It also helps focus the reader on your central point. An effective thesis establishes a tone and a point of view for a given purpose and audience. Here are some important things to consider when constructing your thesis statement. The thesis is often located in the middle or at the end of the introduction, but considerations about audience, purpose, and tone should always guide your decision about its placement.
Innocent people murdered because of the hysteria of young girls! Many people believe that the young girls who accused citizens of Salem, Massachusetts of taking part in witchcraft were simply acting to punish their enemies. But recent evidence shows that the young girls may have been poisoned by a fungus called Ergot, which affects rye and wheat.
The general public needs to learn about this possible cause for the hysteria that occurred in Salem so that society can better understand what happened in the past, how this event may change present opinion, and how the future might be changed by learning this new information. The introduction usually starts by providing some background information to your particular topic, so the reader understands the key problem being addressed and why it is an issue worth writing about.
However, it is important that this is brief and that you only include information that is directly relevant to the topic. This might also be an appropriate place to introduce the reader to key terms and provide definitions, if required. Instead, make sure that your initial sentence relates directly to the problem, question or issue highlighted by the essay topic.
Setting the parameters of the essay is important. State your position on the topic also referred to as your main argument , or contention , or thesis statement. Make sure that you are directly answering the question and the whole essay question if there is more than one part! Provide an overview of how you are approaching the essay. Whether this ability is something a person is born with, or whether it is something that a person can learn, has been the subject of considerable debate.
Kambil has outlined two categories of leadership attributes that help to frame the discussion: 'traits' mostly innate and 'skills' which can be developed through experience or training. This essay will draw on the trait theory of leadership to argue that that leaders are first born, but then must be made.
A potential leader should develop their natural traits as well as learn and practise skills which will help them to persuade, equip and inspire others to realise their vision. Read the paragraph below and see if you can identify the key features of an introduction.
Vivado also consists of tools for the management and development of Intellectual Property IP blocks , simulation tools, and much more that I am still in the process of learning. Designs are developed in one of two modes supported by Vivado, that is, non-project and project modes.
Non-project mode runs primarily within a command line interpreter CLI that executes either Tools Command Language Tcl -- pronounced "tickle" commands or batch files containing Tcl commands. Within non-project mode, the entire process of development, synthesis, implementation, and configuration of hardware is primarily done in main memory and not from a project saved on disk. As a result, synthesis and similar tools are supposed to execute relatively faster compared to executing in project mode.
Please note some of the information on Vivado presented in this post I gained from simply using Vivado, but the majority of the information I am paraphrasing from sources provided by Xilinx. Figure 4. As shown in figure 4, the IDE's starting screen provides the option of creating either a new project or opening a saved project. The project described in this post is largely based on the "Zynq System" project found under "Open Example Project".
Select "Create New Project" to create a new project and open up the "New Project" window in which the new project's name, location on disk, and type are configured. Vivado offers 4 available project types, but the one corresponding to this post is the "RTL Project".
I chose the option to not specify any sources since I plan on creating all relevant sources within the IDE. The selection of the evaluation board is done in the "New Project" window's next page. Finally, a "New Project Summary" is presented and the project is created.
Figure 5. Project type and board selection. Once the block design has been named, the "Block Design" and Diagram windows should appear. During certain instances, towards the top of the Diagram window appears the "Design Assistance" where helpful hints to the design are provided see figure 6.
Figure 6. In order to configure the PS, first create a block design 1. There, design options from configuring the PS's peripheral interfaces to configuring how the PS interacts with the surrounding programmable logic PL are done. Please view figure 7 to see how both IP blocks are connected.
Figure 8 shows how the completed block design should appear. Figure 8. The highlighted area labeled 1. For now, the predefined port interfaces are selected and thus, invisible to the user, the IDE handles configuring the appropriate constraints for the rest of the design. The "Validate Design" button should be selected to ensure the block diagram is built, properly.
In the "Address Editor" window, which appear next to the tab of the "Diagram" window in the IDE, the addresses can be auto-assigned by the "Design Assistance". Figure 9. The unassigned addresses can be auto-assigned in the "Address Editor" 1. The highlighted menu appears by right-clicking in the "Address Editor" 2. The final step before synthesis is to create a "HDL Wrapper" to encapsulate the block design and act as the project's Top Module.
