esl phd research proposal samples

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A full set of resources to accompany this feature can be downloaded for free here. Calling all English teachers: does this sound familiar? As structure gcse english lit essay go through extracts in the last lesson on Friday afternoon, you ask carefully crafted questions, and note with satisfaction how students shoot their hands up in a flash, like Barry Allen on the run. Later, back at home, you mark them. What went wrong?

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Esl phd research proposal samples

Thesis Proposals All students should give serious consideration to electing esl phd thesis proposal examples to write a thesis. Your proposal will help us to make sure. However, if you are still confused or facing some time constraints to write PhD proposal, we are here to help you. Linked below is an example of a well-formatted thesis — please use this as a guideline as you develop your own thesis.

The research proposal is an integral part of any application to a PhD programme. Hameed Students are expected to submit an esl phd thesis proposal examples initial research proposal at the time of application. The Format of the Research Proposal 11 6. PhD Synopsis Service. Be sure to take note of the exemplary topics our writers come up with. If you require assistance with your MBA dissertation, Ph.

It had to be pages long, which was short compared to the length of the actual doctoral dissertation …. The participants were the fourth-year level students who were enrolled in English A Thesis Proposal in the Department of Communication, Linguistics and Literature DCLL , and AA Thesis Proposal in the Department of Fine Arts, during the first semester of linguistic error, esl phd thesis proposal examples the researchers took specific samples from the thesis.

Unless you are doing original archival research, you may find many topics have. Research Proposal, and should be no longer than words. Benefits of using our free thesis. Do you have to create a perfect dissertation esl phd thesis proposal examples focused on English Literature? Writing proposal for PhD thesis with our help is so easy! Ten Project Proposals in Artificial Intelligence Keld Helsgaun Artificial intelligence is the branch of computer science concerned with making comput-ers behave like humans, i.

Writing a PhD research proposal is a hell of a process that requires some serious dedication but we will try to provide you with everything to make this challenge easier. These samples are just to give you some idea about writing the research proposal. Come here to learn more! You can think of sub-topics that fall into the following research categories under the area of English Literature.

Budruweit, Kelly. Come by and see our PhD thesis proposal guidelines and maybe you would want some help - take it away! Dissertation examples Listed below are some of the best examples of research projects and dissertations from undergraduate and taught postgraduate students at the esl phd thesis proposal examples University of Leeds We have not been able to gather examples from all schools Thesis Proposal Examples The Honors in the Major program requires students to submit a research proposal to the Office of Honors Research prior to enrolling in the Thesis semester.

In the Department of Politics, your proposal will be used by your potential supervisors to help them evaluate whether your project is one that they are willing and able to become engaged with You may use these samples for writing. By Joseph Benjamin Afful 1 Introduction In the last two and half decades, various disciplinary and organizational studies across the world have demonstrated a growing interest in narrative Sample Dissertation Proposals.

Psychology: Proposal Examples Linked below, you will find an example of a well-formatted thesis proposal — please use this as a guideline as you consider creating your own proposal. The principal reason why governments grant subsidies to multinational companies MNC lies in their expectation of productivity externalities spilling over ….

With advice from your faculty adviser, determine the subject matter for your paper and submit a research proposal that must be approved before you can begin your work. Our sample of dissertation proposal is about basic research that seeks to look at a body of knowledge from an abstract perspective without necessarily engaging in any concrete problem-solving.

A thesis proposal should outline the project's major research goals and the corpus of texts or objects to be considered. It starts by describing in a few words the knowledge domain where your research takes place and the key issues of that domain that offer opportunities for the scientific or technological innovations you intend to explore. Thesis, master research proposal, or any other type of sample paper about "English As A Second Language Esl," our contracted research professionals can begin helping immediately!

Remember, you should not hand in any of these dissertation proposals as your own work, as we do not condone plagiarism! DisabledGo has a detailed accessibility guide for Bankfield House. They found that when presented with a.

Thesis Proposal Example English that you will receive a paper that is ready for submission or publication. The purpose of this paper is to assist the students to prepare the proposal. Research Proposals for PhD in Linguistics. This collection of poetry reflects my transition from a working-class …. The University of Leicester is committed to equal access to our facilities. Generally, a scientific research proposal will include a brief introduction to the research topic, a literature review, and a methodology that will explain how the.

