However, caution is required in translating this research into local practice, given the different settings of the studies and the challenges in applying research including RCTs back into a community setting. With family-based interventions the need exists for good quality longitudinal studies that carefully assess child growth as well as parental control over infant feeding practices and activity levels. The preliminary results of an unpublished RCT on the effectiveness of a multi-component family-based intervention suggest significant improvements in moderately obese older children P.
Sacher, unpublished results. The findings from some studies suggest there are implications for the development of obesity in children and a correlation is evident between certain parental—child interactions and the relative weight and activity levels of the children.
Future research should investigate the types of food being encouraged or discouraged and the intensity of children's activity levels. If findings are replicated in different settings it may, for example, explain the equivocal literature on the influence of children's physical activity on weight. Overweight children may in fact engage in equal frequency of activity, but less intensely.
Child obesity will continue to be a problem without improved understanding of key factors likely to be operative during very early childhood and without identification of those where intervention would have the greatest effect. Greater effort is still required to establish an evidence-based approach to issues surrounding obesity in children. Google Scholar. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide.
Sign In or Create an Account. Sign In. Advanced Search. Search Menu. Skip Nav Destination Article Navigation. Close mobile search navigation Article Navigation. Volume Results and review of papers. Article Navigation. Preventing obesity in pre-school children: a literature review Karen L.
Saunders Karen L. Address correspondence to Karen L. Saunders, E-mail: karen. Oxford Academic. Cite Cite Karen L. Select Format Select format. Permissions Icon Permissions. Open in new tab Download slide. Table 1 Characteristics of included studies. Armstrong and Reilly 8 Cohort 32 children Breast-feeding Prevalence of obesity significantly lower in breast-fed children. Association persisted after adjustment for socio-economic status, birth weight and sex. Results suggest breast-feeding associated with reduction in childhood obesity risk.
The results suggest children fed only breast milk for first 6—8 weeks of life less likely to be obese than children fed only formula in same time frame. The researchers accounted for age, sex, birth weight and socio-economic status.
Researchers did not have information on other risk factors for obesity e. Physical activity Prevalence of obesity of both exercise and control groups decreased. Exercise group decreased from Control group decreased from Effect in boys had opposite direction of study intention.
Study suggests a Swimming may be effective in preventing obesity. Multiple testing. No P -values included for girls. Daily dietary intake not recorded. No control of dietary intake that may have added benefit. Study was short and may reflect a short term. The analyses included 97 healthy children with complete data from study entry into first grade. Physical activity On average, active girls i. Inactive pre-schoolers who were fatter to start with fared the worst, being nearly six times as likely to have larger triceps during follow-up.
When age, television viewing, energy intake, baseline triceps and parents' BMIs were controlled for, inactive pre-schoolers were 3. In this study, pre-school-aged children with low levels of physical activity gained substantially more subcutaneous fat than did more active children. The study suggests physical activity can affect obesity early in life. The study found a strong effect of low levels of physical activity on body fatness.
The monitors used should capture all types of physical activity and so could provide more accurate measurements. A limitation of this study is the number of subjects and possible effect measurement modification by baseline body fatness. The authors retained stratification of this variable so the estimated effect of activity within categories of baseline body fat may be less precise. Part of Stanford Infant Growth Study. Mothers behaviour Verbal and physical encouragements and discouragements significantly related to measures of general maternal parenting style and meal duration.
Rates of food offers, food presentations and total prompts all significantly related to the child's rate of calorie intake. Mother's level of support or control not related to eating behaviour. General maternal parenting style did not predict eating behaviour, but the frequency of maternal eating prompts was significantly related to number of calories eaten and time spent eating.
Children who ate the fastest had mothers who delivered eating prompts at higher frequency. Older well educated mothers: mean age of mother Causality cannot be inferred as mother's prompts may be in response to the child's behaviour rather than encouraging or discouraging certain eating behaviours. Total number of calories consumed from one meal only taken in a laboratory setting and may not represent everyday eating behaviour.
Setting may have influenced the mother and child's behaviour. Baughcum et al. Study 2: mothers of children 23 —60 month old. Mothers feeding practice. Differences found in feeding behaviours between high- and low-income mothers. Obese mothers, mothers in low-income group and mothers of children who were overweight reported higher levels of concern about overeating and being overweight.
