equality by expanding opportunities to women. The Tenth Plan , which had the overarching national goal of poverty reduction regarded education as one of the major means to achieve this goal. The Eleventh Plan Three Years Interim Plan, emphasized social integration and inclusive development as the basis for economic and social transformation of the country.

Provisions such as allocation of separate gender budget, inclusive and equitable education for all, and income generating and life-skill based non-formal education, etc were mentioned CERID, After the advent of democracy in there have been sustained efforts to develop a national system of education for making education available for the masses.

The National Education Commission NEC, , which was the first Education Commission after the political change in had emphasized the inclusive approach to mainstreaming those who lagged behind disabled, poor, deprived, geographically disadvantaged including women. The Commission identified caste and gender disparities in education. It had suggested special provisions for women, physically and mentally disabled people and economically and socially disadvantaged communities.

Its purpose is to improve efficiency in education, aiming at EFA and MDG goals to reach parity in gender and inclusion, and ensure equitable access to quality education through a holistic school sector approach MOE, Moreover, it sets forth the right to equality Article 13 , and gender equality Article 20 : no discrimination in any way on the basis of gender.

The constitutional provisions and the decision to secure candidates proportionately from social and regional groups for the Constitution Assembly CA election in have greatly increased the participation of women in the political field. The Education Act eighth amendment bill submitted to the President on August 27, to promulgate through an ordinance has provisions for a more engendered law securing 33 to 50 per cent seats for women in management committees ranging from school level to policy making UNGEI, , p.

In fact, several provisions of acts and regulations provide for affirmative action in favour of women, e. Mainstreaming Gender Equality in Education in Nepal Gender mainstreaming as the key tool to bring about gender equality was brought into focus in Nepal after the Fourth World Conference of Women in In keeping with the international commitment of EFA, the MOE adopted several measures for gender mainstreaming in the school education since the Ninth Plan.

As the ninth plan adopted gender approach and focused on gender mainstreaming as a policy and strategy to achieve equality, the concept of gender budget was introduced in Nepal. Two major gender audits were conducted in education. The gender audit asserted candidly that even after several years of EFA implementation, attitude towards girls of the society, parents and girls themselves have not changed.

The audit recommended for developing Gender Mainstreaming Strategy. The plan envisioned achieving gender equality in education by by providing quality education. The audit considered it a major institutional weakness with regard to gender equality efforts , p. But only few of such trainees have got jobs as there is no statutory provision to make schools hire them, though there is a mandatory requirement of female teachers at the primary and secondary levels.

According to the Flash Report , in community schools, women comprise Moreover, there are still thousands of community schools without a single female teacher , p. A very narrow gender gap 1. However, discrimination against girls still persists which is evidenced by parents sending girls to community schools Public and boys to institutional Private schools Table 3.

The pass percentage from the institutional school in SLC was 86 while only 46 from community schools. In this year, There is a dearth of literature in this field. They misconceived boys as being better than girls in almost everything. Majority believed further that such differences were biological and not nurtured.

Teachers perceive that girls have a slower speed in the learning of science than boys or girls learn science differently from boys because they are different from boys. The study claims that even the suggestions given were gender stereotyping. The study has raised a great concern as they found gender discriminations are practised by almost everyone in the society, including the educated professionals and non-professionals, the lumpen, the old and the young and in the eyes of mothers and fathers.

One major remedy to the misconceptions on gender differences between girls and boys or men and women, the study proposed was The effects should however not be treated in a unidirectional way. This is because gender perceptions have greatly influenced the public especially boys or men's behaviour towards girls or women which has penetrated in many places in Tanzania, i.

Should they become "gender-conscious" before they communicate anything to the public? Another finding of the study was that male teachers saw gender equality as a threat to male hegemony and supremacy as dictated by their culture and tradition. They covertly reinforced the gender stereotypes and biases prevalent in their society p.