If the block design was properly developed, a HDL module should appear, written in the user's target hardware description language HDL and encapsulating the block design. Figure Clicking on the "Project Manager" button 1. The "Sources" tab 2. Here, the project's source files, constraints XDC , and simulation sources are found. Right-clicking the newly created design block 3. Finally, the "Generate Bitstream" button is selected to initiate synthesis, implementation, and bitstream generation in a single stroke.
As stated last in figure 10's description, the "Generate Bitstream" button finally begins the compilation of the design. If there are any errors revealed during compilation, review the "Zynq System" example found under the Vivado's example folder. Recall, the examples folder can be found on the IDE's welcome screen see figure 4. In the window's second page, a field is shown where the "name" of the device to which the ZC, or other Vivado-compatible devices, is connected. Internet Protocol, in this context Address for remote connection or "localhost" for the computer on which Vivado's IDE is currently running.
Steps to open up the "Open New Hardware Target" window. Nothing should be changed in the next few pages of the "Open New Hardware Target" window. After the finish button is selected, the connected devices should appear in the hardware window. Right-clicking the XCZ opens a menu where the option to select the bitstream i. The program is only downloaded to the Z's main memory, which is volatile. As such, the Z will need reprogramming if turned off.
The Software Development Kit. Loading kernels and debugging will be explored in later posts. Figure 13's description explains the steps required before the block design and bitstream can be exported to the SDK. In the future, the SDK can be opened without exporting the block design i. However, if any changes are made to the design, the block design and bitstream will have to be exported to the SDK, again. As an incredibly useful feature, the SDK automatically modifies its auto-generated libraries and drivers so that the software remains compatible with the hardware.
Make sure that you are directly answering the question and the whole essay question if there is more than one part! Provide an overview of how you are approaching the essay. Whether this ability is something a person is born with, or whether it is something that a person can learn, has been the subject of considerable debate.
Kambil has outlined two categories of leadership attributes that help to frame the discussion: 'traits' mostly innate and 'skills' which can be developed through experience or training. This essay will draw on the trait theory of leadership to argue that that leaders are first born, but then must be made. A potential leader should develop their natural traits as well as learn and practise skills which will help them to persuade, equip and inspire others to realise their vision.
Read the paragraph below and see if you can identify the key features of an introduction. This is an introduction written in response to the essay question: 'Can Rome's actions towards Carthage be described as defensive imperialism? Skip to content Skip to navigation. Plagiarism, collusion and contract cheating Putting academic integrity into practice Reference list Further resources Citing and referencing About citing and referencing What and when to cite and reference How to cite and reference Test your understanding Reference list Guide to referencing styles.
Key elements of an introduction Click on each of the elements to reveal more. Provide some background information and context The introduction usually starts by providing some background information to your particular topic, so the reader understands the key problem being addressed and why it is an issue worth writing about. Activity Read the paragraph below and see if you can identify the key features of an introduction.
At the same time, a lot of other projects build new operating systems with some novel characteristics, but most of these operating systems are written in C or a similar language. Not much effort has been done to fully deploy advanced language features to build a good operating system. There are many reasons for functional languages are less popular than imperative languages [ 24 ].
One of the most important reasons is that functional programming researchers place far more emphasis on construction of optimizing compilers than on applying the language for practical usage. In spite of this, there are quite few real world applications developed in functional languages [ 31 ]. We describe one more application built using an advanced functional language. Because functional languages have been thought too inefficient, they have not been used widely in systems programming, though they have many good features for system software.
From what we have done, we think operating system software written in advanced functional languages such as SML can achieve comparable performance to software written in C. In this chapter, we will explain the objectives of this project and give a brief introduction to SML, which is the language we choose to implement the system. As part of this project, the author has implemented a simple operating system to study the interaction between this advanced programming language and systems programming.
The result of this project is a test-bed for measuring and comparing the functionality and performance of an operating system in an advanced language with traditional operating systems such as UNIX. Easy to code Standard ML supports automatic garbage collection, higher-order functions, and first-class continuations.
All these features are very good for building systems software: I. Garbage collection The process of reclaiming memory not used by the program is called garbage collection. Garbage collection can free programmers from controlling the dynamic allocation and deallocation of memory, so programmers need not remember to free the unused memory and there will be no danger of freeing memory that is still in use.
Higher-order functions Higher-order functions means functions are created at runtime and can be passed as parameters, returned as results, and defined in a data structure, that is, functions are first-class values in ML. Higher-order functions provide more flexibility compared to first order functions. In ML, functions can be nested, be called recursively, and be created at run time.