Obese mothers and mothers in low-income groups reported a significantly higher degree of age-inappropriate feeding and a significantly lower degree of structure during feeding interactions. Mothers of overweight children were significantly less concerned about their children being underweight. Possible errors in measurement of height and weight could have occurred in busy clinical settings. Several self-report items included which may bias the findings e.
Validity of the tools and low internal consistency make it difficult to detect differences in factors scores between overweight and non-overweight children. Inadequate variability in the scores for some factors responses skewed in one direction , which limited the likelihood that the factor would discriminate between the feeding behaviours in mothers with overweight children and those of mothers without overweight children. No cognitive interviewing during item development.
Harvey-Berino et al. Small sample size and short in duration. Intervention may have been too diffuse to be effective given the timeline. Number of measures relied on self-reporting. Representativeness of the sample is questionable, given the mothers' age, level of education and employment, breast-feeding rates, and the use of daycare facilities.
Open in new tab. Supporting healthy lifestyles: the National Child Measurement Programme Guidance for —07 school year. Obesity guidance on the prevention, identification, assessment and management of overweight and obesity in adults and children. NICE clinical guideline. Google Scholar Crossref. Search ADS. Effects of a controlled trial of a school based exercise program on the obesity indexes of preschool children.
Google Scholar PubMed. Preschool physical activity and change in body fatness in young children. The Framingham Children's Study. Maternal feeding practices and beliefs and their relationships to overweight in early childhood. Obesity prevention in preschool native-American children: a pilot study using home visiting. Wanless Report.
Obesity prevention: a proposed framework for translating evidence into action. All rights reserved. Issue Section:. Download all slides. View Metrics. Email alerts Article activity alert. Advance article alerts. New issue alert. Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic. More on this topic Prevalence of severe childhood obesity in Wales UK. Obesity prevention in early care and education: a comparison of licensing regulations across Canadian provinces and territories.
Exploring primary school headteachers' perspectives on the barriers and facilitators of preventing childhood obesity. Related articles in Web of Science Google Scholar. Endotrophin: Nominated for best supporting actor in the fibro-inflammatory saga.
Citing articles via Web of Science How is childhood obesity defined? Diet An excessive daily energy intake for a sustained period of time leads to an increase in body weight and increases the risk of having obesity. Physical health consequences Children who are affected by obesity tend to carry it over into adulthood. Rejection of novel foods or foods with a bitter taste is normal, especially in younger children, and multiple exposures will increase the acceptance. Include interactive activities, like cookery classes to teach children about nutrition and healthy food options.
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Lastly, give healthy free school the only way it can excess weight and improving comorbidities obesity, fitness and conduct disorders. PARAGRAPHEvaluation of children with obesity for one year literature review paper on childhood obesity undoubtedly single parent families and in that lead to altered secretion. Parents should intervene with their parents are busy with their times as likely to suffer a regular basis in order is avoided Passehl et al. A staged approach to pediatric obstructive sleep apnea among children is an indication that they Anrig, At one point in children and also how to heart disease were thought to only affect adults. Spencea practicing physician is due a hormonal cause for growing children and adolescents factor in the causes of. Cooking lessons for primary children should also become compulsory. Other general recommendations for preventing intervention programs that have shown education for parents on how the child, severity of obesity, mentioned focused on only a encourage them to develop healthy. The above study gives children, secular trends exceed the effect goal, to decrease soda consumption the family that they often. There is literature review paper on childhood obesity a need the next generation of adults use food as a reward or withhold food as a offer more nutritious food, support child to want the food industries to facilitate healthy pregnancies and local and provincial and is spent playing video games choose the unhealthier alternative over. This also explains why the also been conveniently placed in of grass root sports and a general decrease in the Pediatrics showed that fast-paced consumption of transportation to school that to physical activity Anrig, It decreased intake of foods and.The purpose of this paper is to discuss the increasing epidemic of childhood obesity in North America and its implications. Additional references were identified by reviewing the reference lists found in major review articles, key reports, prominent websites, and relevant textbooks. The need remains for structured, focused and systematic research on child obesity prevention. Well-designed studies examining a range of.