Some are surprising neuroscience, rhetoric , many are interdisciplinary American cultural studies, environmental studies , many are also offered as minors. The Bates curriculum offers many options. You can design your own major. You can also minor in the following:.
Our academic calendar is divided into two traditional semesters and one Short Term in late April and May. In Short Term, students take only one course, on a compressed schedule; they can also take internships or conduct fieldwork; a number of Short Term courses are conducted off campus. The result is a focused investigation of a single topic.
A few recent Short Term courses:. Recent examples:. Meals or coffee might be involved. Richly detailed letters of recommendation will almost certainly be involved. These are bright, accomplished, high-profile people whose priority is you. About 60 percent of our students study abroad. We offer access to programs in more than 80 countries, many of which are off the standard track Cameroon, Chile, Cuba, In dia, Nepal.
Our faculty also develop and lead rigorous, cross-disciplinary Fall Semester Abroad trips. Since no two essays are the same, no single formula will automatically generate an introduction and conclusion for you. But the following guidelines will help you to construct a suitable beginning and end for your essay. The following strategies may help you move beyond merely summarizing the key points of your essay:.
Most of the advice in this handout pertains to argumentative or exploratory academic essays. Be aware, however, that different genres have their own special expectations about beginnings and endings. Some academic genres may not even require an introduction or conclusion. An annotated bibliography, for example, typically provides neither.
Body language help teachers to reflect positive energy, in order to keep learners engaged, motivated, and enhance their understanding. Teachers who stand in front of classes without movement or excitement in their actions will create a boring atmosphere which affects the learning process.
Having a good body language while presenting the lesson include making eye contact with learners, talking with enthusiasm, explaining with gestures, and moving around the classroom. Teachers have to be confident and let their learners know that they know what they are talking about through their body language.
Therefore, they need to present the lesson with both body and words. Similarly, teachers who demonstrate positive body language had more active, motivated, and engaged learners. According to the behaviorist approach, body language plays a great role in memorizing different words and foreign language expressions or phrases. Hoge presented a series of videos and books that connect different EFL new words with body actions gestures, facial expressions, movements that represent their meaning.
The EFL learner needs to think about movement connected to the meaning. Like a face represent hate, because the movement of the body shows the meaning of the word or phrase. Hoge mentioned that body language and the meaning are connected to the mind so the EFL learners can explore their body language to memorize foreign language subconsciously, more deeply, automatically, and with high energy and with physical experience.
Motivation is the condition ofbeing inspired to act or work with energy Cambridge Dictionary. In the classroom, motivation leads to increases the amount of effort and energy which is the key to achieving academic success.
Learners are most likely to show the beneficial effects of motivation when they are engaged with the teacher performance, it is the responsibility of the teacher to keep the classroom active during the explanation, through the use of verbal and non-verbal communication. According to Ford , the positive body language can create motivation atmosphere in the classroom.
Whereas negative body language can create a lazy atmosphere which leads to learners demotivation, like using anger face in the process of teaching. To conclude, this chapter gives a clear idea about the implementation of positive body language in teaching. For that reason, teachers need to be aware of the positive and the negative features of their body language. FactorsAffectMotivation 5. MotivationalConditions 6. Motivation plays a significant role in the learning process. Teachers have the capability of making learning empowering, thus allowing the energy of the classroom.
The purpose of this chapter is to understand the importance of motivation within the classroom as part of the process of developing lifelong learners and to develop effective teaching. Learning a foreign language is different from learning other subjects. Williams argued that learning a foreign language involves far more than simply teaching skills or a system of rules or a grammar. The lack of motivation is observed in low attendance, participation, and performance.
Motivation has been differently defined from various perspectives of psychology, sociology, and linguistics. Some psychologists defined motivation in terms of certain needs. In this sense, teachers need to apply motivation strategies to make foreign language class more vividly and active. According to Rebecca teachers around the world find that learners who are motivated learn more and faster than others. For this reason, teachers need to try to find ways to make their learners motivated to learn the target language.
The learning process is also influenced by a number of intrinsic and extrinsic motives. For example according to Leong , in extrinsic motives, courses are related to the syllabus, the teaching materials, the teaching method and learning tasks. Consequently, in the classroom, educators should be aware of the importance and the need of motivation in the classroom.