The researcher concluded that gender equality remains an illusion rather than a reality in primary schools in Botswana. It has carried out research in Gender Equality and Gender Friendly Environment in Schools , to find out the various determinants which make girls and female teachers friendly environment in schools. In Nepal, very limited literatures are available both in research in gender and in teacher training on gender. This fact is found by SSRP gender audit.

To teach gender responsively, teachers need to be taught gender responsively. McElroy et al. Enabling teachers to teach gender responsively is one of the best strategies in achieving gender equality not only in education but in all aspect of life as teachers are the major executors of the teaching and learning processes. It is recognized that teachers are very central to any transformation in the school system.

Students spend most of the time with teachers in school. Teacher can contribute to gender equality rather than sustaining inequalities Subrahmanian, In doing so, teachers need to be awakened; as they are also the product of the same patriarchal culture likes others. It defines gender responsive pedagogy as, Teaching and learning processes which pay attention to the specific learning needs of girls and boys aim at redressing gender inequality and eliminating all kinds of discrimination against any gender.

Gender responsive pedagogy, calls for teachers to embrace an all encompassing gender approach in the processes of lesson planning, teaching, classroom management and performance evaluation Mlama et al. Training for teachers who are the subjects of gender equality education is essential in order to actualize gender equality education more effectively at school sites.

A model gender equality training program was developed in order to enable teachers to enhance gender equality consciousness and to implement gender equality education. This programme was developed in order to enable teachers to enhance gender equality consciousness and to implement gender equality education. The training program imparts skills on self reflection and focus on gender equality culture in the family and in school.

When it comes to Nepal, a very little work has been done in making teacher training courses gender responsive. In this context, how could we expect gender responsive teaching for achieving gender equality in education without equipping teachers with required knowledge, skills and attitude?

Conceptual Framework The conceptual framework of my study is shown in Figure 2. New concepts GEE and GRP emerged as results of the study owing to dwell further for the transformation of present inequalities into the state of gender equality in education. The framework is in page Different approaches to education and equalities, and the role and aspiration of the international commitments of BPFA, EFA, and MDGs in addressing gender inequality in education were also discussed.

After all these conceptual discussions, I then turn to Nepal and depicted the status of gender equality in education in Nepal. Under the philosophical stance, I explained ontology, epistemology, research strategy, research method, and research tools. Similarly, under the procedural stance, I explained the method of sampling sites and participants, data collection procedures, data analysis and interpretation, data validation procedures, and ethical considerations.

Creswell contends that a qualitative inquiry employs different knowledge claims, strategies of inquiry and methods of data collection and analysis from those used in a quantitative investigation. They are: 1. Alternative knowledge claims: What knowledge claims are made by the researcher? Strategy of inquiry: What strategy of inquiry will inform the procedures? Methods: What methods of data collection and analysis will be used? As shown in Figure 3, I inquired about gender equality in education as perceived and practiced by the school teachers from social constructivism standpoint.

My philosophical stance along with the procedure of my research is briefed further below. Guba and Lincoln talk about the need of researchers to make explicit both their ontological and epistemological assumptions before embarking on any research project.

In my research, ontology is multiple realities. Since, ontology is concerned with the form and nature of reality or society and is concerned with what is there that can be known, how they are and how they work, I probed the realities that constituted perspectives and practice on gender equality.

Epistemology is intimately related to ontology. As ontology involves the philosophy of reality, epistemology addresses how we come to know that reality Trochim, , as cited in Krauss, Constructivism views that human beings are born into a world of meaning bestowed upon us by our culture, which is constructed by human beings in and out of interaction with human community Crotty, , as cited in Creswell, , p.

In doing so, I applied qualitative research approach for my inquiry. Qualitative research is concerned with developing explanations of social phenomena. That is to say, it aims to help us to understand the world in which we live and why things are the way they are. I needed such an opportunity to explore the perceptions of the teachers from different places, backgrounds, in public and private schools, and at different levels, on gender equality.

