layout for a literature review

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A full set of resources to accompany this feature can be downloaded for free here. Calling all English teachers: does this sound familiar? As structure gcse english lit essay go through extracts in the last lesson on Friday afternoon, you ask carefully crafted questions, and note with satisfaction how students shoot their hands up in a flash, like Barry Allen on the run. Later, back at home, you mark them. What went wrong?

Layout for a literature review essay on impact of gizmos and gadgets

Layout for a literature review

If you are creating a literature review as a part of another work, you need to search for literature related to your main research questions and problem. Respectively, if you are writing it as a stand-alone task, you will have to pick a relevant topic and central question upon which you will be collecting the literature.

Earlier in this guide we suggested some engaging topics to guide your search. When you have a clearly defined topic, it is time to start collecting literature for your review. We recommend starting by compiling a list of relevant keywords related to your central question—to make the entire research process much simpler and help you find relevant publications faster.

When you have a list of keywords, use them to search for valid and relevant sources. At this point, be sure to use only trusted sources, such as ones from university libraries, online scientific databases, etc. Once you have found some sources, be sure to define whether or not they are actually relevant to your topic and research question. To save you time, you can read abstracts to get general ideas of what the papers are about, instead of the whole thing.

Throughout your research, you will likely find plenty of relevant literature to include in your literature review. At this point, many students make the mistake of trying to fit all of their collected sources into their reviews. To evaluate which sources are worth including in your review, keep in mind the following criteria:. And be sure to get your citations in place early on. If you cite the selected sources at the initial stage, you will find it easier to create your annotated bibliography later on.

Before you can move on to outlining and writing your literature review, the final step is determining the relationships between the studies that already exist. Identifying the relationships will help you organize the existing knowledge, build a solid literature outline, and if necessary indicate your own research contribution to a specific field.

Here are a few examples: Common trends may include a focus on specific groups of people across different studies. There may be increased interest among most researchers in certain aspects of the topic in terms of key themes. Contradictions may include some disagreement concerning the theories and outcomes of a study. And finally, gaps most often refer to a lack of research on certain aspects of a topic.

Although students tend to neglect this stage, outlining is one of the most important steps in writing every academic paper. Besides, having a rough idea about what you are going to write about in the paper will help you get it right faster and easier. Earlier in this guide, we already discussed the basic structure of a literature review and gave you an example of a good outline.

Having found and created all of your sources, notes, citations, and a detailed outline, you can finally get to the writing part of the process. Most students make a common mistake and skip the final stage of the process, which includes proofreading and editing. We recommend taking enough time for these steps to ensure that your work will be worth the highest score.

Do not underestimate the importance of proofreading and editing, and allocate enough time for these steps. These steps will help you create a top-notch literature review with ease! Want to get more advice on how to handle this body of work? Here are the top 3 tips you need to keep in mind when writing a literature review:. You can find two well-written literature reviews by the EssayPro writing team below. They will help you understand what the final product of a literature review should ideally look like.

The first literature review compares monolingual and bilingual language acquisition skills and uses various sources to prove its point:. Both reviews will help you sharpen your skills and provide good guidelines for writing high-quality papers. No worries because our online essay writing service has got you covered! By choosing EssayPro, you will acquire a reliable friend who can help you handle any kind of literature review or other academic assignments of any level and topic.

All you need to do to get help from the best academic writers now and boost your grades is to place an order in a few quick clicks and we will satisfy your write my essay request. Click here to see how our academic service helps college students all around the world with various types of assignments!

We have tested thousands of candidates to present you with the best writers available. Click here to meet them! Learn the simple process of getting yourself a well-written custom essay! Visit EssayPro for a step-by-step guide! Our Team How to Order. Log In Sign Up. Need Help With Literature Review? Get Help Now. Introduction Introduce the general topic. Provide background information on the Ebola virus: genome, pathogenesis, transmission, epidemiology, treatment, etc.

Shape the main research question: What is the potential role of arthropods mechanical or biological vectors in the distribution of the Ebola virus? Methodology: For example, the information was searched through X databases to find relevant research articles about the Ebola virus and arthropods' role in its spreading.