These guidelines are intended to assist you in developing and writing a thesis proposal. The first step to get this task …. Free Samples. My dissertation esl phd thesis proposal examples will explore representations of disability and disabling ecologies in postcolonial fiction, poetry, drama, and film Afful: Research Proposal and Thesis Writing… Research Proposal and Thesis Writing: Narrative of a Recently Graduated Researcher in Applied Linguistics.

Need write my dissertation help? Our team of experts has vast experience and expertise to write a perfect research proposal for your needs Writing a Thesis or Dissertation Proposal 1 Writing Thesis and Dissertation Proposals The Graduate Writing Center of the Center for Excellence in Writing Overview: This workshop will introduce basic principles of writing proposals across a range of disciplines.

Sample dissertation proposal Below is an example of a successful MA dissertation proposal. The Research Proposal. Psychology: Improving preschool spelling performance. In the Department of Politics, your proposal will be used by your potential supervisors to help them evaluate whether your project is one that they are willing and able to become engaged with.. Expectations: Assessment Rubric 12 7. Sample Proposals 13 7.

It does not matter how ground-breaking your findings are, they can be seriously undermined if you have not allowed room for ethical considerations within your planning, preparation, and research phases You may use these samples for writing. Before you esl phd thesis proposal examples start writing a research proposal, carefully check the website of the university you are applying for. Are you looking for assistance to complete your PhD synopsis? Our team of experts has vast experience and expertise to write a perfect research proposal for your needs Sample Dissertation Proposals.

No matter the subject or level of education, there is an appropriate thesis proposal example for you. Taking those key issues. Your proposal should not be more than 2, words. Hameed Students are expected to submit an esl phd thesis proposal topic initial research proposal at the time of application. In fact, the recent and hot research topic in a particular domain has been taken..

It should identify a problem and provide a proposed solution to that problem. How to prevent colon cancers 7. They have to select a business topic of their choice and then prepare the thesis for evaluation Decide on a topic of your liking. This list of thesis topics has been divided into two categories; Masters thesis topics and PhD thesis topics. The following is a list of some easy topic ideas for students to write a thesis paper.

PhD Research proposal topics in information technology are a superb service. The requirements for this differ between institutions—you may have to write the proposal before being accepted as a student, or it may happen at a much later stage.

How to Write a Thesis Proposal. The proposal is made up of the following contents: 1. Please select for topic English teaching in primary schools. Thesis Proposal Presentation 1. Proposal esl thesis phd topic An MPhil research proposal should be words long while a PhD proposal should be words long. It should be written in clear, jargon-free, and unexceptionable prose A thesis is considered the most important assignment in academic life of a student or novice researcher.

The contribution of Greek philosophers to language. Our dissertation writing company will write a custom dissertation, thesis paper, or research proposal on a number of topics and disciplines. A thesis proposal is an academic paper which is used to present the research topic or subject of study.

Here, we show you how to write a PhD proposal that will stand out from the hundreds of others that are submitted each day. It gives a complete layout of the proposal by stating the headings and subheadings with their page numbers. History of esl phd thesis proposal topic Language Research Topics. The purpose of this paper is to assist the students to prepare the proposal.

An MPhil research proposal should be words long while a PhD proposal should be words long. Selecting Sociology Research Proposal Topics. To get approval for the ideas and your project it will be necessary to write a plan Good Dissertation Topics and Thesis Ideas for Ph. Each customer will get a non-plagiarized paper with. Elementary school is an extremely important period in school and in academic career in general However, choosing an interesting thesis topic is equally daunting.

The industrial revolution has increased the gap between the rich and the poor Choosing the right research topic is quite often a daunting task, especially for PhD students.


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Results indicate that there was a strong potential for the reduction of anxiety associated with the voice board. A number of students experienced a reduction of their level of anxiety due to the elimination of the time pressure of the classroom and opportunity to edit their contributions. The conditions of the point of access to the technology were found to have a negative effect on student anxiety on the voice board.

A negative attitude towards going to the language laboratory, technical difficulties during the Wimba activities, and instructional time had a negative effect on the level of anxiety. Increased risk-taking in oral contributions and reduced fear of negative evaluation were also found in the Wimba environment. Shams has almost similar research like Charle Poza on incorporating the use of computer assisted language learning CALL for reducing anxiety in speaking foreign language.