Besides, it allowed me to apply feminist perspectives to excavate causes of inequalities Andersan, et al. All these actions made it possible for me to reach the depth of reality to glean real, rich, thick and deep data. The collected data were analyzed from a cultural lens, i.

To glean real, rich, thick and deep data from a post-structural feminist perspective, I used in-depth interviews and observation. I held in-depth interviews with all participants to gather the information required for my study.

Different people have different views about in-depth interview technique. According to Mack et al. Conducting in-depth interviews is technically challenging. Thus, I developed some guiding questions focusing on the subject of inquiry, which helped me to remain focused on the subject of inquiry and to staying on the topic during interview. I conducted a pilot interview with two teachers of Srikhandapur Primary Schools before finalizing the interview guidelines Mack, et al.

I used a mobile phone to record the interviews with some teachers who consented. This helped me in capturing every detail including laughter and nods. The interviews which were not tape-recorded were noted contemporaneously and expanded as necessary on the same day after the interview while the information, images, context were still fresh in my mind. In addition to documenting what research participants said, moods or attitudes; the general environment; and other information that was relevant was also noted.

During some of the interview sessions, though not video recorded, some snaps were taken using a digital camera. Observation is basically gaining firsthand experience, which permits to move beyond the selective perceptions of others UNESCO, , p. Observations not only give us important information, they also help our informants such as teachers to see how their actual behaviors are different from their perceived behaviors.

Two common types of observations used in research are participant and non- participant. In the non-participant observation, researcher observes and records behaviours but does not interact or participate in the setting, while in participant observation the researcher is involved in the situation while collecting data. What people say they believe and say that they do are often contradicted by their behavior. A large body of scientific literature documents that this disparity exists, and we can all likely summon examples from our own lives.

Given the frequency of this very human inconsistency, observation can be a powerful check against what people report about themselves during interviews , p. So far as the process of conducting observation is concerned, Angrosino and De Perez , p.

I followed all the three processes during my inquiry period. At the outset, I did descriptive observation of the ancient town of Srikhandapur, and then schools within it. Finally, I observed classroom teaching and school activities. I reviewed literatures. The literatures consists of review on gender, theories of gender inequality, approaches to equality, gender equality in education and its approaches, education for all, policies and practices for gender equality in education in Nepal.

I reviewed journal articles, books, electronic materials, research study reports and various publications by various organizations. Study Site and Participants of the Study I selected research site and participants by applying a purposive sampling method to investigate fully on the subject of inquiry and to get information-rich cases that are required for in —depth study Patton, I identified research participants by studying their profiles, which I collected from schools.

My approach confirms what Murphy says. I approached both male and female teachers belonging to different age groups and of different ethnic composition, that I believed as more articulating in responding to my queries and to be good sources of information. I followed the recommendation of Lincoln and Guba , p.

In total, I interviewed ten male and ten female teachers from three schools of Srikhandapur in a natural setting. Data Collection Procedures Data collection procedures included setting the boundaries for the study, collecting information through observation, interview, documents and visual materials, as well as establishing the protocol for recording information Creswel, , p.

I collected data from different sources. The primary data from my research participants were collected through in-depth interviews and observation. The secondary data were collected through the study of documents from different sources such as websites, books, journals, and reports. I collected information about the site first from two resource people of Srikhandapur before I started collecting the primary data.

The first was Mr. Purna Bahadur Karmacharya, ex —chairman, ward nine, Dhulikhel municipality. Another informant was Mr. Hirakaji Shrestha, social worker and native businessman. He was an inhabitant of ward eight, Dhulikhel municipality. After I gathered information from these two people about the town and its schools mentioned above , I paid visit to Srikandapur Primary School with Mr.

Hirakaji Shrestha, and met Head Teacher. I introduced myself and shared the purpose of my visit and requested his consent and support for collecting data for my study through interviews and class observations. The head teacher consented right away. On the following day, I got a briefing from the head teacher about the school and had a tour to familiarize myself with the school, students and teachers. This opened the door for rapport building with teachers and students.