The data was extracted using a standardized form. Expected outcomes Overall trends in the literature on this topic: While the natural reservoir of the virus is still not known with certainty, many researchers believe that arthropods and fruit bats, in particular pay a significant role in the distribution of the virus. Body Subject 1: A brief overview of the particular piece of literature in general terms; an analysis of the key aspects of the study; a review of the research questions, methods, procedures, and outcomes; and an overview of the strong and weak points, gaps, and contradictions.

Subject 2: A brief overview of the particular piece of literature in general terms; an analysis of the key aspects of the study; a review of the research questions, methods, procedures, and outcomes; and an overview of the strong and weak points, gaps, and contradictions. Subject 3: A brief overview of the particular piece of literature in general terms; an analysis of the key aspects of the study; a review of the research questions, methods, procedures, and outcomes; and an overview of the strong and weak points, gaps, and contradictions.

Conclusion Indicate the relationships between the pieces of literature discussed. Emphasize key themes, common patterns, and trends. State which studies seem to be the most influential. Emphasize the major contradictions and points of disagreement. Define the gaps still to be covered if any. If applicable: define how your own study will contribute to further disclosure of the topic.

Proceed to Order. More Posts. Essay Writing Service. EssayPro Writers. How to Order. Stay Update. Admission Essay Writing. Critical Essay Writing. Dissertation Writing. Research Paper Writing. Term Paper Writing. Literature Essay Writing. Reflective Essay Writing. The scope of your review will depend on your topic and discipline: in the sciences you usually only review recent literature, but in the humanities you might take a long historical perspective for example, to trace how a concept has changed in meaning over time.

As you read, you should also begin the writing process. T ake notes that you can later incorporate into the text of your literature review. It can be helpful to make an annotated bibliography, where you compile full reference information and write a paragraph of summary and analysis for each source. This helps you remember what you read and saves time later in the process. Based on your reading and notes, you can look for:.

This step will help you work out the structure of your literature review and if applicable show how your own research will contribute to existing knowledge. There are various approaches to organising the body of a literature review. You should have a rough idea of your strategy before you start writing.

Depending on the length of your literature review, you can combine several of these strategies for example, your overall structure might be thematic, but each theme is discussed chronologically. The simplest approach is to trace the development of the topic over time.

However, if you choose this strategy, be careful to avoid simply listing and summarising sources in order. Try to analyse patterns, turning points and key debates that have shaped the direction of the field. Give your interpretation of how and why certain developments occurred. If you have found some recurring central themes, you can organise your literature review into subsections that address different aspects of the topic. For example, if you are reviewing literature about inequalities in migrant health outcomes, key themes might include healthcare policy, language barriers, cultural attitudes, legal status, and economic access.

If you draw your sources from different disciplines or fields that use a variety of research methods , you might want to compare the results and conclusions that emerge from different approaches. For example:.

A literature review is often the foundation for a theoretical framework. You can use it to discuss various theories, models, and definitions of key concepts. You might argue for the relevance of a specific theoretical approach, or combine various theoretical concepts to create a framework for your research. Like any other academic text, your literature review should have an introduction , a main body, and a conclusion. What you include in each depends on the objective of your literature review.

If you are writing the literature review as part of your dissertation or thesis, reiterate your central problem or research question and give a brief summary of the scholarly context. If you are writing a stand-alone paper, give some background on the topic and its importance, discuss the scope of the literature you will review for example, the time period of your sources , and state your objective.

What new insight will you draw from the literature? Depending on the length of your literature review, you might want to divide the body into subsections. You can use a subheading for each theme, time period, or methodological approach. Example of a paragraph in a literature review Body image issues have been widely associated with social media usage, particularly in young women. The relation between media depictions and body image concerns is well-established; a meta-analysis by Grabe, Ward and Hyde concluded that exposure to mass media is linked to body image dissatisfaction among women.

However, in an era of rapidly changing digital technologies, the mass media paradigm is no longer adequate for understanding how people engage with images, and the findings of older studies like this one may not be generalizable to younger generations. In light of this changing landscape, researchers have become increasingly interested in the specific effects of social media. Perloff theorizes that the interactive aspects of social media may influence its impact on body image, and mentions that young women are among the most active social media users.

