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A full set of resources to accompany this feature can be downloaded for free here. Calling all English teachers: does this sound familiar? As structure gcse english lit essay go through extracts in the last lesson on Friday afternoon, you ask carefully crafted questions, and note with satisfaction how students shoot their hands up in a flash, like Barry Allen on the run. Later, back at home, you mark them. What went wrong?

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Order culture case study

Organizational culture can manifest itself in a variety of ways, including leadership behaviors, communication styles, internally distributed messages and corporate celebrations. Given that culture comprises so many elements, it is not surprising that terms for describing specific cultures vary widely. Some commonly used terms for describing cultures include aggressive, customer-focused, innovative, fun, ethical, research-driven, technology-driven, process-oriented, hierarchical, family-friendly and risk-taking.

Because culture is difficult to define, organizations may have trouble maintaining consistency in their messages about culture. Employees may also find it difficult to identify and communicate about perceived cultural inconsistencies.

Organizational leaders often speak about the unusual natures of their company cultures, seeing their domains as special places to work. But organizations such as Disney and Nordstrom, which are well-known for their unique cultures, are rare.

Most company cultures are not that different from one another. Even organizations in disparate industries such as manufacturing and health care tend to share a common core of cultural values. For example, most private-sector companies want to grow and increase revenues. Most strive to be team-oriented and to demonstrate concern for others. Most are driven, rather than relaxed, because they are competing for dollars and market share. Some of the cultural characteristics that distinguish most organizations include the following.

At the heart of organizations' cultures are commonly shared values. None is right or wrong, but organizations need to decide which values they will emphasize. These common values include:. The degree of hierarchy is the extent to which the organization values traditional channels of authority.

The three distinct levels of hierarchy are "high"—having a well-defined organizational structure and an expectation that people will work through official channels; "moderate"—having a defined structure but an acceptance that people often work outside formal channels; and "low" —having loosely defined job descriptions and accepting that people challenge authority.

An organization with a high level of hierarchy tends to be more formal and moves more slowly than an organization with a low level of hierarchy. The degree of urgency defines how quickly the organization wants or needs to drive decision-making and innovation. Some organizations choose their degree of urgency, but others have it thrust on them by the marketplace. A culture with high levels of urgency has a need to push projects through quickly and a high need to respond to a changing marketplace.

A moderate level of urgency moves projects at a reasonable pace. A low level of urgency means people work slowly and consistently, valuing quality over efficiency. An organization with high urgency tends to be fast-paced and supports a decisive management style. An organization with low urgency tends to be more methodical and supports a more considered management style. Organizations usually have a dominant way of valuing people and tasks. An organization with a strong people orientation tends to put people first when making decisions and believes that people drive the organization's performance and productivity.

An organization with a strong task orientation tends to put tasks and processes first when making decisions and believes that efficiency and quality drive organization performance and productivity. Some organizations may get to choose their people and task orientations. But others may have to fit their orientation to the nature of their industry, historical issues or operational processes.

Every organization puts an emphasis on certain functional areas. Examples of functional orientations may include marketing, operations, research and development, engineering or service. A hospitality company may focus on operations or service, depending on its historical choices and its definition in the marketplace. Employees from different functions in the company may think that their functional areas are the ones that drive the organization. Organizational leaders must understand what most employees perceive to be the company's functional orientation.

Any organization can have a mix of subcultures in addition to the dominant culture. Subcultures exist among groups or individuals who may have their own rituals and traditions that, although not shared by the rest of the organization, can deepen and underscore the organization's core values. Subcultures can also cause serious problems. For example, regional cultures often differ from the overall culture that top leadership tries to instill. Perhaps aggressiveness that is common in one area may not mesh with a culture emphasizing team building.

Or an organization with a culture built around equality may have trouble if the national culture emphasizes hierarchy and expects people to bow to authority. Employers must recognize those differences and address them directly. An organizational culture tends to emerge over time, shaped by the organization's leadership and by actions and values perceived to have contributed to earlier successes. A company culture can be managed through the cultural awareness of organizational leaders and management.

Managing a culture takes focused efforts to sustain elements of the culture that support organizational effectiveness. An organization's customs, traditions, rituals, behavioral norms, symbols and general way of doing things are the visible manifestation of its culture; they are what one sees when walking into the organization. The current organizational culture is usually due to factors that have worked well for the organization in the past.