I requested to have a quick morning meeting with all to introduce myself and my study purpose and to get informed consent for interviews and class observations. After I collected the data, on my request, the head teacher called a meeting of teachers, where I shared the major findings and asked them to check accuracy of my data and give comments.

Purna Bahadur Karmacharya and met acting head teacher. I introduced myself as a student of KU and shared my subject of study and requested his support and consent for collecting the data. As in Srikandapur Primary School, I requested information about teachers and schools and the consent for interviews and class observations.

After getting brief account of the school, I requested for the permission to have in- depth interviews with teachers from the Director and Principal. Altogether, I interviewed twenty teaching staff 10 male and 10 female from these three schools, of them, five taught only at the secondary level. As I mentioned earlier, I collected secondary data through document study and review of related literatures. The literature also presented in the study at the end to compare and contrast with the results that emerged from the study Creswell, , pp.

Cooper suggests integrative review of literature as cited in Creswell, , p. Thus, I followed Creswell and Cooper and present the review of literature as a separate chapter and also integrated wherever I felt the need. I used the conceptual framework of my research as the guiding map for this study.

Data Analysis and Interpretation As qualitative research by nature follows rigorous process-conceptualization, collection of data, analysis of data and interpretation of findings for knowing the subjective world of the people, qualitative data analysis is crucial in qualitative research. Quality of qualitative research depends on the quality of qualitative data analysis.

The process of data analysis involves making sense out of text and image data. It involves preparing the data for analysis, conducting different analysis, moving deeper and deeper into understanding the data, representing the data, and making an interpretation of the larger meaning of data Creswell, , p. Transcription involves writing down verbatim, photographing, copying. After the transcription of all data, I followed the second stage of analysis which is tidying up.

I catalogued the data school-wise and teacher-wise and then I did the data analysis by using an inductive content analysis method. I followed the inductive content analysis process: open coding, creating categories and abstraction. While analyzing the data, I analyzed manifested content and the latent content - noticed silence, sighs, laughter, posture, etc.

I added missing points in order to make sense of the collected data. As qualitative data analysis is a process of making sense of what is in the data, I proceeded step-by-step- coding, categorization, abstraction and then interpretation. Coding is a crucial stage in the process of doing content analysis.

Then I collected headings from the margins on to coding sheets Cole, , Downe-Wamboldt, , Dey, and generated categories Burnard, according to research questions. After coding, the lists of categories were grouped under higher order headings McCain ; Burnard, to reduce the number of categories by collapsing those that are similar. This has helped in reducing the data by avoiding the unnecessary data and to be more precise to the research questions of the study. Sub-categories with similar responses were grouped together as categories and categories were grouped as main categories.

Results are descriptions of what happened in a study and are critical steps leading to the end product-interpretations and implications for more research, intervention or action. A final step in data analysis is making an interpretation or meaning of the data, or going beyond results. Interpreting, or giving meaning to, data involves figuring out what the resulted data mean Creswell, , p. I argued why teachers are having such perceptions toward the concept of gender equality and why are they practicing in such a way.

I explained their implications in achieving gender equality in education. By doing so, I confirmed the need for more conceptual clarity amongst the teachers on gender equality so as to achieve gender equality in education. As said by Wolcott , as cited in Creswell, , p.

I drew the conclusion that without GEE and GRP to teachers, teachers will not perceive the contemporary concept of gender equality in its truest sense. Credibility refers to establishing that the findings of qualitative research are credible or believable.

To address credibility, I followed the prolonged engagement, triangulation, and peer examination. Prolonged engagement is the investment of sufficient time in the field with research participants to understand the culture and to build trustful relationship with research participants and organizations, which allows the researcher to check perspectives and allows the informants to become accustomed to the researcher Krefting, I met each of my research participants in person and briefed about the purpose of study and requested time for interview and class observation.

I spent ample time in each school and collected data until I reached a point of data saturation. I participated in all the activities that ran during school hours. Triangulation is another strategy that I used in ensuring credibility.