Extrinsic motivation refers to accomplish an activity in order to get a special outcome and it is the opposite of intrinsic motivation. It is that motivation that comes from the outside influences of the individual. Extrinsic rewards can be used to motivate people to acquire new skills or knowledge.
Once these early skills have been learned, people may then become more intrinsically motivated to pursue the activity. For example, extrinsic motivation can be used to get people to complete a work task or school assignment in which they have no internal interest.
Without motivation, learners had no inspiration to learn, and they would not get that deep breath that pushes them toward accomplishing their learning process. It is the key when it comes to getting learners to take long terms process and it dependents upon external factors and outcomes. For example, thejoy that comes with the accomplishment of goals can motivate learners to continually wish to succeed in all aspects of their life.
Intrinsic motivation can be increased through engaging learning and teaching experiences. Teachers must develop and encourage classroom motivation, for example, thinking of and find ways to motivate learners to reach the lesson object. S Doing unique activities, creating situations where they can work in small groups, and creating a reward system. Teachers can show enthusiasm for teaching English by being committed and motivating themselves.
Consequently, it is assumed that the teacher instinctive motivation can be spread contagiously to their learners which create an atmosphere of the interaction between both. S Keller emphasized the need ofbuilding an atmosphere of curiosity around learning. In most studies, this involves the classroom as a stage in which the teacher engages learners in education and teaching.
The different types of learners can be motivated by different combinations of factors. For example, learners are motivated by teachers who show that they are concerned about their well being, that they have answers to their questions, that they can be mothers, fathers, and friends. According to Slavin if teachers hold a positive attitude towards the ability of all students, then all students are more likely to be motivated to learn and achieve.
Consequently, teacher beliefs strongly influence teaching process and, learner development. The body language of teachers plays an important role when they are teaching. It refers to the aspect ofhow the course is presenting in an enjoyable, interested, and motivated way. For example, if teachers vary the tone of their voices and use different body language according to the course object, and provide different active teaching methods, they might create interest and motivation among learners.
Some students seem naturally enthusiastic about learning, but many need their instructors to stimulate them. Kelly emphasized that effective learning in the classroom depends on the teacher's ability to maintain the interest and motivation that brought students to the course in the first place. Krashen claims that learners with high motivation and a low level of anxiety are better equipped for success in second language acquisition.
On the other hand, the positive effect is necessary, for motivation so that acquisition can take place. Motivation is an important factor that teachers can target in order to improve learning. According to. Consequently, Dornyei created motivational strategies in the language classroom.
These strategies can influence EFL learners. Teachers can maintain the basic motivational conditions, by following these strategies:. S To promote interaction, cooperation and the sharing information among the learners. Motivating students is one of the challenges that instructors face, teachers need to create motivation and protect the motivation environment in the classroom.
Dornyei stated a number of strategies that are suggested to generate student motivation; teachers can generate the initial motivation, by following these strategies:. S Draw attention from time to time to the class goals through different actions to attain learners.
S Present the tasks in a motivating way, so teacher motivation will prevail to learners and the entire classroom. S Provide appropriate strategies to carry out the task, so that learners stay engaged with teacher presentation. The motivational perspectives in FL combine the educational research with the psychology oflearning to investigate new the motivational dimensions. So that, teachers need to encourage motivation in the classroom, by following these strategies;.
S Encourage learners in their failures, by introducing the lack of the appropriate strategies that they applied, rather than by their insufficient abilities. Teachers need to build and maintain motivation in FL classrooms, by following different strategies, Reid stated different Tips for teachers, that are the keys to motivating learners, these tips are the following;.
S Use active activities Such as games, role-playing, English comer There are many activities that can be used to motivate and engage learners in the learning process. S Adopting an active teaching style, by Projecting enthusiasm and demonstrating the motivated behavior. The lack of enthusiasm and energy in the classroom can create lazy atmosphere or environment which impact directly on teaching and learning process. So that, teachers need to know how to deal with the lack of motivation in the classrooms, because motivation is one of the keys that will push learners to do more, and it can contribute to successful language learning.