See How to Create a Culture of Civility. Founders typically have a significant impact on an organization's early culture. Over time, behavioral norms develop that are consistent with the organization's values. For example, in some organizations, resolution of conflicts is hashed out openly and noisily to create widespread consensus, whereas in other places disputes are settled hierarchically and quietly behind closed doors. Though culture emerges naturally in most organizations, strong cultures often begin with a process called "values blueprinting," which involves a candid conversation with leaders from across the organization.

Once the culture is framed, an organization may establish a values committee that has a direct link to leadership. This group makes sure the desired culture is alive and well. For values blueprinting to work, organizations must first hire people who live the values and have the competency needed to perform the job.

The management of organizational culture starts with identifying a company's organizational culture traits or "artifacts. Identifying these traits—and assessing their importance in light of current business objectives—is a way to start managing culture. Three broad concepts help identify the traits specific to a culture:. Leaders and managers within an organization should approach culture management by initially gaining an understanding of the common traits found in all businesses.

Then, they should take the following steps to manage their organization's culture:. Typically, shared assumptions and beliefs originate with an organization's founders and leaders. Because those beliefs proved successful otherwise the company would not exist and the leaders would not be in their positions , often they go unchallenged; however, those assumptions and beliefs might be outdated and may hinder future success.

See 6 Steps for Building an Inclusive Workplace. When an organization does a good job assessing its culture, it can then go on to establish policies, programs and strategies that support and strengthen its core purpose and values. In aligned organizations, the same core characteristics or beliefs motivate and unite everyone, cascading down from the C-suite to individual contributors.

There are many tools for developing and sustaining a high-performance organizational culture, including hiring practices, onboarding efforts, recognition programs and performance management programs. The biggest challenge is deciding how to use these tools and how to allocate resources appropriately. Effective hiring practices can help an organization capitalize on its culture.

Traditionally, hiring focuses primarily on an applicant's skills, but when a hire's personality also fits with the organization's culture, the employee will be more likely to deliver superior performance. On the other hand, ill-fitting hires and subsequent rapid departures cost approximately 50 percent to percent of the position's annual salary.

Unfortunately, nearly one in three newly hired employees' leaves voluntarily or involuntarily within a year of hiring, and this number has been increasing steadily in recent years. Searching for employees who will fit in seamlessly can have drawbacks. The biggest mistake an organization can make is to paint an inaccurate picture of itself as it tries to attract candidates.

If new hires discover they have been sold a bill of goods, they will not be happy; they will probably not stick around, and, while they are around, morale will decline. Another possible drawback is that people are more reluctant to take negative actions against people like themselves. As a result, mediocre workers are more likely to stay employed if they share the cultural values. Similarly, although an organization's comfort level is palpable when the culture is aligned, experts say, too much comfort can result in groupthink and complacency.

Onboarding teaches newcomers the employer's value system, norms and desired organizational behaviors. Employers must help newcomers become part of social networks in the organization and make sure that they have early job experiences that reinforce the culture. These programs are key mechanisms employers can use to motivate employees to act in accordance with the organization's culture and values. For example, if teamwork is a core value, bonuses should value teamwork and not be based on individual performance.

Employers should also put the spotlight on those who personify the company's values. Employees who share values and aspirations tend to outperform those in environments that lack cohesiveness and common purposes. Performance management programs can greatly affect corporate culture by clearly outlining what is expected from employees as well as by providing a feedback tool that informs employees about proper behavior.

Conflicting messages regarding corporate culture may create distrust and cynicism, which can prompt, or help employees justify, actions as deleterious as embezzlement. Experts say that cultural inconsistencies may also cause workers to grow discouraged, to believe management is disingenuous, to doubt statements from higher-ups and to be less inclined to give their best effort.

Organizations may be investing significant time and money in creating a culture but may not be reaping the commensurate rewards—especially if executives, supervisors and rank-and-file employees have differing perceptions of the company's culture. As the case in Schein , when a CEO would like to make an innovation which is proved no effective response, given that he did not get to know well about the tacit implications at the place he has just come. It is illustrated that whatsoever change should need time and a process to happen Blog ; Makhlouk and Shevchuk In conclusion, a new culture can be learned Schein , but with an appropriate route and the profits for all stakeholders should be concerned by the change manager Sathe All tacit assumptions of insiders are not easy for outsiders to grasp the meaning completely Schein It is not also an exception at any organization.