A number of types of triangulation exist. The most common is triangulation of data methods, in which data collected by various means are compared. A second type, triangulation of data sources, maximizes the range of data that might contribute to complete understanding of the concept Krefting, In this study I used both.

I did the triangulation of data collected from in-depth interviews and observations. Peer examination is a process of exposing oneself to a disinterested peer for the purpose of exploring fresh perspective Shenton, Lincoln and Guba suggested that this is one way of keeping the researcher honest, and the searching questions may contribute to deeper reflexive analysis by the researcher.

For this study, I enlisted the help of competent peer examiners Dr. Meena Poudel and Dr. Ram Bahadur Rana. Their help was sought throughout the process to get fresh perspectives. Transferability answers the question how findings can be applied to other contexts or other respondents.

Since the findings of a qualitative research are specific to a small number of particular environments and individuals, it is impossible to demonstrate that the findings and conclusions are applicable to other situations and populations. Thus, to address transferability, I collected sufficient data from in-depth interviews and observations until the data reached to the level of saturation.

Findings were drawn with precision. Besides, sufficient contextual information about the study sites, field milieu was provided to enable readers to make such a transfer. The exact methods of data gathering, analysis, and interpretation in qualitative research must be described. Such dense description of methods provides information as to how repeatable the study might be or how unique the situation Kielhofner, , as cited in Krefting, might be.

To address dependability, I used three strategies: dense description of research, triangulation, and peer examination. I described the research method in detail, which may enable a future researcher to repeat the work, triangulation and peer examination used for credibility serve the purpose of this criterion too. Guba , as cited in Krefting, viewed neutrality not as researcher objectivity but as data and interpretational confirmability and described the audit trail as the major technique for establishing confirmabiIity.

An audit trail describes in detail how data was collected, how categorizes were derived and how decision were made throughout the study. To ensure confirmability, I maintained an audit trail by developing and maintaining an efficient filing system of all raw data, analysis printouts and any other materials used for this study so that should the need arise, these could be availed for peer examination and for verification. I attempted deliberatively to maintain fairness to prevent marginalization, to act affirmatively with respect to inclusion.

Similarly for ontological authenticity- criteria for assessing a raised level of awareness among the research participants, debriefing meeting was organized where I shared observations and requested their comments. In the meeting, I shared some books related to gender for their information. Ethical Principles Sound research is a moral and ethical endeavour Halai, , p.

Therefore, first and foremost, the researcher has an obligation to respect the rights, needs, values and desire of the informants, though ethnographic research is obtrusive. In-depth interviews may revel sensitive personal information, thus, the ethics of the researcher is to protect the rights of participants by observing the ethical principles. Halai recommended five key ethical principles: 1 Informed and voluntary consent; 2 Confidentiality of information shared; 3 Anonymity of research participants; 4 Beneficence or no harm to participants; and 5 Reciprocity p.

I followed all five principles. I explained my research aims and processes and the expected roles of the participants in advance, and then only interviewed the teachers. I observed their classes only when they consented. Except in special cases, names of research participants and schools have been replaced with pseudonyms and transcribed number from 1to Teachers, both men and women, are a product of the gender construct of any society.

In Nepalese societies, teachers, like other people, are socialized in the family and in the society according to a patriarchal system resulting gender inequality perceptions. Most teachers, being product of this society may carry these perceptions if not awakened in this issue. Thus, their perceptions of gender equality were explored through in-depth interview. It is the physical feature of human reproduction which denotes whether a newborn is a son or a daughter.

This is the basis of human species. He added further that society prescribes dress, duties and different attributes based on this feature. When asked to describe their understanding about the term sex, all the teachers I interviewed gave similar responses but worded differently. The term tells about the physical features of women and men 4 teachers. The term indicates bodily features of boys and girls 4 teachers.

The term is used to tell the function of reproductive organs 3 teachers. The term symbolizes whether a new born is a baby boy or a baby girl 3 teachers. The term indicates whether a baby is a son or a daughter 6 teachers.