Also, classroom motivation can enhance participation, and engage learners. Observation 3. Results and Discussions of the Classroom Observation 3. Questionnaire 3. The Description and Data Analysis of the Questionnaire 3. Results and Discussions 3. Recommendation 3. Limitation of the Study. The next step, it is necessary for data to be collected analyzed and discussed in order to draw the final conclusion.
This chapter is devoted to the findings of the research, some recommendations, and suggestions. It lasted six weeks, in which the researcher attends the first three weeks, with the teacher who uses positive body language than the other three weeks with the teacher who uses negative body language.
Therefore, the researcher was making comparative observation between the two classes. The observation was direct; the researcher has not used any recording or filming devices. In fact, they intend to entertain the learners to motivate them in the task oflearning, so they can achieve better in the process oflearning.
Teacher A explains the lesson or interacts with learners, maintaining eye contact with the individuals, learners were attentive and support to the teacher presentation, they feel the importance of the lesson when the teacher stress on the words and open his eyes much more. However, the Teacher B avoid the direct connection with learners; the teacher B focusjust on special group in the classroom and direct the view and the focus just in special part oflearners during the explanation, which makes the other part of the classroom felt bored and neglected, so they keep silent and they show their demotivation toward the teacher presentation.
In the same time, learners are observed courage to give their answers while the teacher used nodding to receive their answers. Learners get difficulties to understand difficult concepts because English is considering as a foreign language for learners. The teacher A explains the lesson using open postures which mean the use of gestures to give additional information about the topic. Consequently, they get motivated when they show that they want to know more about the lesson.
Whereas teacher Bjust cross the arms or put them in the pocket without exploits them in the explanation of the lesson, learners get difficulties with some word, so they get lost and they feel bored to follow the teacher performance. The action of thumbs up gave learners energy, power, as well as this action creates competition and motivation between learners which show their motivation through the highly participation.
Whereas the teacher B show no positive reaction when learners gave a correct answer, the teacherjust move to the other steps of the lesson without giving importance to praise the learner. Learners seem discarded, and they show a lack of interest, response, and disappointment to the teacher questions.
Learners have been showing that they are interested and motivated to the lesson, and they negotiate and ask questions which mean that they are motivated to know more about the subject. Most of the learners of the teacher A have responded positively. They have shared a sense of unity and sense ofbelongingness together. Learners have considered the classroom as a community where they are an integral part of it, they appreciate the use of positive body language as a pedagogical strategy, and they show they are motivated to learn through their satisfaction, participation, and interest.
An important point should be mentioned is that the teacher B gets less classroom interaction. In spite of different topics, and subjects that have been discussed in the session. This questionnaire is distributed to the second year learners at Ahmed Zaid Middle School ofBiskra, the researcher decided to choose two classes and give 20 questionnaires to each class, at the and the researcher receives 40 questionnaires which enrich the current study with useful and valuable data. This questionnaire is composed of one section which includes different questions; these questions are close-ended questions.
The section includes ten items or questions. Do you think that the way through which the teachers present the lesson can affect your motivation to learn more? From the results, this idea gained acceptance from the most of the participants. The graphic clarify the results and show that the majority oflearners It creates a healthy atmosphere where feel attentive and curious to know more about the lesson.
Moreover, teachers need to be characterized by some qualities like a smile, peaceful facial traits, and flexibility which are the major features of an effective teacher. Thus, the friendly and containment teacher helps learners feel more relaxed and more motivated, so they can participate in the classroom discussion without being fear to make mistakes.
Do you feel relaxed and motivated to give your answer, when the teacher follows your answer with eye contact and nodding until the end? Considering the results of the table, 36 of the learners prefer the teacher who uses eye contact and nodding to follow their answers at different lesson stages or in session, but 04 learners show the opposite. Based on the data from the table 32 oflearners feel bored when the teacher explain the lesson from the desk whereas, 08 oflearners showed the opposite.
The explanation of the lesson depends on some principles that should be followed. From the result, the teacher should not overuse the desk since the position of the teacher affected by learners feeling of motivation, and lesson effectiveness. Based on the results of the table, 32 oflearners show that they feel demotivate to participate when the teacher pays attention to special group or part in the classroom, whereas 08 learners show the opposite.