Google is an example of the multicultural organization coming from various regions of the world, and the national or regional cultures making this multicultural organization with an official culture for the whole company. In this case, the organizational culture of Google has an influence on the behaviors of manager and employee.

In addition, as for such a company specializes in information technology, all engineers prefer to work on everything with data-evidence to get them involved in the meaningful survey about manager Davenport et al. This overview describes patient flow and links to theories about flow. Patient flow underpins many improvement tools and techniques.

In simple terms, flow is about uninterrupted movement Nave , like driving steadily along the motorway without interruptions or being stuck in a traffic jam. In fact, flow plays a vital role in getting stakeholders involved in working creatively and innovatively Adams ; Amabile ; Forest et al.

Definitely, Google gets it done very well. In every social interaction, whether we are aware of it or not, we function as a leader. We not only reinforce and act as part of the present cultural dynamics but also influence it when introducing new cultural elements based on our values, beliefs and associated actions and behaviors Gifford and Peter Over time, these new elements have the ability to strengthen and enhance culture or eroding and weaken it.

In deeper perspective, there is a difference between these two terms. When the responsibility for creating and preserving organizational culture ultimately lies with a senior leadership, it is important to recognize that every employee plays a unique role as culture creator, evolver, manager, and leader Aldrich n. At Google, it must be admitted that they, founder, leader and manager all channel to create a comfortable place completely and a dynamic culture for getting the creativity of their engineers; as a result, the employees feel free and really enjoy their works Scott There is no longer barrier, concrete hierarchy between employers and employees, managers and engineers Garvin The head thing is to flow in work to produce the best product for the users.

This is a leader who can help all followers achieve the comfort and reap benefits for Google. The proficient technical knowledge cannot help an individual create a good manager: A good engineer with times higher productivity cannot make him the best manager. Having good technical knowledge is very important, but it is also the lowest of eight criteria set by Google. It cannot be denied the interplay of culture creation, reenactment, and reinforcement creates interdependency between culture and leadership.

It is not easy for outsiders to grasp all assumptions of the culture of a group. Cultures, as well as subcultures among different groups, are not identical. Culture resides within each individual, on the other hand, in each organization or community, there seems to be a hidden force to lead and instruct the ways that organization performs, which is called culture.

Culture is created, reenacted, as well as reinforced through time. For example, as a new leader of an organization, he or she is the one to create and build on the norms for his or her group. Although each individual in that group comes from other small subcultures, working together in the new group, they have to follow and adapt to the new principles that are required by the leader.

However, there are some situations in which the leader is from another culture and move to manage in a deep-rooted cultural group, he or she is expected to adapt to the new environment, given that it is not easy to change the culture of a group quickly and completely. It means that culture has different associations in different organizations or subjects an individual, a group or class, a whole society. This means that self-awareness of culture is directly related to individuals, groups and societies behaviors, as well as their cultural background Mor et al.

Subsequently, that would reflect existing conceptions of the culture shape Sackmann and Phillips As we develop our self-awareness, not only can we express our own cultural identity, principles, and prejudices, but we can also start moving from enjoying our own perspective about that culture to being comfortable with a new perspective. The consciousness of culture takes us to a further growth step of seeking the similarities to the complexities of the culture based on the differences of other cultures Quappe and Cantatore Despite small and medium or large enterprises, human development is a factor of corporate culture.

A leader, the most important individual of an organization, is the most responsible for building the corporate culture. They, therefore, must be the example of building a corporate culture. They must make wise decisions in building a culture of values and must be a successful leader in achieving the goals set out to motivate the members of the company.

Then, a new culture of a business can explore and discover the potential of all members Schein However, each leader brings a different way of behavior, and thinking, which includes working among subordinates. When a leader would like to change the tradition, the norms in working relationships and principles rooted by the previous leader, the employee must adapt a new way of thinking, behaving and working. In some cases, it may be a challenging time for some followers and conflicts may emerge given misunderstandings in the different tactics between the new leader and the follower.

Hence, in order to obtain a successful culture change, the change manager should have an obvious plan for his culture change strategy Kavanagh and Ashkanasy It means that the culture that a leader creates play an instrumental role in the success of the business.