She examined the use of computerized pronunciation practice as a tool in the reduction of foreign language anxiety as well as evaluated the efficacy of computerized practice on the improvement of student French pronunciation. While there was an overall decrease in anxiety levels, the statistical analyses indicated no relationship between method of practice and the decrease in anxiety.

Regarding pronunciation improvement, the results showed that subjects who practiced with the computer did experience statistically significant improvement in the quality of their pronunciation while those who practiced with the cassettes did not. It is found that there is a mildly significant negative correlations between foreign language anxiety and achievement were found among sophomore but not among juniors.

In-class activities that were seen as most anxiety provoking are those which require student to make a speech in front of a large group of people. A typical anxiety-provoking English teacher might have the following characteristics: a a habit of giving surprise quizzes, b being unpredictable, c being rigid and, d being a poor communicator.

There was a mildly significant correlation between English Oral Conversation course semester achievement and foreign language anxiety. Cheng on the other hand investigates on English speaking proficiency and speaking anxiety among EFL major students. The study discovered that speaking anxiety had a negative influence on English speaking proficiency of the freshman students. Correlations between speaking anxiety and English speaking proficiency were not significant among sophomores, juniors and seniors.

Low-anxiety group obtained a higher speaking proficiency than the high anxiety group. Participants varied in their description of English speaking anxiety. Therefore as a conclusion, there was a mildly significant correlation between English speaking proficiency and speaking anxiety.

Chang investigates, using a foreign language anxiety scale, the self-perceived anxiety levels of Taiwanese EFL university students speaking English under different contextual conditions, including in class and outside of class, presenting individually and in groups, and learning English in formal and informal situations. Among 4 of the basic English language skills, namely Listening, Speaking, Reading and Writing, speaking and writing were the two language skills most associated with sources of language anxiety Abdul Aziz, Other language skills and language anxiety This section is added in this review of literature as only speaking skill is given emphasis in this study.

This section is included to inform that other than speaking skill which is being negatively influenced by language anxiety, language learners are also experiencing language anxiety in other language skills like listening, reading and writing. Kim conducted a study on listening skill and language anxiety among of EFL learners, all university students in Korea. For the qualitative data, 20 university students participated in retrospective interviews.

This study suggested that foreign language learners do indeed experience anxiety in response to listening comprehension. A majority of the participants acknowledged having experienced listening anxiety in foreign language classrooms and real-life communication situations.

And Lack of self-confidence in listening. Furthermore, the participants in this study experienced the highest foreign language anxiety of any observed in the various language anxiety studies. Correlation analyses revealed that listening anxiety is significantly related to both general foreign language anxiety and listening proficiency, the latter suggesting that listening anxiety interferes with foreign language listening.

In addition, listening anxiety was found to be significantly related to two background factors, university major, and study with tutors or in private language institutes. The retrospective interview protocol and open-ended responses in the FLLAS showed that foreign language learners are sensitive to the types of listening passages or tasks. Quantitative findings obtained from 50 first year students indicated that FL reading anxiety was a phenomenon related to, but distinct from general FL anxiety.

As a result of the study some suggestions for dealing with the FL reading anxiety were proposed. Zhao explores the foreign language reading anxiety among learners of Chinese in colleges in the United States. This survey research reported that the level of foreign language reading anxiety was similar to the level of general foreign language anxiety among learners of Chinese. There was a significant course level effect on the level of foreign language reading anxiety with intermediate students having a significantly higher level of foreign language reading anxiety than elementary students.

There was a significant negative correlation between foreign language reading anxiety and foreign language reading performance. Armendaris made a comprehensive investigation on ESL students experience in learning academic English writing, approaches to teaching academic writing facilitate and impede success and interaction with native English speakers in the improvement of academic writing. The result from interviewing 21 participants states that all participants experienced some form of anxiety in writing English.

The differences in the level of English writing anxiety between the groups of freshmen and sophomores reached the level of statistical significance. The sophomores were found to suffer significantly higher levels of English writing anxiety than the freshmen.

Correlation analysis results suggested a negative relationship between measure of ESL writing anxiety and measures of writing performance course grade and timed writing grade. An in-depth analysis of the causes of ESL writing anxiety revealed that linguistic difficulties, insufficient writing practice, fear of tests TEM , lack of topical knowledge and low self-confidence in writing performance constitute the main sources of ESL writing anxiety experienced by Chinese English majors.