Run-time creation is possible is because ML uses closures to represent the function. A closure is a record that contains the machine-code pointer and a way to access any required nonlocal variables [ 4 ]. This is different from C, in which the function is simply represented as the address of the machine code.
This is a type also supported by Scheme, in which the dynamic calling context of a function can be abstracted as another function [ 2 ]. In ML, continuations are first-class values, the same as functions. By using continuations, writing a thread scheduler is very easy and efficient without having to code in assembly language. Easy to debug ML is a strongly typed language, that is, all the type errors can be detected at compile time and no implicit type conversion will occur if a mismatch happens during type checking.
With automatic garbage collection and a strong type system, Standard ML is a safe language, which means "programs cannot corrupt the runtime system so that further execution of the program is not faithful to the language semantics" [ 2 ] Runtime errors, and especially errors that lead to execution that is not faithful to the semantics of the language e.
Easy to maintain ML supports polymorphic types and has an advanced module system. These features provide flexibility in the function interface definition and make programs easier to maintain, since the compiler can perform many checks for mis-matched definition and use without restricting code re-use. In general, ML programs are more reliable, portable and reusable than C programs. Easy to understand SML is a functional language but not a pure functional language.
As a functional language, its values are immutable, which makes the program much easier to trace and understand. SML also has mutable objects, so when necessary, variables can be both read and written. With these two properties, SML can be a practical programming language for real-world projects.
Ullman [ 23 ] and the paper by Andrew W. Appel [ 2 ]. It includes the garbage collector, an interface for operating system calls, a mechanism for handling asynchronous events and exceptions, and language primitives implemented in assembly language [ 1 ]. Interrupts Interrupts are a common mechanism in operating systems to make the CPU stop processing its current task and begin to respond to asynchronous events such as hardware signals and software traps.
The CPU normally returns to process the interrupted job after processing the asynchronous events. Interrupts make the CPU work more efficiently. There is no need to poll devices to check whether some action is needed. The operating system has different interrupt handlers for the different interrupts, and these interrupt handlers are installed at system boot time.
At a fixed location in memory there is an interrupt vector, which is used to record the entry addresses of the handler programs. For example, on the x86 the interrupt vector occupies the 16 4-byte words starting at address 0x20 32 in decimal. In general, different devices correspond to different interrupt numbers. This number is called an IRQ number. When an interrupt happens, some registers in the machine will be set automatically to the IRQ number. By reading from those registers the CPU will know which interrupt happened and will jump to the handler program for that interrupt.
Device drivers A device driver is a program used to control the device. A device driver must initialize and configure the device and must control the device registers. Basically, the functions provided by the driver program should include: the device initialization function the device open function the device close function the interrupt handler for the device the read function to get data from the device if it is a readable device the write function to send data to the device if it is a writable device Most devices are both readable and writable, but some devices can only be read or written to.
For example, on a PC the console can only be written to and the keyboard can only be read from. Device drivers may also contain configuration functions and other special functions which depend on the different functionalities of devices. The device will interrupt the CPU only when it needs attention from the CPU: for example when the device finishes its task or something abnormal has happened in the device.
Normally there are three kinds of registers for each device: the command register, the status register and the data register. By writing to the device command register, the CPU can control and configure the device. By reading from the device status register, the CPU will know what happens on the device. The CPU and the device exchange data by reading from or writing to the device data register.
The driver initialization program should allocate memory for all the device registers at system boot time. There are many books about operating system concepts. The best way to really understand operating systems is to study the source code of an existing system or to build an operating system. Linux and XINU [ 10 ] are two good examples to study.
Both are open source and can be downloaded freely from the Internet. The Hello project is the first project to implement an operating system in Standard ML that runs on a bare machine. These first-hand experiences may give some insight for further research on system software and language design.
Among the concepts that our implementation explores are: handling interrupt events with a language that has automatic garbage collecting and is heap-allocated. This basic idea has been fully explained before [ 9 ], so we won't present much of this idea in the thesis. The difference between our implementation and the example stated in the paper is that we use a preemptive scheduler, while they use a cooperative scheduler.
The second contribution is we demonstrate that SML is a suitable language for the operating system implementations. We believe other advanced languages with optimizing compilers can also be languages for system programming, but the lack of an advanced module system for some languages will make it hard to maintain good structure.