When an infant is born, one of the first things we do is look to see its sex. They said that they treat all equally barabar. They said that though these are two words, they have the same meaning. Both terms denote men and women, boys and girls having differences in physical features. When I asked to elaborate on the differences they said that men were, strong, tall, big, and rough, while women were soft, small, short and smooth. A slightly different understanding was shared by Pitam 7 , and Siju 5.

Buddha 3 a Nepali subject teacher referred to grammar. He said that there are three types of genders. They are masculine, feminine and neutral Stri-linga, purlinga and napuansak linga. All these three types include physical features as well as other features. So he thinks both terms denote men and women or boys and girls, old men and old women. For Dibya 19 , words do not matter much sabdako ke matlab. For her, what matters most is the equal treatment and non- discrimination of men and women.

They did not make distinctions between these two terms. Teachers like Dibya even did not feel the need to make a distinction between these two terms. I too observed their difficulties in explaining these terms. Feminists make distinctions between sex and gender to get away from the biological inferences of the word sex and to address the issue of gender equality.

The belief that gender divisions are normal and natural is still prevalent, though feminists have claimed that the content and meaning of the divisions and the social structure built on them were not natural but man-made, therefore can be changed. Feminists are not claiming that women and men are same or identical. They do agree that women and men are different but not unequal. The starting point for doing so is to make it clear that sex and gender are not synonymous.

As such, the subordination can be changed or ended. Translating the concept of gender equality in reality necessitates conceptually sound understanding of equality and its approaches to achieve it. But, my quest is to investigate how the concept has been understood and perceived by teachers as it is important to know their understanding for achieving gender equality in education. Gender Equality being such a universal concept, I had expected that almost all the respondents would answer in the positive line.

It turned out true. All said that they have heard the term. Then, teachers were asked to share their understanding about the term gender equality in the context of education in school. Different participants have responded differently, but I found commonality in their understanding.

Asking question to boys and girls equally. Giving attention to boys and girls equally. Giving opportunity to question to both boys and girls. Calling both genders to the front of the class and the assembly turn by turn. Giving the opportunity to participate in extra-curricular activities. Favor both equally kakha, pakha nagarne.

Seeking equal participation in activities. Letting boys and girls stand on equal footing. Having equal number of boys and girls in all activities. Providing education to boys and girls without any discrimination. A common response I received from teachers when asked about how they practiced gender equality in classrooms was that they treated all their students equally barabar.

However, perception towards me is not the same as to my husband. Society regards and respects him more. This is not fair. The feeling expressed by Raja was similar. In other words, it means treating women Mahila and men Purush equally barabar. Not to differentiate anyone whether a person is a boy or a girl and not to belittle either of them Pharak naparne, Nahepne.

It is still not understood properly and has not reached the family level, which is the base for developing feelings of equality and getting equal treatment. He further says that It is taken in words but not in deeds. That is why; we see more girls are sent in community schools.

More girls are drop-outs and irregular. For bringing gender equality in practice, there should be law to punish if not treated equally. The law should be enforced at all levels, particularly at the top so that equality in practice trickles down to the family.

If we ask people to treat everyone equally without practicing ourselves, people will not follow. The University Library UL holds a comprehensive collection of doctoral dissertations. They can be searched by title and author on iDiscover. Apollo holds full-text digital versions of many Cambridge Ph. This is a rapidly growing collection deposited by Cambridge Ph. You can search the thesis database via the EThOS website. A-Z Cambridge Libraries. Department of Sociology Information for current Undergraduates.

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MPhil Thesis Defense Presentation 2 - Yasmeen Aman

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Thesis submitted in partial fulfilment for the award an MPhil Degree at the University population, sample size, and methods of analyses. A Thesis Submitted for the Degree of MPhil However, due to the selective nature of their sample, their results are not easily. Teachers are regarded as role models who set good examples through their behavior- the words they speak and the actions they do in and outside school.