These past researches have shown that language anxiety does not only exist in speaking skill, but also in listening Kim, , reading Kuru-Gonen, ; Zhao, and writing Armendaris, ; Zhang, as well. These researches are valuable to help lecturers and students to understand about other language skills anxiety as well as to suggest further on how to tackle language anxiety in these other skills.

They also reported many of the psycho-physiological symptoms commonly associated with anxiety for example tenseness, trembling, perspiring, palpitations, and sleep disturbances. The FLCAS consists of 33 statements with significant part-whole correlations with the total scale, aiming to assess communication apprehension, test anxiety and fear of negative evaluation associated with language anxiety.

Total scores of the scale range from 33 to with lower scores indicate higher levels of anxiety. Twenty-four of the items are positively worded, and nine of the items are negatively worded Tran, The three factor model has three domains which are communication apprehension, test anxiety, fear of negative evaluation. The four factor model has four domains which are communication apprehension, test anxiety, fear of negative evaluation, and fear of English classes.

These three domains are empirically derived through factor analysis and further confirmed having the best fit for the observations. The HFLCAS was administered to English major and 66 non-English major students, whose responses were factor-analysed to test construct validity of the scale. Next, reliability was assessed using the internal consistency method.

The results of factor analysis support Horwitz et al. On the one hand, FLCAS had been designed on the basis of previous in-depth qualitative research, which solidified it as one of the most comprehensive and valid instruments that were available for measuring the situational anxiety directly associated to the specific context of the foreign language classroom.

On the other hand, the scale had demonstrated satisfactory reliability coefficients with the first samples of population to which it had been administered. Their pilot study which aimed to confirm the reliability of the FLCAS as an instrument to measure potential sources of anxiety in language classrooms in Malaysian learning context.

The four factor model is appropriate to measure the language learning of Japanese foreign language among Malaysian learner as the four factor model was proposed by Aida, whom is a Japanese. Hence based on these studies, the researcher for this study has strongly decided and been positively confirmed to adopt FLCAS in her own study. Compared to the four factor model, the three factor model is chosen as fear of English class was not brought up as an important issue in this study.

Language Anxiety Coping Strategies Marwan has conducted a research on the types of anxiety experienced by Indonesian FL learners and the strategies they use to cope with their anxiety. The findings revealed that the majority of students, despite their gender and level differences, experienced some kinds of FL anxiety and many of them also applied particular strategies to overcome their FL anxiety.

Variables related to foreign language learning anxiety can be divided into two main categories which are situational variables and learner variables. Findings indicated that anxiety was most often associated with the output and processing stages, specifically in the sense of mental planning of the learning process and that students attributed the cause of anxiety to the teacher or other people.

Other findings were that the effect of and response to anxiety were associated with gender and perceived ability level. Sixty 60 students from International Islamic University Chittagong IIUC in Bangladesh contributed a result that their moderate level of anxiety that hinders their learning.

Interventions suggested from the article to reduce foreign language speaking anxiety are project work, establishing a learning community and a supportive classroom atmosphere, teacher-students relations, providing indirect, rather than direct correction, accepting the need for self-worth protection, teacher immediacy and provision of praise. Tanveer has attempted to investigate the factors that language anxiety can possibly stem from, both within the classroom environment and out of classroom in the wider social context, and has recommended a variety of strategies to cope with it.

This study used a qualitative semi- structured interview format and focus-group discussion technique to investigate the issue. Summary There has been abundant of language researches in the past which focused on the issue of foreign language anxiety. This chapter reviewed the concept of language anxiety and the researches made by local researchers on this matter. According to this chapter, language anxiety is categorized into specific anxiety reactions and useful to be related with its three performance anxieties which are communication apprehension, test anxiety and fear of negative evaluation.

Furthermore, language researches have dwelled on the three selected potential learner variable namely gender, language achievement and speaking skill with language anxiety, are reviewed in this chapter. The correlation of language anxiety and those three potential predictors of learner variable are discussed in this chapter.

Moreover, the discussion on the instruments used for studying second language anxiety are included. In addition, this chapter also reviewed on some researches that provide suggestions for coping second language anxiety. Finally, ample language researches on the interrelationships of gender, language achievement and speaking skill with language anxiety are reviewed in this chapter.

Introduction This study was designed primarily to investigate the associations of learner variables with second language anxiety, and to examine the level of second language anxiety among students. The target population of this study was diploma students enrolled in various courses in MARA University of Technology, Kota Samarahan 2 campus as well as the English lecturers at the same campus.

