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A full set of resources to accompany this feature can be downloaded for free here. Calling all English teachers: does this sound familiar? As structure gcse english lit essay go through extracts in the last lesson on Friday afternoon, you ask carefully crafted questions, and note with satisfaction how students shoot their hands up in a flash, like Barry Allen on the run. Later, back at home, you mark them. What went wrong?

Order medicine assignment to turn in homework spanish

Order medicine assignment

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ESSAY OWL PURDUE

It is created through omission or commission of medication administration. Medication misadventures always are undesirable and unexpected; they may or may not be independent of preexisting pathology; and might be due to human or system error, idiosyncratic, or immunologic response. Serious injury specifically includes loss of limb or function. Sentinel events cause significant morbidity or mortality and are possibly preventable. Medication errors can occur at many steps in patient care, from ordering the medication to the time when the patient is administered the drug.

In general, medication errors usually occur at one of these points:. Medication errors are most common at the ordering or prescribing stage. Typical errors include the healthcare provider writing the wrong medication, wrong route or dose, or the wrong frequency. It is obvious that medication errors are a pervasive problem, but the problem is preventable in most cases. The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, to better standardize medication reporting, developed the Common Formats, which are defined data elements collected and reported in the event of a medication error through the Patient Safety Organization Privacy Protection Center.

The scope of the Common Formats encompasses all errors, including events that those that have the potential to affect the patient, near-misses, and those that have a patient affect. Usually occurs due to improper storage of preparations resulting in deterioration or use of expired products.

Duration errors occur when medication is received for a longer or shorter period of time than prescribed. This error usually occurs with compounding or some other type of preparation before the final administration. An example is choosing the incorrect diluent to reconstitute.

Incorrect strength may potentially occur at many points in the medication process. It usually occurs due to human error when similar bottles or syringes with the incorrect strength is selected. Most often occurs with medications that are given as IV push or infusions. This is particularly dangerous with many drugs and may result in significant adverse drug reactions. Examples include tachycardia due to rapid IV epinephrine or red man syndrome due to the rapid administration of vancomycin.

In both home and institutional settings, it is challenging to be completely accurate with scheduled doses. The concern is that some medications absorption is significantly altered if taken with or without food. As such, it is important to adhere to scheduled times as commonly; this may lead to under or overdosing. This error includes overdose, underdose, and an extra dose. An incorrect dose occurs when an inappropriate or different medication dose is given other than what was ordered, errors of omission when a scheduled dose of medication is not given, and when a drug is given via an incorrect route.

Incorrect routes often result in result in significant morbidity and mortality. This occurs when a patient receives a dosage form different than prescribed, such as immediate-release instead of extended-release. This occurs when a patient takes a medication inappropriately. Patient education is the only way to prevent this type of error. Dispensing a drug that the patient has an allergy often due to failure to communicate with the patient, inappropriate chart review, inaccurate charting, or lack of technologic interface.

This occurs when medications are not vigilantly reviewed for drug-drug, drug-disease, or drug-nutrient interactions. Errors by pharmacists are usually judgmental or mechanical. Judgmental errors include failure to detect drug interactions, inadequate drug utilization review, inappropriate screening, failure to counsel the patient appropriately, and inappropriate monitor. A mechanical error is a mistake in dispensing or preparing a prescription, such as administering an incorrect drug or dose, giving improper directions, or dispensing the incorrect dose, quantity, or strength.

The most common causes involve workload, similar drug names, interruptions, lack of support staff, insufficient time to counsel patients, and illegible handwriting. One of the major causes of medication errors is distraction. Physicians have many duties in a hospital e. In the rush to be done with writing drug orders, sometimes a lapse of judgment develops, and a medication error occurs. It can happen to the best physician. Sometimes the physician may be on the phone, and a clinician may be standing with the order chart next to him or her asking for a drug order.

The physician may quickly scribble in a drug order, not paying attention to the dose or frequency. It is the unscheduled events in the life of a healthcare provider such as the constant pages, attendance at meetings, and answering telephone calls that disrupt patient care. Many physicians do not acknowledge that these distractions are a problem, but in reality, these distractions are often the cause of medication errors.