The existence of subcultures has been discussed in many papers Howard-Grenville Subcultures can be shaped in the organization around levels of hierarchy Riley or around the uniqueness of the roles and structure of the business, such as departments Hofstede , function, and occupation Van Maanen and Barley Also, subcultures can be distinguished around private contacts, networks, and individual differences, such as ethnic groups and gender groups Martin In contrast, a variety of approaches build the subsequent expectations on the correlation between the corporative agreement of stable development and organizational culture, including various subcultures can exist within an organization and various attitudes of participants of each subculture.

In comparing leaders of Google Inc. Hsieh explains living by these core values to create an authentic culture within Zappos. These values took over a year to be developed and were revisited annually through the utilization of employee insight and reflection.

Zappos takes the importance of culture fit in their hiring. This recruiting strategy gets people to be closer to Zappos than others. Therefore, they can study more and talk with the employer about their abilities and interests. It seems that Zappos cares about and want to know the candidate, who may become a part of the team in the future.

It is really inspiring to live and work in the Zappos environment where all employees are encouraged to be themselves. It took Tony Hsieh a long time to find out these core values in order to build a successful organizational culture. With his hard work in this area, he really deserves the success. He has succeeded in creating a working place where all employees feel extremely comfortable. We can feel that all employees are not coming here to work, but to enjoy the journey to their ultimate creativity and bring back the real and wonderful shoe products for their customers with their distinctive flow.

These are things leaders should consider if they would like to set up a successful and efficient organizational culture. In his textbooks Hsieh a ; Hsieh b , Hsieh cued some ways of cultural assessment, such as through individual and group interviews, surveys and questionnaires, problem solutions, cultural assumption identifications and subculture concerns. In fact, it is not easy to evaluate a culture due to the fact that culture is deep, stable, and complex. Culture is the underlying assumptions of each individual and group; never can these instruments like questionnaires or surveys determine its identity.

However, identifying cultural assumptions at a certain level can facilitate the process of cultural assessment. Moreover, it is believed that understanding the process can also be a preparation for each individual to evolve or change culture even. Although Google and Zappos do business in different fields, they share the same point of establishing an organizational culture to bring the best for their employees. Zappos creates a culture of happiness Hsieh b and Google creates a motivating place to work Crowley ; Garvin et al.

Google builds a workforce which reflects and understands the needs of all employees. The question is raised, what cultures are you a member of? Which has the greatest influence on you day-to-day? From our research, the notion of culture has been improved a lot. It is not as simple as we originally thought. There are many different ways of living, beliefs, and core values, and what we witness cannot fully express the culture of a group or an organization.

If we want to understand explicitly what culture is, we must get to know the backgrounds and histories of the insiders from that cultures, as well as subcultures. From what we know so far, every group or community has their own group culture. Whenever a group has enough common experience, a culture begins to form. Moreover, the culture is sometimes considered to be similar, but there is always a particular distinctive discrepancy that differentiates the culture of this group from others and one is believed to belong to more than one kind of cultures during the course of their life.

Therefore, we could be working under multi-positions, as well as some other kinds of societies such as class, professional club etc. We are a member of some kinds of subcultures and enjoy the culture of our country. Organizational cultures have a big influence on our day-to-day practices.

These cultures require us to try hard to improve our interpersonal communication, as well as boost our own identity in society. Although the norms from the subcultures may have impacts on our behavior to a certain extent, we find that they all accumulate to supplement for our diversity and we can compare them to choose the best practices to serve our followers.

The connection between them is vital, but it is only a part of the study. In the case study, it is obvious that the feeling of connection among management, employees, and customers accommodate a competitive advantage. Whenever we approach a new organization, there is no doubt that we will try to know more about the culture of that place, the way of thinking, working, as well as behavior. And it is likely that the more diverse culture of a place is; the more difficult for outsiders to assess the culture of that place becomes.

The achievements of Google and Zappos proved that they clarify ways they apply to assess an organizational culture successfully. They create a good connection among their stockholders, partners, followers, customers, and newcomers. So, what is the fantastic connection? Chapter one in Stallard , the connection is what transforms a dog-eat-dog environment into a sled dog team that pulls together. In addition, a leader must not create a barrier between him and employees.

Instead, a leader should be the opener and more harmonious in their relationship so that subordinate can feel at ease when they would like to comment or share their opinions. We totally agree with this point because of the fact that if a leader does not set the tone first, no employees dare to express their issues. It will make it difficult for a new organizational culture to become common and cultural boundaries will be difficult to solve.