Across these studies, there is consistent evidence that body image issues are influenced not by social media usage in general, but by engagement with the visual and interactive aspects of these platforms. Nonetheless, there is a lack of robust research on more highly-visual social media HVSM such as Instagram and Snapchat that have gained more recent popularity among younger generations.

In the conclusion, you should summarise the key findings you have taken from the literature and emphasise their significance. If the literature review is part of your dissertation or thesis, reiterate how your research addresses gaps and contributes new knowledge, or discuss how you have drawn on existing theories and methods to build a framework for your research. This can lead directly into your methodology section. If you are writing a stand-alone paper, you can discuss the overall implications of the literature or make suggestions for future research based on the gaps you have identified.

A literature review is a survey of scholarly sources such as books, journal articles, and theses related to a specific topic or research question. It is often written as part of a dissertation , thesis, research paper , or proposal. There are several reasons to conduct a literature review at the beginning of a research project:.

Writing the literature review shows your reader how your work relates to existing research and what new insights it will contribute. The literature review usually comes near the beginning of your dissertation. After the introduction , it grounds your research in a scholarly field and leads directly to your theoretical framework or methodology.

Your advice is so helpful - many thanks! Please could you tell me whether we can include material from an awarded Phd thesis and cite it in our literature review for an MSc. There's certainly nothing wrong with citing information from a PhD thesis if it's relevant to your chosen topic. Feel free to do so. Hi Shona I just wanted to say that this is an absolute lifesaver and I feel so much more confident about writing my literature review for my research proposal after reading this- I was in a complete mess before!

Thank you so so much for writing this! My literature is divided in 5 sections: Introduction, methodology, findings discussion and conclusion. Where do I show the gap in literature. Is it in my findings section or discussion section. If you're not including a separate literature review chapter, you would usually demonstrate the gap in the literature in your introduction chapter, where you give the background to your topic and introduce your research questions.

I have written my proposal for my MA and about to start my thesis write up. You can certainly use your proposal as a basis, but you should generally expand and revise it as you write your thesis. Check with your supervisor whether you're allowed to copy passages of text directly from your proposal or if it needs to be rewritten; if you submitted the proposal as an assignment for credit, re-using it may be considered self-plagiarism , but universities have different rules about this.

A good literature review doesn't just summarise individual sources in turn, but synthesises them — that means that each paragraph should connect the findings of a few related sources rather than just summarising a single source. This article about synthesising literature can help you get started. I was wondering if it is allowed to use the abstract from a paper to use as a summary for the literature review?

No, you should never copy the text of an abstract into your literature review; try to summarise the study in your own words. If you want to get a quick overview of a study's main findings, the abstract is a good place to start. But it's always best to read the full paper if possible or, at the very least, read the introduction and conclusion before including it in your literature review. If you want to use a sentence or short passage from the paper, make sure to properly quote — but paraphrasing is usually a better choice, as it shows you've read and understood the paper.

Remember that the literature review isn't just a list of summaries, but an original text that explains and draws connections between existing research. Say goodbye to inaccurate citations! Have a thesis expert improve your writing. Check your thesis for plagiarism in 10 minutes. Do the check.

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A summary is a brief overview of the important information in the publication; a synthesis is a re-organization of the information that gives the writing a new and unique meaning. Typically, a literature review is a part of a larger paper, such as a thesis or dissertation. However, you may also be given it in the form of a stand-alone assignment. Count on Pro to get it done! We only need your paper requirements to save your precious time and nerves from writing it on your own!

The main purpose of a literature review is to summarize and synthesize the ideas that were created by previous authors, without implementing personal opinions or other additional information. However, a literature review's objective is not just to list out summaries of sources; rather, it is to notice a central trend or principle seen within all of the publications.

Just like a research paper has a thesis that guides it on rails, a literature review has a main organizing principle MOP. The goal of this type of academic writing is to identify the MOP and show how it exists in all of your supporting documents. Why is a literature review important? The value of such work is explained by the following goals it pursues:. Here are some example topics to give you an idea of what a literature review can be about:.

Be sure to read the guidelines carefully to learn what is expected from you. To give you a rough idea, that is about pages for a page paper. In case you are writing a literature review as a stand-alone assignment, its length should be specified in the instructions provided. The essay format you use should adhere to will be the citation style preferred by your instructor.