To minimize distractions, hospitals have introduced measures to reduce medication errors. Most hospitals are working on ways to decrease distractions to ensure that medication orders do not occur. For example, physicians are urged to order drugs at a set time after rounding on their patients; this is when they also write their daily progress notes.

Other clinicians are requested not to disturb the physician at this time of the day. Also, clinicians are asked only to disrupt the physician for an emergency. Physicians are being urged to develop a structure for their patient care that is organized so that distractions are limited. While answering a page is often necessary, many hospitals recommend that physicians not answer patient calls until patient duties are completed.

Additionally, healthcare institutions are now penalizing physicians who continue to have too many medication errors because of distractions; the result is a restriction in prescribing privileges. Of course, not all distractions can be eliminated because the practice of medicine is itself unpredictable and chaotic at the best of times. A prevalent cause of medication errors is distortions. The majority of distortions may originate from poor writing, misunderstood symbols, use of abbreviations, or improper translation.

A significant number of healthcare providers in the United States are from foreign countries and often write orders for medications that are not even available domestically. When a practitioner questions the drug, the physician often asks the nurse or pharmacist to substitute the medication prescribed for a similar drug. This type of distortion can lead to major errors because neither the non-prescribing practitioner nor the pharmacist can substitute a drug.

All hospital pharmacies have a list of medications available in the formulary, and doctors should know what is available and limit the ordering from this list. Illegible writing has plagued both nurses and pharmacists for decades. Physicians are often in a hurry and frequently scribble down orders that are not legible; this often results in major medication mistakes. Taking shortcuts in writing drug orders is a prescription for a lawsuit. Often the practitioner or the pharmacist is not able to read the order and makes their best guess.

If the drug required is a dire emergency, this also adds more risk to the patient. To eliminate such errors, most hospitals have rules that practitioners and pharmacists have to follow; if the drug order is illegible, the physician must be called and asked to rewrite the order clearly.

The bad writing by physicians has become such a major problem that the Institute of Safe Medication Practices has recommended the complete elimination of handwritten orders and prescriptions. This problem has been resolved using electronic records where everything is typed, and poor writing is no longer an issue; however, errors still can occur from writing the wrong drug, dose, or frequency.

Approach every prescription with caution. There have been many new drug releases in the last decade, and generics with similar names have flooded the market. In addition to having similar names, many of these medications have multiple uses and alternative names. If the diagnosis is not stated on the prescription, there is a risk that the drug may be prescribed for too long or an inadequate amount of time.

With dozens of new generics with similar names, the risk of error is very high. To counter the consequences of unintended substitutions for medications, the US Pharmacopeia has listed the names of look-alike medications, and the ISMP has developed a list of abbreviations that are routinely misinterpreted. Write down the precise dosage.

Distortion of a dose can easily occur when nonspecific abbreviations or decimal points are used without thought. One abbreviation that is often the cause of medication errors is the "Ug" symbol for micrograms. It is often mistaken for units and should be avoided at all costs. It is best to spell out the quantity. Use metric measures : The use of apothecary measures are now part of the historical archives; weight measures like grains, drams, and minims have little meaning to the modern-day healthcare workers and should no longer be used.

Instead, use the universal metric measures that are preferred by pharmacists and practitioners. When using metric measures, be careful when and where you use the decimal point. For example, when writing dexamethasone 2. On the other hand, a zero should always precede a decimal point. For example, when writing digoxin, it should be written as 0.

Again, if the decimal point is not seen, it can easily lead to a tenfold increase in dose. Consider patient age: The two populations that are very sensitive to medications are the elderly and children. Also, if you write a prescription, write the patient's age and weight on it so that the pharmacist understands how you derived the dose. In children, most drugs are prescribed based on body weight. Liver and kidney function: Another widespread reason for medication errors is not considering renal or liver failure.

Patients with renal and liver dysfunction need lower doses. Otherwise, toxicity can result because of the failure to excrete or break down the medication. Provide directions: Healthcare workers who write drug orders and prescriptions should never assume that the other party knows what you mean.

Provide clear instructions on doses, the number of pills, and how and when the medication is to be taken. Writing orders like "take as directed" is a recipe for disaster. Similarly, "PRN" without an indication should never be used. It is an error in the making. Write down when the drug is to be taken and for what purpose e. Take the morphine every 3 to 4 hours as needed for pain. Reducing medication errors requires open communication between the patient and the pharmacist. Use of Abbreviations: One widespread cause of medication errors is the use of abbreviations.