All in all, a leader is a key feature in fostering the organizational culture or connection culture. The core factors of a connection culture that fit these human needs are vision, value, and voice. In this modern world, with the development of science and technology, multinational companies, multicultural unit, each person experiences more than one culture during the course of their life, it is vital for each of us to be trained to become a culture expert in some extent.

The most common set of diverse culture is at the workplace, we must communicate with different people from different culture, diverse ways of thinking, behaving, working as well as feeling, people should be wiser to realize that diverse cultures and deal well with them to avoid cultural shock. Google and Zappos are the places of connection culture. Multinational people come and work together, so culture intelligence is a necessary quality for a more successful future leader.

He or she not only learn it for himself or herself but also for his or her followers. It is his or her responsibility to coach and chooses which culture is the most suitable for his or her organization. This is really useful and noteworthy for other businesses, tomorrow leaders, and all of us in an attempt to help us to survive be harmonious in this world. Moreover, the culture is maybe sometimes considered to be similar, but there is always a particular distinctive discrepancy that differentiates the culture of this group from others and one is believed to belong to more than one kind of cultures during the course of their life.

We, therefore, could be working under multi-positions, as well as some other kinds of societies, such as class, professional club, etc. We are a member of several of subcultures and enjoy the culture of our country. Reflecting on the personal and working experiences and on the research we have read, we discovered eight important points that Google reflects:.

Why is culture management a vital issue for a business? Companies, especially, big ones, nowadays attract many labors from various areas with a variety of education, specialty, consciousness, social relation, etc. What do companies do to be viable?

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Performed even better with fewer mistakes D. Refused to participate. High-effort syndrome B. Classification and sorting C. Formal reasoning D. Low-effort syndrome. Our culture-based expectations that guide our interpretation of sensory data are referred to as: Answer A. Cultural patterns B. Cross-cultural sensitivity C. Aesthetic experience D. Perceptual set. What factors are likely to influence the way a person perceives time?

Answer A. Age B. Wealth C. Culture D. All of the above. Answer True False 9. Melody is very relaxed, experiencing expanded awareness and tranquility without the aid of drugs. The state she is in can be best described as: Answer A.

Meditation B. Trance C. Possession D. None of the above. It can only be concluded that she is taking drugs. The perceptual phenomenon that seems to be least affected by cultural differences is: Answer A. Time B. Beauty C. Dreams D. What term do psychologists use for patterns of emotional expression considered appropriate within a particular culture, age, or social group? Feeling rules B. Stress reduction C. Display rules D.

The text discusses the distinctions between the English word anger and the Ifaluk Pacific Region word song. Anger, on the other hand, produces actions that aim to do what? Make friends B. Restrain the offender from doing anything C.

Negotiate a settlement or a deal with an offender. There is a match between the listeners and the group that is being ridiculed in the joke. The joke teller belongs to the same group that is being ridiculed in the joke. The joke should not be long; otherwise people get impatient.

Which of the following is not a necessary component of the universal emotion process? Assessment of experience B. Preceding event C. Physiological arousal D. Members of what type of culture are most likely to make decisions based primarily on social customs?

Traditional B. Nontraditional C. Evolutionary D. Although her home is not kosher, she practices a variation of kosher-style eating, avoiding pork and not making dishes that combine meat and milk. Two months ago, she was diagnosed with pancreatic cancer. Surgery was attempted, but the cancer was already in an advanced stage. Chemotherapy was started, but the cancer has progressed and is not responding to the medications. She is having difficulty eating because of the pressure of the tumor on the gastrointestinal tract.

Discussions are being held to determine whether or not treatments should be stopped and whether hospice care should be initiated. Her hospital room is always filled with visitors. What must you anticipate in discussing with Sarah her wishes regarding the continuation of medical care? How would you respond to her initial decision to have surgery and initiate chemotherapy?

What questions do you need to ask in the initial patient interview to assess her degree of religious practice? How will you determine her spirituality needs? What is your understanding of the reason she has so many visitors in her room? Is hospice care appropriate for this patient? Sarah dies with her family at her bedside.

What interventions can you take at the time of death to demonstrate religious sensitivity to the family? What questions do you need to ask the family? Describe three genetic or hereditary diseases common with Ashkenazi Jews. Describe Jewish burial rituals and grieving process. Discuss the laws of Kashrut in regard to food practices for observant Jewish clients.

What should the health-care provider keep in mind when entering a Jewish home to provide care? Distinguish between the terms Sephardic and Ashkenazi. How might a non-Jewish and a Jewish coworker share holidays in the workforce? What is the official language the Jewish people use for prayer? Categories Essays.