Seek clarification from your instructor for several other components as well to establish a desired literature review format:. If you want to format your paper in APA style , then follow these rules:. For MLA style text, apply the following guidelines:. Finally, if you are required to write a literature review in Chicago style , here are the key rules to follow:. How to structure a literature review: Like many other types of academic writing, a literature review follows a typical intro-body-conclusion style with 5 paragraphs overall.

You should direct your reader s towards the MOP main organizing principle. This means that your information must start from a broad perspective and gradually narrow down until it reaches your focal point. Start by presenting your general concept Corruption, for example. Finally, the introduction will end with the presentation of your MOP that should directly link it to all three of the sources of literature.

As each source has its own frame of reference for the MOP, it is crucial to structure the review in the most logically consistent way possible. This means that the writing should either be structured chronologically, thematically, or methodologically. Breaking down your sources based on their publication date is a solid way to keep a correct historical timeline. If applied properly, it can present the development of a certain concept over time and provide examples in the form of literature.

However, sometimes there are better alternatives we can use to structure the body. Sometimes, the main idea will just glare from a piece of literature. Other times, the author may have to seek out examples to prove their point. An experienced writer will usually present their sources by order of strength. As made obvious by the terminology, this type of structuring focuses on the methods used to present the central concept.

By showcasing the various methods used to portray the MOP, the writer can compare them based on things like severity, ethicality, and overall impact. After discussing that information, the next step is to present the significance of the information in reference to our current world today. In other words, how can the reader take the information and apply it to today's society? From that point, we finish off with a breadcrumb trail.

This provides them with a means of further investigation—meaning that the reader may consider where the discussion will go next. Students often underestimate the importance of planning the structure of their papers in advance. However, this is not a wise approach.

Having a rough APA literature review outline or other style outlines will not only help you follow the right format and structure, but will also make the writing process simpler and help ensure that you include all of the important information without missing anything. How to write a literature review outline: As you already know from the Structure section of this guide, every part of your literature review performs its own important role.

Respectively, you should create your outline while keeping the general introduction-body-conclusion structure in mind and ensuring that each section meets its own objectives. However, it is important to remember that a literature review outline is slightly different from outlines of other types of essays because it does not provide new information. It focuses on existing studies relevant to the main topic.

Here is a literature review outline example on the subject of the Ebola virus to help you get it right:. Hopefully, this sample outline will help you to structure your own paper. Whether you are writing a literature review within the framework of a large research project e.

This is probably the only matter you may approach differently depending on whether your literature review comes within a research paper or a separate assignment altogether. If you are creating a literature review as a part of another work, you need to search for literature related to your main research questions and problem.

Respectively, if you are writing it as a stand-alone task, you will have to pick a relevant topic and central question upon which you will be collecting the literature. Earlier in this guide we suggested some engaging topics to guide your search. When you have a clearly defined topic, it is time to start collecting literature for your review. We recommend starting by compiling a list of relevant keywords related to your central question—to make the entire research process much simpler and help you find relevant publications faster.

When you have a list of keywords, use them to search for valid and relevant sources. At this point, be sure to use only trusted sources, such as ones from university libraries, online scientific databases, etc. Once you have found some sources, be sure to define whether or not they are actually relevant to your topic and research question.

To save you time, you can read abstracts to get general ideas of what the papers are about, instead of the whole thing. Throughout your research, you will likely find plenty of relevant literature to include in your literature review. At this point, many students make the mistake of trying to fit all of their collected sources into their reviews. To evaluate which sources are worth including in your review, keep in mind the following criteria:.

And be sure to get your citations in place early on. If you cite the selected sources at the initial stage, you will find it easier to create your annotated bibliography later on. Before you can move on to outlining and writing your literature review, the final step is determining the relationships between the studies that already exist. Identifying the relationships will help you organize the existing knowledge, build a solid literature outline, and if necessary indicate your own research contribution to a specific field.

Here are a few examples: Common trends may include a focus on specific groups of people across different studies. There may be increased interest among most researchers in certain aspects of the topic in terms of key themes. Contradictions may include some disagreement concerning the theories and outcomes of a study. And finally, gaps most often refer to a lack of research on certain aspects of a topic.