QD meaning once a day can easily be mistaken for QID four times a day. Additionally, these abbreviations can have several other meanings and can be misinterpreted. It is recommended that abbreviations not be used at all when writing medication orders. Duration of treatment: In the past, some physicians would simply write down the total number of pills that a patient is supposed to get without specifying the duration of treatment. It is vital to specify the duration of treatment and that the duration of treatment matches the number of pills prescribed.

When writing about the quantity of the drug, it is important to write down the actual number of pills e. Another reason for specifying the number of doses is that it requires the patient to comply with follow up and prevents them from just collecting older medications. If the patient has a chronic disorder, the practitioner should be treating each flare-up as a single event with a finite number of pills.

If the patient has a flare-up or exacerbation, tell him or her to come to the clinic for an exam and, at that time, determine if more pills are needed. Just empirically prescribing pills for a theoretical recurrence only leads to confusion and a high risk of adverse reactions. Remain alert for high-risk medications. For example, if a patient has a deep vein thrombosis or a prosthetic heart valve and requires warfarin, only prescribe for 4 weeks at a time and reassess the patient on each visit.

Do not give warfarin for many months at a time. The patient needs to be monitored for the INR, and the dose may have to be adjusted. Always specify the indication for the drug. Writing the indication for the drug is highly recommended because many drugs have multiple uses.

Unfortunately, the majority of prescriptions never have the diagnosis written, and omitting this information increases the potential for complications. Writing the diagnosis informs the pharmacist of the diagnosis and reminds the patient of the medication's purpose. This small step can facilitate counseling by the pharmacist, reinforce the patient's treatment plan, and provide ample opportunities for patient education. It also helps improve communication between the healthcare provider and the pharmacist.

For example, corticosteroids and anticonvulsants have many uses, and the pharmacist needs to know what condition is being treated. Choose the appropriate drug for the patient population: When dealing with elderly patients, healthcare providers should avoid ordering drugs listed on the Beers criteria- this list of drugs is known to have the potential to cause adverse reactions in elderly individuals.

Add supplemental instructions. Always add extra precautions when necessary. For example, when prescribing tetracyclines, the patient should be warned about sun exposure, or when taking ibuprofen, the patient should be told to take the medication with food. When prescribing metronidazole, warn the patient about alcohol use. Do not assume that the pharmacist will add these extra warnings when dispensing the drugs.

For patients who cannot read or understand the instructions for prescribed medications, educate the family, and provide verbal counseling when required. Adopt a reporting system. The only way to reduce medication errors is to develop a reporting system and then make changes to prevent similar errors from reoccurring. Even a near miss should be reported. The staff should be encouraged to report without any repercussions.

It is a great learning experience and enhances safety. Discuss the patient's preferences. Considering the many drugs available to treat the same disorder, involve the patient in decision making. The patient should be told about the potential adverse effects and cautions. Write your contact number. Many healthcare providers write prescriptions or orders in the chart and often do not leave a contact number.

If there is a query about the drug, then the pharmacist and nurse are left on their own, and consequently, the patient misses out on the medication. In the past, when medication errors occurred, the individual who caused it was usually blamed for the mishap.

Medication errors related to employees may be due to the following:. This culture of blame has shifted, and medication errors are believed to be a systemic problem. Errors in the system may be viewed as the result and not the cause. Thus, rather than focusing on changing the behavior of every healthcare worker, hospitals are now trying to understand how the system failed.

This approach is designed to introduce barriers and safeguards at every level so that a mistake can be caught before the drug is given to the patient. In many cases, mistakes are made by some of the well-trained healthcare professionals, and rather than blame them; one should try and understand why the error occurred.

In many cases, errors occur in recurrent patterns, irrespective of the healthcare worker involved. Many adverse drug events are preventable, as they are often due to human error. Common causes of error related to the pharmacists include failure to:. Still, more packages come from online pharmacies in Canada. Independent research published by the National Bureau of Economic Research demonstrates that online pharmacies, U. Nine percent of tested products ordered from uncredentialed online pharmacies were counterfeit.