Convenience sampling was adopted to recruit participants. This chapter explains the research procedures of this study, including research design, participants, instruments, data collection procedures, and data analysis. Research Approach The design of this study was primarily quantitative in nature.

According to Fraenkel, Wallen and Hyun , quantitative researchers usually base their work on the belief that facts and feelings can be separated, that the world is a single reality made up of facts that can be discovered.

When it comes to the purpose of research, quantitative researches seek to establish relationships between variables and look for and sometimes explain the causes of such relationships. Quantitative research has established widely agreed on general formulations of steps that guide researchers in their work. Quantitative research designs tend to be pre-established. The ideal researcher role in quantitative research is that of a detached observer.

The ideal study in the quantitative tradition is the experiment. Lastly, most quantitative researchers want to establish generalizations that surpass the immediate situation or particular setting. This type of research can help to make more intelligent predictions. Correlational research seeks to investigate the extent to which one or more relationships of some type exist.

The approach requires no manipulation or intervention on the part of the researcher other than administering the instrument s necessary to collect the data sought after. Generally, the researcher of this study embark on this type of research to look for and describe relationship that may exist among naturally occurring phenomena, without trying in any way to modify these phenomena.

This study utilizes a correlational research design as it seeks to investigate the degree of relationship between learner variables such as gender, language achievement and speaking skill; and language anxiety, and uses the results of the observed relationships to make predictions about the nature of the relationship between the two. Data Collection 3.

Sampling Many times it is extremely difficult or sometimes even impossible to select either a random or a systematic non-random sample. Hence, in this type of situation, the researcher is using convenience sampling for this study. This number of participants is chosen in order to get the similar accuracy with the past research on foreign language anxiety done by Horwitz, Horwitz and Cope , whereby they use students. The students were not restricted into which semester they studied because it will be interesting to investigate the level of anxiety according to different semesters.

Their English language proficiency level assumed to range from intermediate to upper intermediate. In order to give a comprehensive suggestions on the strategies that can help students to cope with language anxiety, the questionnaire of 6 open- ended questions will be distributed among 10 English lecturers from the same institution. Instruments 3. The Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale has been widely used across time on various groups of respondents. However, the response in communication apprehension subscale is given highlight by means of it represents one of the learner variables as the predictors of second language anxiety.

Gender The background information questionnaire will give a brief introduction to the study and provide instructions for the students to complete the survey. The background information questionnaire indicated that all responses of the student participants will be completely anonymous. It was designed to obtain demographic information about their backgrounds and English language learning experiences. The demographic information included gender, age, native language, language proficiency, English educational background, their opinion of the influence of language anxiety on language learning as well as the strategies they use to cope with language anxiety Tanveer, ; Wong, Language Achievement Measurement The background information questionnaire will also be asking for the results of two other English language examinations that have been taken by the students to get other measures of their language achievement.

To prevent the students from misunderstanding about the items in the questionnaire, they will be reminded to consult with the researcher who will be available at a fixed location during the distribution of the questionnaire as they responded to the questionnaire. However, to predict whether students are affected by language anxiety in terms of their speaking skill, the questionnaire will be divided into three subscales which is communication apprehension, test anxiety and fear of negative evaluation.

The items in the subscale of communication apprehension are grouped together after two past researches Huang ; as cited in Cao, and Oda was juxtaposed to see their similarity in grouping the items from FLCAS to be included under the subscale of communication apprehension. Thus, from the comparison made between those two categorization, the researcher concluded to group item 1, 4, 9, 14, 18, 24, 27 and 29 as items in communication apprehension subscale for this study.

Language Anxiety Coping Strategies There are two ways on how the strategies in coping with language anxiety is obtained. Firstly, the eleven coping strategies of language anxiety listed by Hauck and Hurd ; as cited in Tanveer, was included in the background information questionnaire as item number 7. Students can tick any strategies listed that they felt they have used before but in order to choose the most important strategy, students will have to circle the number of the statement that they felt the strategy has effectively or brilliantly help them in alleviating language anxiety.

The results gathered from this instrument is very treasured and unaffected response from English lecturers themselves. Instead of using interview method like other past researches would employ, the lecturers will not be stressed to spare their time from their busy daily routine to have a typical 30 to 40 minutes interview when they could answer the questionnaire in less time than that.