Although students tend to neglect this stage, outlining is one of the most important steps in writing every academic paper. Besides, having a rough idea about what you are going to write about in the paper will help you get it right faster and easier.

Earlier in this guide, we already discussed the basic structure of a literature review and gave you an example of a good outline. Having found and created all of your sources, notes, citations, and a detailed outline, you can finally get to the writing part of the process. In school or college, you will have to complete academic research in different forms.

One of them is a literature review. In simple terms, a literature review is a piece of writing that researches a particular topic as part of a larger essay or bibliographic scholarly journal. This is the author demonstrating their knowledge on the existing literature in their field prior to writing an essay on their own topic. A literature review is completed to help an author explain with research why they have approached a topic in a certain way.

The review builds up to the content of their work and answers questions that have originated from the literature. It is a good way to educate the reader on a topic and bring them up to date on the status of the research in question.

Before writing your research, review and consider your literature review format and think about what the text needs to contain. It is helpful to have an outline to ensure your work answers all the requirements. There are two major formatting styles when writing a literature review which dictates exactly how the research should be presented:.

It is a defined structure in terms of margins, line spacing, font sizes, and headings that should be used in the writing. There are plenty of sources available that show an structure of a literature review so if you are unsure on how to write a literature review in APA style, then refer to these. There are also APA style citation guidelines within the literature review example that you can follow.

Again, the formatting focuses on line spacing and margins. The specifics can be found in detail on literature review writing service websites. There you have our guidelines for writing a great literature review for your essay. Remember that you are building the foundation for your work and supplying the reader with background information so they can read and understand your work with ease.

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As you read, you should also begin the writing process. T ake notes that you can later incorporate into the text of your literature review. It can be helpful to make an annotated bibliography, where you compile full reference information and write a paragraph of summary and analysis for each source.

This helps you remember what you read and saves time later in the process. Based on your reading and notes, you can look for:. This step will help you work out the structure of your literature review and if applicable show how your own research will contribute to existing knowledge. There are various approaches to organising the body of a literature review.

You should have a rough idea of your strategy before you start writing. Depending on the length of your literature review, you can combine several of these strategies for example, your overall structure might be thematic, but each theme is discussed chronologically.

The simplest approach is to trace the development of the topic over time. However, if you choose this strategy, be careful to avoid simply listing and summarising sources in order. Try to analyse patterns, turning points and key debates that have shaped the direction of the field. Give your interpretation of how and why certain developments occurred.

If you have found some recurring central themes, you can organise your literature review into subsections that address different aspects of the topic. For example, if you are reviewing literature about inequalities in migrant health outcomes, key themes might include healthcare policy, language barriers, cultural attitudes, legal status, and economic access. If you draw your sources from different disciplines or fields that use a variety of research methods , you might want to compare the results and conclusions that emerge from different approaches.

For example:. A literature review is often the foundation for a theoretical framework. You can use it to discuss various theories, models, and definitions of key concepts. You might argue for the relevance of a specific theoretical approach, or combine various theoretical concepts to create a framework for your research. Like any other academic text, your literature review should have an introduction , a main body, and a conclusion.

What you include in each depends on the objective of your literature review. If you are writing the literature review as part of your dissertation or thesis, reiterate your central problem or research question and give a brief summary of the scholarly context.

If you are writing a stand-alone paper, give some background on the topic and its importance, discuss the scope of the literature you will review for example, the time period of your sources , and state your objective. What new insight will you draw from the literature?

Depending on the length of your literature review, you might want to divide the body into subsections. You can use a subheading for each theme, time period, or methodological approach. Example of a paragraph in a literature review Body image issues have been widely associated with social media usage, particularly in young women. The relation between media depictions and body image concerns is well-established; a meta-analysis by Grabe, Ward and Hyde concluded that exposure to mass media is linked to body image dissatisfaction among women.

However, in an era of rapidly changing digital technologies, the mass media paradigm is no longer adequate for understanding how people engage with images, and the findings of older studies like this one may not be generalizable to younger generations. In light of this changing landscape, researchers have become increasingly interested in the specific effects of social media.