Legality and risks of purchasing drugs online depend on the specific kind and amount of drug being purchased. The FDA believes that organized criminal networks control many online pharmacies that sell illegal pharmaceutical products without prescriptions. FDA, in partnership with other federal and international agencies and technology companies like Google, took action against websites that were selling drugs to U.

The U. A proposal called the Safe Importation Action Plan would allow states, wholesalers and pharmacies, but not patients, to buy drugs from Canada. All online pharmacies sell through the Internet but must ship the product usually via mail.

Immigration and Customs Enforcement ICE , [42] and it is common practice for many agencies to jointly investigate alleged crimes. All Bulgarian online pharmacies must be registered with the Bulgarian Drug Agency BDA , which controls the medicine trade and reviews when there is doubt in drug quality and safety.

A special BDA logo and a certificate for registration of pharmacy prove the accreditation and the legitimacy of the store. Clicking on the logo takes the consumer to the official page of the Bulgarian drug agency. The web page must deliver information about the pharmacy's name, address, registration number, and its manager.

Buying prescription drugs from even the most well-respected internet pharmacies in Canada often results in a prescription filled from drugs sourced not from Canada but Caribbean nations or from Eastern Europe. The Canadian online pharmacy that sells the drugs offers them at Canadian prices but buys at a still cheaper rate from third parties overseas; this has led to problems with prescriptions being filled with counterfeit drugs. Some pharmacists have left the business because of the ethical issues involved.

In , the largest online Canadian drug retailer was prohibited from selling wholesale drugs by Health Canada. Of the three primary entrepreneurs of online Canadian drugs sold to the United States, one has been imprisoned, one left the industry, and the third is under investigation for criminal wrongdoing. For more about this, see " Canada Drugs' history and closure. While there are no laws specifically targeting online pharmacies in India, various laws govern online pharmacies indirectly.

The Drugs and Cosmetics Act and the Drugs and Cosmetics Rules contain guidelines concerning the sale of Schedule H and Schedule X drugs, which can only be obtained through prescription. There are also specific rules for labeling and barcoding. It appears that electronic prescriptions should be valid [ citation needed ] , especially in the light of the Pharmacy Practice Regulations declared by the Pharmacy Council of India in January In these regulations, "prescription," as defined by regulation 2, j [3] means "a written or electronic direction from a Registered Medical Practitioner.

However, whether such electronic prescriptions can be used to buy medicine from online pharmacies has been questioned. The Delhi High Court banned the online sale of medicines in the country on December 12, after listening to a Public Interest Litigation hearing by Dr.

Ahmed Zaheer. This order illegalizes the sale of medicines through the Internet in India. Home delivery of medicines by online players is in contravention of the Act. In , the Drug Regulatory Authority of Pakistan Act passed [58] for the registration of homeopathic, herbal, unani, allopathic, and nutraceutical products. This has also implied that only registered retail pharmacies can sell such items, along with OTC and Prescription medication, to the public.

The sale of all drugs in Pakistan is subject to the Drugs Act of In the U. K, more than 2 million people buy drugs regularly on the Internet from online pharmacies; some are legitimate, but others have "dangerous practices" that could endanger children. European registered pharmacists have reciprocal agreements allowing them to practice in the U. The first online pharmacy in the U. Doctors carry out online consultations and issue prescriptions.

Online clinics only prescribe a limited number of medicines and do not replace regular doctors working from surgeries. There are various ways the doctors carry out the online consultations; sometimes, it is done almost entirely by questionnaire. Customers usually pay one fee, which includes the price of the consultation, prescription, and the price of the medicine. As of April , there were 46 registered online pharmacies in England. In April , the Care Quality Commission suspended the registration of Doctor Matt Ltd because of inadequate medical assessment of prescription requests.

Six have been warned after inspections. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Pharmacy that operates over the Internet. Main article: Consumer import of prescription drugs. Main article: Online pharmacy laws in India. Retrieved 12 July AEI Press; 1 edition May 1, ISBN US FDA. February Retrieved 14 July December October Web MD. Retrieved 27 September PMID AEI Ideas. American Enterprise Institute. Retrieved 2 May Medical Care Research and Review. PMC The Inquirer. Journal of Pharmaceutical Health Services Research.