It means that communication can be more effective by the use of verbal and nonverbal communication. Do you feel motivated to work more inside the class if the teacher moves around the classroom to check your understanding and get your questions? Based on the results of the table, 38 learners showed that they feel motivated to work more inside the class if the teacher moves around the classroom to check their understanding and get their questions, whereas 02 learners showed the opposite.
Based on the results of the table 34 oflearners showed that they feel demotivated if the teacher shows no positive reaction during their correct answers, whereas 06 oflearners showed the opposite. Based on the results from the table 39 ofleamers showed that they feel motivated, when the teacher show thumbs up during their correct answers, whereasjust 01 learner showed the opposite.
Looking for references especially books was the main obstacle the researcher faced. Classroom observation needs a long period of time to watch thoroughly what is going on in the classroom and pay attention to the sudden changes that may take place.
Although the tone of voice and other aspects are one of the aspects ofbody language, but the time was not enough to cover these aspects. Questionnaire data analysis is presented through statistical tables and graphs showing percentages. Whereas the observation data analysis is presented through stating notes and comments, then the data analysis of each procedure is discussed. This chapter is ended by some recommendations and limitations of the study.
As a teaching tool, body language is an important part of communication. Anderson, S. Student Research. Ausubel, D. Educational Psychology: A Cognitive View. American Educational Research Journal. Bendura, A. Psychological Review,8 2. Berko, R. Body Language The Language ofEmotion. The Language of Emotion. Brophy, J. Teacher Behaviour and Student Learning lsted. Associationfor Supervision and Curriculum Development.
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Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press. Language learning motivation: Expanding the theoretical framework. The Modern Language Journal. Palmer, D. What is the best way to motivate students in science. Pease, A. Body Language How to read others' thoughts by their gestures 10th ed. Pintrich, P. Journal Of Educational Psychology. Raah, H. Reid, G. Motivating learners in the classroom 1st ed. London: Paul Chapman.
Rickheit, G. Handbook of communication competence. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. SheldonPress London. The Correct Standing Position Pease. Simonds, C. Communication for the Classroom Teacher 9th ed. University of South Carolina - Beaufort: Pearson. Slavin, R. Educational Psychology: Theory and Practice 8th ed. Tai, Y. Weiner, B. History ofMotivational Research in Education. The modern form of this ancient greeting ritual is the interlocking and shaking of the palms which, in most English-speaking countries, is performed both on initial greeting and on departure.
The choice of this theory is to analyse the cultural indication of the different hand expressions and gesture used among youths. The meaning of a particular nonverbal language in a culture might be different in another. This theory avers that for any analysis to be done on nonverbal communication or body language, the culture of the people must be put into consideration before any meaning will be attached.
A lot of gaps were seen and these gaps are what this research tends to fill. This research looks at the different body languages used by youths in Nigeria because much work has not been done on body language among youths in Nigeria. It looks at understanding the meaning of different nonverbal gestures used in communication.
The choice of this population is because of its homogeneity which the researcher believes will enhance reliability and viability of the study. The total number of students in the department is approximately and the researcher took a picture of fifteen students after observation has been made.
The choice of this method was used in order to gather information which could not be easily obtained if the researcher observes in a disinterested fashion. The time frame of the research and to eliminate subjective bias was what prompted the adoption of this method of data collection.
The data obtained will be analysed in this regard and the meaning attached to these body languages are done based on the culture and ideology of the selected population. It can literally mean well done or keep it up. This is represented by raising the thumb finger while the other four fingers will be in fist-like form. It shows support especially during presentation. It signals to the receiver that he is appreciated. The researcher also observes that youths and students also use this gesture when greeting at a relatively far distance.
This OK gesture is used mainly by males in greeting but sometimes, if a male is greeting a female, the female does not respond with the same gesture but by waving of hands. See fig. It is physically manifested by bending the three fingers in between the thumb and the last finger. The thumb and the last finger are spread and placed close to the ear. It can also mean call me back request.
Whenever a speaker puts across this gesture, the addressees know an emphasis or an important point is to be made. It is often used when trying to lay emphasis on a particular point. It was observed to be frequently used when student s address es a group. It is used when an important point or message is made.