Perloff theorizes that the interactive aspects of social media may influence its impact on body image, and mentions that young women are among the most active social media users. Across these studies, there is consistent evidence that body image issues are influenced not by social media usage in general, but by engagement with the visual and interactive aspects of these platforms.

Nonetheless, there is a lack of robust research on more highly-visual social media HVSM such as Instagram and Snapchat that have gained more recent popularity among younger generations. In the conclusion, you should summarise the key findings you have taken from the literature and emphasise their significance. If the literature review is part of your dissertation or thesis, reiterate how your research addresses gaps and contributes new knowledge, or discuss how you have drawn on existing theories and methods to build a framework for your research.

This can lead directly into your methodology section. If you are writing a stand-alone paper, you can discuss the overall implications of the literature or make suggestions for future research based on the gaps you have identified. A literature review is a survey of scholarly sources such as books, journal articles, and theses related to a specific topic or research question.

It is often written as part of a dissertation , thesis, research paper , or proposal. There are several reasons to conduct a literature review at the beginning of a research project:. Writing the literature review shows your reader how your work relates to existing research and what new insights it will contribute. The literature review usually comes near the beginning of your dissertation.

After the introduction , it grounds your research in a scholarly field and leads directly to your theoretical framework or methodology. Your advice is so helpful - many thanks! Please could you tell me whether we can include material from an awarded Phd thesis and cite it in our literature review for an MSc.

There's certainly nothing wrong with citing information from a PhD thesis if it's relevant to your chosen topic. Feel free to do so. Hi Shona I just wanted to say that this is an absolute lifesaver and I feel so much more confident about writing my literature review for my research proposal after reading this- I was in a complete mess before!

Thank you so so much for writing this! My literature is divided in 5 sections: Introduction, methodology, findings discussion and conclusion. Where do I show the gap in literature. Is it in my findings section or discussion section. If you're not including a separate literature review chapter, you would usually demonstrate the gap in the literature in your introduction chapter, where you give the background to your topic and introduce your research questions.

I have written my proposal for my MA and about to start my thesis write up. You can certainly use your proposal as a basis, but you should generally expand and revise it as you write your thesis. Check with your supervisor whether you're allowed to copy passages of text directly from your proposal or if it needs to be rewritten; if you submitted the proposal as an assignment for credit, re-using it may be considered self-plagiarism , but universities have different rules about this.

A good literature review doesn't just summarise individual sources in turn, but synthesises them — that means that each paragraph should connect the findings of a few related sources rather than just summarising a single source. This article about synthesising literature can help you get started. I was wondering if it is allowed to use the abstract from a paper to use as a summary for the literature review?

No, you should never copy the text of an abstract into your literature review; try to summarise the study in your own words. If you want to get a quick overview of a study's main findings, the abstract is a good place to start. But it's always best to read the full paper if possible or, at the very least, read the introduction and conclusion before including it in your literature review.

If you want to use a sentence or short passage from the paper, make sure to properly quote — but paraphrasing is usually a better choice, as it shows you've read and understood the paper. Remember that the literature review isn't just a list of summaries, but an original text that explains and draws connections between existing research. Say goodbye to inaccurate citations! Have a thesis expert improve your writing.

Check your thesis for plagiarism in 10 minutes. Do the check. Generate your APA citations for free! It is helpful to have an outline to ensure your work answers all the requirements. There are two major formatting styles when writing a literature review which dictates exactly how the research should be presented:. It is a defined structure in terms of margins, line spacing, font sizes, and headings that should be used in the writing. There are plenty of sources available that show an structure of a literature review so if you are unsure on how to write a literature review in APA style, then refer to these.

There are also APA style citation guidelines within the literature review example that you can follow. Again, the formatting focuses on line spacing and margins. The specifics can be found in detail on literature review writing service websites. There you have our guidelines for writing a great literature review for your essay. Remember that you are building the foundation for your work and supplying the reader with background information so they can read and understand your work with ease.

Keep these tips in mind to guide you and you will be writing great literature reviews in no time! I am Prof. Over the years, I have been professionally writing on various topics, mainly in the areas of business, entrepreneurship, patient care, and English. I always follow all the requirements that are written in the task. By hiring me you will no longer need another writer. Just fill out the form, press the button, and have no worries!

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