Financial Post. Archived from the original on 1 March Retrieved 1 March

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Physicians are often in a hurry and frequently scribble down orders that are not legible; this often results in major medication mistakes. Taking shortcuts in writing drug orders is a prescription for a lawsuit. Often the practitioner or the pharmacist is not able to read the order and makes their best guess.

If the drug required is a dire emergency, this also adds more risk to the patient. To eliminate such errors, most hospitals have rules that practitioners and pharmacists have to follow; if the drug order is illegible, the physician must be called and asked to rewrite the order clearly.

The bad writing by physicians has become such a major problem that the Institute of Safe Medication Practices has recommended the complete elimination of handwritten orders and prescriptions. This problem has been resolved using electronic records where everything is typed, and poor writing is no longer an issue; however, errors still can occur from writing the wrong drug, dose, or frequency. Approach every prescription with caution. There have been many new drug releases in the last decade, and generics with similar names have flooded the market.

In addition to having similar names, many of these medications have multiple uses and alternative names. If the diagnosis is not stated on the prescription, there is a risk that the drug may be prescribed for too long or an inadequate amount of time. With dozens of new generics with similar names, the risk of error is very high. To counter the consequences of unintended substitutions for medications, the US Pharmacopeia has listed the names of look-alike medications, and the ISMP has developed a list of abbreviations that are routinely misinterpreted.

Write down the precise dosage. Distortion of a dose can easily occur when nonspecific abbreviations or decimal points are used without thought. One abbreviation that is often the cause of medication errors is the "Ug" symbol for micrograms. It is often mistaken for units and should be avoided at all costs. It is best to spell out the quantity. Use metric measures : The use of apothecary measures are now part of the historical archives; weight measures like grains, drams, and minims have little meaning to the modern-day healthcare workers and should no longer be used.

Instead, use the universal metric measures that are preferred by pharmacists and practitioners. When using metric measures, be careful when and where you use the decimal point. For example, when writing dexamethasone 2. On the other hand, a zero should always precede a decimal point. For example, when writing digoxin, it should be written as 0. Again, if the decimal point is not seen, it can easily lead to a tenfold increase in dose. Consider patient age: The two populations that are very sensitive to medications are the elderly and children.

Also, if you write a prescription, write the patient's age and weight on it so that the pharmacist understands how you derived the dose. In children, most drugs are prescribed based on body weight. Liver and kidney function: Another widespread reason for medication errors is not considering renal or liver failure. Patients with renal and liver dysfunction need lower doses. Otherwise, toxicity can result because of the failure to excrete or break down the medication.

Provide directions: Healthcare workers who write drug orders and prescriptions should never assume that the other party knows what you mean. Provide clear instructions on doses, the number of pills, and how and when the medication is to be taken. Writing orders like "take as directed" is a recipe for disaster. Similarly, "PRN" without an indication should never be used. It is an error in the making. Write down when the drug is to be taken and for what purpose e. Take the morphine every 3 to 4 hours as needed for pain.

Reducing medication errors requires open communication between the patient and the pharmacist. Use of Abbreviations: One widespread cause of medication errors is the use of abbreviations. QD meaning once a day can easily be mistaken for QID four times a day. Additionally, these abbreviations can have several other meanings and can be misinterpreted. It is recommended that abbreviations not be used at all when writing medication orders.

Duration of treatment: In the past, some physicians would simply write down the total number of pills that a patient is supposed to get without specifying the duration of treatment. It is vital to specify the duration of treatment and that the duration of treatment matches the number of pills prescribed.

When writing about the quantity of the drug, it is important to write down the actual number of pills e. Another reason for specifying the number of doses is that it requires the patient to comply with follow up and prevents them from just collecting older medications. If the patient has a chronic disorder, the practitioner should be treating each flare-up as a single event with a finite number of pills. If the patient has a flare-up or exacerbation, tell him or her to come to the clinic for an exam and, at that time, determine if more pills are needed.

Just empirically prescribing pills for a theoretical recurrence only leads to confusion and a high risk of adverse reactions. Remain alert for high-risk medications. For example, if a patient has a deep vein thrombosis or a prosthetic heart valve and requires warfarin, only prescribe for 4 weeks at a time and reassess the patient on each visit.