As part of the implementation of the Hello system, we provide a way to integrate an SML heap image and its runtime system into the operating system kernel space and load it as a booting image when the system starts up. This integration method should be interesting to other non-ML researchers as well.
This thesis is documentation for the Hello operating system. We present the signatures of all the implemented modules in chapter 3 with a detailed explanation. It gives a good start point to study the Hello system. We hope that by making the source code available to the public, other people will be motivated to join in this project, which will make the software useful to a larger number of people [ 33 ].
Chapter 2 presents the design of this project. Chapter 3 describes the implementation. Chapter 4 contains a summary of other work that is related to this project. Chapter 5 gives an evaluation of this work. Chapter 6 discusses future work to be done on this project and gives some conclusions we have drawn. Since we use the Linux boot loader LILO to load our system and have built the system by modifying the Linux kernel, our system partly depends on Linux code such as the system start up and memory management.
There are at least two ways to do this. One is to load the SML heap image produced by the compiler as the data into the runtime system, and have the Linux start up function call the runtime system main function. The Hello system is implemented by using the first method, since it is simpler. But this is good enough for a small kernel. Right now, the kernel image size of the Hello system is K bytes.
There are two assembly functions in the runtime system for transferring control: restoreregs transfers the control from the runtime system to SML; saveregs transfers control from SML to the runtime system. In RunML, control is explicitly transferred to the suspended ML thread after the garbage collection or other runtime calls have finished.
There are two cases in which control is transferred from the ML co-routine to the runtime. One is any calls to the runtime system functions in the ML code. The other one is when compiler-generated code at the beginning of each ML function detects that insufficient memory is available and that garbage collection is needed. The communication between these two co-routines totally depends on the registers, including three special-purpose registers and several machine dependent root registers [ 21 ].
These registers are described in the next section. The continuations and the generated code are heap allocated, so the major problem with handing asynchronous signals is to avoid corrupting the heap [ 21 ]. The heap is only synchronized at the beginning of functions, so suspending ML code and then at some point calling GC would lead to the garbage collector mis-interpreting the values in the heap.
Handling interrupts in SML has the same problem. If the comparison shows the free space is less than what the function needs, control goes to the runtime for garbage collection. One of the registers which are visible to both co-routines is the limit pointer, which is the upper limit of the allocation space. Another register visible to both co-routines is the free memory pointer. The memory space between the free memory pointer and the limit pointer is the free memory. If the size of the free memory is less than the memory allocation requirement, a garbage collection trap will happen, and control will transfer from ML to the runtime at this point.
The runtime system provides a mechanism to handle the asynchronous signal. When a signal comes, the runtime system does not really process it but instead sets the limit pointer register to show there is no free space. At the next check there will be no free memory, so a GC trap happens and control will transfer from the ML co-routine to the runtime co-routine. The runtime routine will see that this is not a true GC trap, so it will transfer control back to another ML co-routine to handle the signal.
We use this signal mechanism to handle interrupts in the Hello system. We have added some functions in the runtime system to handle interrupts. A C interrupt handler is installed at boot time and device initialization time. The handler is the same for all the entries of the interrupt vector.
When an interrupt happens, the CPU executes the instructions in our C interrupt handler , which do the following: disable interrupts get the interrupt number IRQ number from the memory at address 0x21 and 0xA1. After the C interrupt handler completes, the interrupted code continues to run.
If the interrupted code was generated by the ML compiler, a GC trap happens within a finite time, so control transfers back to the runtime system. From there the ML signal dispatcher is resumed. The ML signal dispatcher calls our ML interrupt dispatcher. Our ML interrupt dispatcher gets the first IRQ number from the pending interrupt queue, and calls the interrupt handler corresponding to the IRQ number. Our ML interrupt dispatcher loops until all interrupts have been processed and removed from the pending queue.
Signatures are an important mechanism in the module system of SML. Home Thesis. The creation of hardware systems for professional artistic productions Public Deposited. You do not have access to any existing collections. You may create a new collection. This dissertation examines the challenges of creating digital musical instruments DMIs and other hardware and software systems that are intended for use in professional artistic productions. While the design of any DMI is not a trivial task, moving new instruments to the professional concert stage presents an additional set of challenges that encompass issues of technical design, use in artistic practice, manufacturing, and long-term usability.
Although DMI designers often describe these challenges in accounts of their practice, existing overviews of the DMI design process primarily remain focused on issues of device functionality.
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