Therefore, interview is replaced by the questionnaire of open-ended questions in this study. Data collection techniques In order to conduct this correlational study, the researcher will be giving a one-page letter to the English lecturers and will be explaining the purpose of the study. The letter also will be inquiring about only the English lecturers who taught English and they are not in class session at the time of questionnaire distribution, will be selected to participate.

In addition, the students will be informed by the researcher that their responses in this study will be completely voluntary, and all of their identities will be kept anonymous. Moreover, there will be no correct answers in the survey questionnaires.

At the beginning, the students will be instructed to fill in the forms about their demographic information and general English learning experiences. Seven items see Appendix A were included in this portion of the survey. These items included information of the student participants' age, gender, native language, English examinations results, language proficiency, opinion on the influence of language anxiety on language learning and the strategies they use to cope with language anxiety.

In the second part of the survey questionnaire, the researcher will be giving the student oral and written instructions and will be asking them to simply rate Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale on each item of the 33 statements see Appendix B on a five-point Likert scale ranging from 1 for "strongly disagree" to 5 for "strongly agree" indicating their perception of their level of language anxiety.

The student participants chose the statement that identifies them the best based on the scale of strongly disagree to strongly agree with a single answer. The lecturers will also be asked to suggest some strategies for the students to cope with their language anxiety. At the end of the survey questionnaires, the student will be thanked for their participation.

The English lecturers also will be thanked during their free time that they are willing to spent by giving cooperation that is very much needed by the researcher to conduct the survey questionnaires. The collected data from the language anxiety questionnaire will be analysed using the Statistics Package for Social Science SPSS software in order to obtain statistics. The survey subsection under the name communication apprehension will be treated separately in the data analysis.

The analysis of the data with the aid of the SPSS software will be used to determine whether there was a statistically significant difference in anxiety scores of MARA University of Technology diploma students among the learner variables, which are gender, language achievement and speaking skill.

The high scores indicated the high level of language anxiety the student participants had. To investigate how the selected learner variables gender, achievement, speaking skill are related to second language anxiety, and what contribution they make to its prediction, two procedures will be used. Multiple regression analysis will be used to assess the effect of the three learner variables simultaneously and determine their relative contribution to the prediction of second language anxiety.

Standard Multiple Regression will be run first, with all three predictor variables entered into the regression model. Total variance explained R2 will be used as a measure of the predictive power of the six independent variables, while squared partial correlation coefficients as an estimate of their unique contribution as a proportion of R2. Finally, a backward selection method will be adopted to identify the best predictors of second language anxiety.

Before the actual data collection period, a pilot study was conducted to test reliability of the questionnaire as well as to get feedbacks and suggestions from the respondents. There are three purposes of the pilot study. Firstly, pilot test will ensure the comprehensibility of the questionnaires to be used in the formal study.

Secondly, pilot test will examine the validity and the reliability of the questionnaires and lastly, to check the procedures for administrating the questionnaires and the time required to complete them, hence pilot test is conducted Chiang, As for the concern of validity, the instruments that will be used in this study was consulted with an expert in this area from the renowned local public university who has vast knowledge and experience upon conducting research.

Potential Limitations There are several potential limitations in this research study. According to Chang , the results from the questionnaire of the students' level of language anxiety might be different if the students were taught by different language lecturers.

However, the results cannot be generalized to all college or university students in Malaysia or elsewhere. Abdul Aziz, N. Doctorate Dissertation, Universiti Putra Malaysia. Abdullah, K. A study on second language speaking anxiety among UTM students. Theses and Dissertations, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Aida, Y. Modern Language Journal, 78 2 , Armendaris, F. Retrieved 9 November from ProQuest database. Arnaiz, P. Retrieved 28 November from www. Awan, R. The Journal of International Social Research, 3 11 , Azarfam, A.

Bailey, K. Teaching Speaking Skills, Bekleyen, N. Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 8, Cao, Y. Philippine ESL Journal, 7, Time Taylor International. Chang, H. Doctorate Dissertation, Alliant International University. Retrieved 15 November from ProQuest database. Charle Poza, M. Doctorate Dissertation, West Virginia University. Cheng, C. Language Anxiety and English Speaking Proficiency. Cheng, Y. The effects of attitudinal, motivational, and anxiety factors on the English language proficiency of Taiwanese senior high school students.