Do not give warfarin for many months at a time. The patient needs to be monitored for the INR, and the dose may have to be adjusted. Always specify the indication for the drug. Writing the indication for the drug is highly recommended because many drugs have multiple uses. Unfortunately, the majority of prescriptions never have the diagnosis written, and omitting this information increases the potential for complications.

Writing the diagnosis informs the pharmacist of the diagnosis and reminds the patient of the medication's purpose. This small step can facilitate counseling by the pharmacist, reinforce the patient's treatment plan, and provide ample opportunities for patient education.

It also helps improve communication between the healthcare provider and the pharmacist. For example, corticosteroids and anticonvulsants have many uses, and the pharmacist needs to know what condition is being treated. Choose the appropriate drug for the patient population: When dealing with elderly patients, healthcare providers should avoid ordering drugs listed on the Beers criteria- this list of drugs is known to have the potential to cause adverse reactions in elderly individuals.

Add supplemental instructions. Always add extra precautions when necessary. For example, when prescribing tetracyclines, the patient should be warned about sun exposure, or when taking ibuprofen, the patient should be told to take the medication with food. When prescribing metronidazole, warn the patient about alcohol use.

Do not assume that the pharmacist will add these extra warnings when dispensing the drugs. For patients who cannot read or understand the instructions for prescribed medications, educate the family, and provide verbal counseling when required. Adopt a reporting system. The only way to reduce medication errors is to develop a reporting system and then make changes to prevent similar errors from reoccurring.

Even a near miss should be reported. The staff should be encouraged to report without any repercussions. It is a great learning experience and enhances safety. Discuss the patient's preferences. Considering the many drugs available to treat the same disorder, involve the patient in decision making.

The patient should be told about the potential adverse effects and cautions. Write your contact number. Many healthcare providers write prescriptions or orders in the chart and often do not leave a contact number. If there is a query about the drug, then the pharmacist and nurse are left on their own, and consequently, the patient misses out on the medication. In the past, when medication errors occurred, the individual who caused it was usually blamed for the mishap.

Medication errors related to employees may be due to the following:. This culture of blame has shifted, and medication errors are believed to be a systemic problem. Errors in the system may be viewed as the result and not the cause. Thus, rather than focusing on changing the behavior of every healthcare worker, hospitals are now trying to understand how the system failed. This approach is designed to introduce barriers and safeguards at every level so that a mistake can be caught before the drug is given to the patient.

In many cases, mistakes are made by some of the well-trained healthcare professionals, and rather than blame them; one should try and understand why the error occurred. In many cases, errors occur in recurrent patterns, irrespective of the healthcare worker involved.

Many adverse drug events are preventable, as they are often due to human error. Common causes of error related to the pharmacists include failure to:. Often these errors can be avoided by spending time talking speaking to the patient and double-checking their understanding of the dose, drug allergies, and reviewing any other medications they may be taking. Barriers to successful communication include the inability to reach prescribers, unclear verbal and written orders and time constraints make it challenging to check drug interactions.

A pharmacist's responsibilities often include supervising patients' medication treatment and notifying the healthcare team when a discrepancy is found. Most medication discrepancies are found at discharge, highlighting the need for a pharmacist to assist in the discharge process. In the past, practitioners have borne the blame for medication errors. This has resulted in underreporting and an environment that fails to promote safety improvement. The reality is that many errors are due to poor system design and over expectation of human performance.

Improving patient safety starts with developing a cultural focus on safety improvement. The team must work together, and when an error is identified, the goal is to prevent it from happening again rather than blame the individual.

Medication errors are a common issue in healthcare and cost billions of dollars nationwide while inflicting significant morbidity and mortality. While national attention has been paid to errors in medication dispensing issues, it remains a widespread problem.

The best method to enhance patient safety is to develop a multi-faceted strategy for education and prevention. Emphasis should be put on healthcare providers working as a team and communicating as well as encouraging patients to be more informed about their medications. With a culture of safety, dispensing medication errors can be reduced.

Over the years, hospitals have developed strategies to prevent medication errors. Some of these strategies include the following:. Writing prescriptions and medication orders is an everyday job duty for many healthcare workers, including nurse practitioners.