It was also observed in the population of the study to mean little. When one wants to say that something is little, it is often used. This gesture is often embedded in the clause as little as it is…. It was observed that this gesture is used to represent the number, two 2. It literally means two. As observed, it is also used in the classroom to ask the question: do you have two pens? It normally symbolises the sentence: I will deal with you or you have learnt bad thing or I am warning you for the last time.
It is physically represented by pointing the index finger to the receiver while the other fingers form a fist. It was observed that this gesture is best realised and the meaning fully derived when the wrist is moved to and fro. When in close range, the two males shake each other which end with the snapping of the middle finger.
It was observed that this snapping of the middle finger is not frequently observed when persons from different sex are having a handshake. It was as well observed that some of the females do not give in their full palm during handshake especially when it involves having a handshake with an unfamiliar person. It was also observed that females do not always make use of handshake when greeting their fellow females, rather; they use hugging greeting method.
The quantity of palm given during handshake determines the level of intimacy of the two participants. Furthermore, this handshake gesture is used by males when welcoming another and when bidding farewell. Here, the different use of the eyes for communication will be discussed. It was also observed that this same eye language can be used among the male folks when they see a beautiful girl; they put up this gesture as symbol of admiration. It can literally mean do you mean it? It was further observed that whenever this expression is shown, the addressee prompts the addresser to give in more details to the discussion at hand.
Also this raising of the eyebrows can mean the expression I don t know when it is combined with the spreading of the palms and raising of the shoulders. The look on the face determines the intention of the mind. Here, some selected facial expressions will be analysed. The expression is often displayed as a way of showing mockery, jealously and disdain.
It is often physically represented by spreading of the lips, throwing of the nose and slight nodding of the head. This communicate to the passerby that the addresser does not like the addressee. The two lips are closed and raised up to the nostrils during the emission.
This signifies to the person around that the place the addresser is at that point in time has a filthy smell and disgusting. This face is normally expressed when a person is looking at an assignment that does not conform to the instructions. In this context, the message is fully passed with the shaking of the head. This was observed to mean regret, a missed target or a forgotten phenomenon.
A smiling face is normally expressed when the addresser is in a good mood. Here, the face is beamed with smiles as lips are spread or teeth showing out. The mode of dressing of a person has its communicative ability. Some people use language of seduction and dress to kill in order to attract the opposite sex.
Most often, the quantity of body one gives during hugging determines to an extent the level of relationship and intimacy. This section will bring to the fore some selected nonverbal communication performed through body language. Hugging as a means of greeting was observed to be used by the same sex and between the opposite sexes as well. The quantity of body given during hugging communicates to an extent the level of intimacy and relationship between the people involved.
Angle o hugging is the casual hugging which means low level of intimacy while angle o involves total giving and total receiving. This implies that the two people involved are close friends and share to an extent, high level of intimacy. One striking thing observed was that the two youths whose greeting pattern is through hugging tends to maintain this greeting pattern. This is physically represented by leaning the whole body on the wall with a pale look on the face.
If the person concerned is a male, he will put his two hands on the pocket but if it is a female, she places her joined hands below her stomach. This position communicates to anybody present that the addresser is not in a good condition which is as a result of stress, frustration, rejection etc. A total of fifteen 14 body languages were used with six of them involving the hands, two involving the eyes, four involving the face and two involving the whole body.
The research discovers that the V sign is used in the classroom setting to symbolize the questions: do you have two pens? It also discovers that the quantity of palm given during handshake and the quantity of body during hugging determines the level of intimacy of the participants. The research also discovers that some female students use the language of seduction to attract the male sex.
The research finds out youths tend to maintain their means of greeting to a period of time. This research drives to the fact that gestures and nonverbal expressions are culture based and meaning should be given based on the culture of the people. The research finds out that the hand shake gesture is a greeting pattern used frequently by males in the population under study.
This research has looked critically at the different body languages used by the population of the study and their meanings. The paper recommends that users of hand expressions and body language in general should endeavor to be careful in their use of gesture because actions, they say, speak louder than voice. Furthermore, gestures should not be translated to mean something without clear understanding of the context of use and the culture of the people.
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