Doctoral dissertation, University of Georgia, Athens. Chiang, M. Chiang, Y. Doctorate Dissertation, University of Texas at Austin. Cortes, C. Doctorate Dissertation, Andrews University. Retrieved 10 November from ProQuest database. Darmi, R. Exploring Language Anxiety of Malaysian Learners. Anxiety, learning and memory: A reconceptualization.

Journal of Research in Personality, 13, — Feigenbaum, E. The role of language anxiety in teacher-fronted and small-group interaction in Spanish as a foreign language: How is pronunciation accuracy affected? Retrieved 8 October from ProQuest database.

Ferdous, F. Journal of Education and Practice, 3 9. Gardner, R. On the measurement of affective variables in second language learning. Language Learning, 43 2 , Gibbons, F. Self-evaluation and self-perception: The role of attention in the experience of anxiety. Wicklund Eds. London: Harwood Academic Publishers. Gill, S. English in Asian and European Higher Education. In Chappelle, C. Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Serdang: Universiti Putra Malaysia Press.

Journal of the School of Marine Science and Technology, 3 2 , Hass, R. The effects of self-focused attention on perspective-taking and anxiety. Horwitz, E. Preliminary evidence for the reliability and validity of a foreign language anxiety scale. Language Anxiety and Achievement.

Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 21, Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety. The Modern Language Journal, 70 2 , Language Anxiety among Gifted Learners in Malaysia. English Language Teaching, 6 3 , Kawashima, T. Stoke Ed. Tokyo: JALT. English Language Teaching, 3 2 , Retrieved 27 October from www.

Doctorate Dissertation, University of Texas, Austin. Retrieved 27 October from ProQuest database. Kojima, E. Factors associated with second language anxiety in adolescents from different cultural backgrounds. Doctorate Dissertation University of Southern California. Kuru-Gonen, I. Lan, Y. Lee, M. Lin, M. Unpublished thesis. MacIntryre, P. A Reply to Sparks and Ganschow.

The Modern Language Journal, 79 1 , The subtle effects of language anxiety of cognitive processing in the second language. Language Learning, 44 2 , Foreign Language Annals, 42 1 , Marwan, A. Retrieved 2 October from www. Human Communication Research, 4, Mohammadi, E.

Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 3 4 , Finland: Academy Publisher. Oda, A. The effect of anxiety on learning English as a foreign language. Journal of the College of Arts. University of Basrah, 58, Measuring language anxiety perceived by Spanish university students of English. Paee, R. Pappamihiel, N. English as a second language students and English language anxiety: Issues in the mainstream classroom.

Research in the Teaching of English, 36, Piechurska-Kuciel, E. Puskar, K. Unpublished Thesis. Rezazadeh, M. Investigating the relationship among test anxiety, gender, academic achievement and years of study: A case of Iranian EFL university students. English Language Teaching, 2 4 , Retrieved 10 November from www. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, 7 6 , Richards, J.

New York: Cambridge University Press. Sarason, I. Experimental approaches to test anxiety: Attention and the uses of information. Spielberger Ed. II pp. New York: Academic Press. The contribution of psychology to teaching the language arts.

Flood, J. Jensen, D. Squire Eds. New York: Macmillan. Scovel, T. The effect of affect on foreign language learning: A review of the anxiety research. Young Eds. Language anxiety: From theory and research to classroom implication pp. Shams, A. Doctorate Dissertation, Florida State University. Shan, X. Journal of Cambridge Studies, Sioson, I.

This proposal will dig into inflation and find out how inflation has affected economies of a country, in particular, Zimbabwe and the ways to stabilize this condition. The dynamics of hyperinflation will also be looked into in detail to bring out the real picture and the damages it causes to an economy.

The proposal will also focus on the causes of inflation in Zimbabwe and the how the theories of hyperinflation have applied in this context. The proposal will also look at the quantity theory of money and how it is associated with hyperinflation. Hyperinflation can be defined as a situation where the prices of goods and services escalate beyond control that the concept of inflation is an understatement. Countries in hyperinflation usually experience rapid erosion of the real value of local currency prompting the population to hold a relatively stable foreign currency.