However, the increased demands to see more patients who require many medications often become monotonous, and one can become careless. The majority of healthcare workers never anticipate an adverse drug event, and consequently, rarely check back with the pharmacists for drug interactions. With a high number of medication-related errors, healthcare workers are under great scrutiny to change their work habits and adopt a culture of safety when writing drug orders and prescriptions.

Though there is no single way to eliminate all drug errors, healthcare workers can reduce errors by becoming more cautious and interacting closely with other practitioners, pharmacists, and patients. Open and direct communication is one way to bridge the safety gap. An interprofessional team working together is important to achieve accurate medication utilization and decreased errors.

Clinicians order medications, pharmacists, fill them, and nurses and patients administer them. Improvements in this chain of communication will ultimately provide better patient care with decreased morbidity and mortality. Better patient education on their medication offers a check and balance on the health professionals and increases safety compliance. An environment of teamwork is most conducive to optimal medication delivery.

The team should not fear discussion and resolution of conflicts. Lack of interprofessional communication limits the discovery of medication errors and uncovering their root cause. Open discussion amongst the team should be encouraged. This book is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4. Turn recording back on.

National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. StatPearls [Internet]. Search term. Author Information Authors Rayhan A. Affiliations 1 Drexel University College of Medicine. Continuing Education Activity Close to 6, prescription medications and countless over-the-counter drugs are available in the United States. Introduction Close to 6, prescription medications and countless over-the-counter drugs are available in the United States.

Function Medication errors can occur at many steps in patient care, from ordering the medication to the time when the patient is administered the drug. Administration errors including the incorrect route of administration, giving the drug to the wrong patient, extra dose or wrong rate. Monitoring error such as failing to take into account patient liver and renal function, failing to document allergy or potential for drug interaction.

Compliance error such as not following protocol or rules established for dispensing and prescribing medications. Clinical Significance Medication errors are a common issue in healthcare and cost billions of dollars nationwide while inflicting significant morbidity and mortality. Other Issues Other Strategies to Reduce Medication Errors Over the years, hospitals have developed strategies to prevent medication errors.

Some of these strategies include the following: Double-check the dosing and frequency of all high-alert medications. The Institute of Safe Medication Practices provides a list of high alert medications. If the writing is illegible, do not give the medication believing that you think you know what it is. Call the healthcare provider to confirm the drug or dose. Ask another clinician to recheck your calculations. Enhancing Healthcare Team Outcomes Writing prescriptions and medication orders is an everyday job duty for many healthcare workers, including nurse practitioners.

Communication When pharmacists communicate with prescribers and nurses, the pharmacist should: Outline the problem and then provide details. Comment on this article. References 1. Medication errors: an overview for clinicians.

Mayo Clin Proc. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. Dispensing errors in community pharmacies in the United Arab Emirates: investigating incidence, types, severity, and causes. Pharm Pract Granada. The first online pharmacy in the U. Doctors carry out online consultations and issue prescriptions. Online clinics only prescribe a limited number of medicines and do not replace regular doctors working from surgeries.

There are various ways the doctors carry out the online consultations; sometimes, it is done almost entirely by questionnaire. Customers usually pay one fee, which includes the price of the consultation, prescription, and the price of the medicine. As of April , there were 46 registered online pharmacies in England. In April , the Care Quality Commission suspended the registration of Doctor Matt Ltd because of inadequate medical assessment of prescription requests. Six have been warned after inspections.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Pharmacy that operates over the Internet. Main article: Consumer import of prescription drugs. Main article: Online pharmacy laws in India. Retrieved 12 July AEI Press; 1 edition May 1, ISBN US FDA. February Retrieved 14 July December October Web MD. Retrieved 27 September PMID AEI Ideas. American Enterprise Institute. Retrieved 2 May Medical Care Research and Review. PMC The Inquirer. Journal of Pharmaceutical Health Services Research.

Financial Post. Archived from the original on 1 March Retrieved 1 March National Bureau of Economic Research. Issued in March For LegitScript's standards see [2]. India Today. Retrieved 3 November Food and Drug Administration. New Hampshire Government Website. Retrieved 14 November The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 16 November International Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers.

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