Tags Cultural Case Studies. Sample Solution hsdsaifi. Presentation The years to were a period of incredible change and inconsistency in Europe. The learned person, logical, and social illumination of the Renaissance was sprouting tremendously, yet the predominant societal power was perpetually religion, especially Roman Catholicism, whose sole control offered path to an uneasy —, best case scenario — control imparting relationship to its alleged unwanted youngster, Protestantism, whose birth was around In spite of the fact that Protestantism was an only response to the fraudulent debasement and oppression of the enlarged Catholic administration, whose raison d'etre had progressed toward becoming as much about the propagation of its own control over Western human advancement than about most profound sense of being and illumination, the two strains of Christianity in any case were seriously male centric, various leveled, and organized, and thusly depended intensely on an assortment of conventions and customs to sustain social and religious coherence and strength amid a period of turmoil.

It was a two-way unique, additionally — it is hard to overestimate how much average folks in the Early Modern time frame surrounded their reality and its significance through Christianity: The example of the universe, the history and fate of the world, and the requesting of social, political and local relations were altogether clarified in scriptural and religious terms.

Open and private issues alike were profoundly mixed by religion. These ran from the ordinary to the wonderful; the indecent to the honorable and were intertwined into the texture of regular daily existence for a huge number of individuals amid the previously mentioned years.

While certainly there was much truthfulness of aim from the Church Catholic or Protestant in assortment as far as endeavoring to convey profound enlightenment to its supporters, the Church additionally had what appeared to be a hereditarily encoded need to apply and sustain its energy.

Customs were a key segment these continuous endeavors, in light of the fact that all things considered, "ritualization is above all else a methodology for the development of specific kinds of energy connections viable inside specific social organizations,"[2] for this situation power and connections that were both kindhearted and reformatory in both nature and propensity.

In spite of the fact that the normal national was still faithfully religious and discovered much comfort in religious practices and ceremonies, the Catholic Church's fortunes had ebbed to some degree by in contrast with the for all intents and purposes unhindered influence it had delighted in for a few centuries earlier. The staggering human cost of the bubonic torment, a.

The Black Death, had not just seriously undermined the regular monetary structures that held Europe together, however had additionally extremely undermined the populaces' confidence in the energy of Catholic Church. The Church, regardless of unsurprising confirmations and dicta announcing their control over infection and passing as the living illustrative of Christ on earth, was completely weak to shorten the stunning and inevitably tremendous catastrophe of the Black Plague.

In the vicinity of and , it is assessed that the Plague murdered between a third and half of Europe's whole populace — countless individuals. The Church guaranteed they could cure the debilitated and oust the infection, yet they obviously proved unable, as their dug in antagonistic vibe to science had abandoned them with a blind side as for solution, to state nothing of their complicity in sustaining the financial structures which encouraged unsanitary living conditions endured by most everyday citizens — the main purpose behind the spread of the Plague.

Incidentally, in any case, the dismal and serious zeitgeist that was dominating in Europe after the Black Plague, the consequence of the aggregate despondency of a human advancement having lost a huge piece of itself, brought about a few people sticking significantly more firmly to the structures and customs of their religion. In spite of the fact that life itself was delicate, passing, and regularly appeared to unfurl with a dismissive savagery, the structure and request of religious custom gave the conviction, genuine or not, that there was some structure and request to the more prominent universe.

All things considered, the environment in the decades including the wild wake following the Plague was one in which individuals were significantly additionally ready and keen on mainstream and logical ways to deal with issues like ailment, neediness, and other normal hardships. This move contributed vigorously to both the Renaissance and the Protestant Reformation itself.

The appearance of the Renaissance, settled upon by most researchers as being around the center of the fifteenth century, agreed with what is named Early Modern Catholicism, a religion that got itself straightforwardly going after the general population's pertinence and trust with subversive components inside Renaissance science, craftsmanship, and writing which started in Italy and rapidly spread all through Europe.

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ones) for those who wish to study "organizational cultures," not the least tacit assumption that "other men are not to be trusted" orders many of. (Editor's Note: This fictionalized case study will appear in a forthcoming issue of Harvard Business Review, along with commentary from. (We gratefully acknowledge the rich history of cultural studies—going all the Culture is the tacit social order of an organization: It shapes attitudes.