Hyperinflation makes the prices of goods and services in an economy to rise rapidly since the value of the local currency loses the real value quickly. It should be observed that Zimbabwe was the only country that was experiencing hyperinflation and the first in the 21st century to have hyperinflation. Inflation in Zimbabwe has been perceived in two ways. First, the private sector speculation which the Zimbabwean authorities argue that the private sector rises up the prices intentionally to maximize profits on to pile pressure on the economy through ruthless price increments.

Secondly, the authorities also believe that the withdrawal of aids and the international economic sanctions have led to an economic decline from the year This perception has the explanation that the printing and minting of excess money by the government is usually tailored to bridge the gap between the government revenue and the actual receipts. This proposal to examine these concepts in depth.

In this section, the Cagan hyperinflation model will be examined, where he assessed the statistical connection between cash and changes in price by conducting instances of hyperinflation in six different countries across Europe. According to Cagan, the demand for money balances declined with increase in inflation, assuming inflation played a significant role in determining hyperinflation. Milton Friedman bases his view of hyperinflation in quantity theory of money.

This theory states that the relationship between money and the price level is directly proportional. This relationship implies that inflation will increase with an increase in money supply and the continued trend will lead to hyperinflation. In Zimbabwe, the supply of money and the prices of goods and services increased in tandem, as per the quantity theory of money because people opted to use the available cash immediately, rather than to wait on the depreciating cash.

This, in turn, led to the increase of velocity as well as an increase of money through the printing of new currency, hence the exponential increase in prices of goods and services in Zimbabwe. This proposal will seek to clarify the mechanisms through which money, the setting of price behavior and the requirements of government revenue collaborate in Zimbabwe, to examine the explanations put forth by the authorities about the hyperinflation in Zimbabwe.

To achieve this goal, the proposal will look at various models and tests that will lead to the understanding of the hyperinflation. In general, it is obvious that money engenders the rate of inflation, but the reverse could also be claimed to be true. It can be said that hyperinflation has self-perpetuating tendencies, due to the fact that the rise in prices of goods and services results in the rise in demand for nominal cash.

Thus, causation develops from inflation to supply of money. This test investigates the amount of the existing value of money and premium is a utilizable component in the prediction of inflation. This model provides the classical quantity theory of money which believes that institutional factors determine the rate of money circulation.

The economy is assumed to be or close to the real GDP. In this case, the growth of money does not have an effect in the real GDP. This implies that holding both variables constant, the growth rate of money is directly proportional to the rate of inflation. Inflation reduces money demand due to an increase in the opportunity cost of holding money. Hyperinflation in Zimbabwe increased the parallel market premium and consequently, a change in the parallel market premium affected the velocity of cash in the circulation.

The data used here was derived from various sources including the website of the RBZ. The inflation data and money supply were collected from RBZ while parallel exchange rate was collected from Carmen M. The methodology in this paper employs heavily the ARDL co-integration approach for investigating the relationship between the inflation and its determinants.

ARDL was used because it has several advantages over other models of co-integration. ARDL can be used with time series data, can also be employed in a general-to-specific modeling by including insufficient numbers to lags for the data generating and error correction model ECM can be derived using ARDL co-integration model.

Lagged change in the inflation and money supply growth are insignificant in the ARDL framework. Moreover, the ever-increasing prices are not unsustainable in the long-run; hence using the concept of long-run relations could give incorrect results. Zimbabwe had almost all her prices listed in foreign currencies which fully wrote off inflation inertia.

In this case, an exchange rate is a useful tool for curbing inflation rates thereby making stabilization of hyperinflation less costly in comparison to moderate methods of dealing with hyperinflation. Through Ordinary Least Squares method, hyperinflation in Zimbabwe is said o have been caused by the rapid growth of paper money.

The money demand model will seek to find out if this result is consistent. Additionally, a unit increase in the parallel market premium will result in an equivalent change in inflation. High rates of interest will deter borrowing and foster saving, slowing the economy and hence disinflationary effects. The Treasury bill by the Zimbabwe government had turned the interest rates negative and this manipulation discouraged savings by the households.

As per the Quantity Theory of money, hyperinflation in Zimbabwe could have been a monetary phenomenon and the only way to curb it would be to constrain the unnecessary money supply growth. Hyperinflation in Zimbabwe had severe adverse effects on the economy in regard to wealth, savings and deposits.

Prices of essential goods and services became unreachable, especially to those on inflexible incomes. Countermeasures including price controls and foreign currencies ban to control the then escalating levels of inflation and the devaluation of the Zimbabwean currency were taken.