economic might essay

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A full set of resources to accompany this feature can be downloaded for free here. Calling all English teachers: does this sound familiar? As structure gcse english lit essay go through extracts in the last lesson on Friday afternoon, you ask carefully crafted questions, and note with satisfaction how students shoot their hands up in a flash, like Barry Allen on the run. Later, back at home, you mark them. What went wrong?

Economic might essay 12th grade math homework

Economic might essay

Virtually every Chinese village had its party operatives or cadres working closely with peasant associations in most areas these were formed after the revolution as a first step in organizing rural direct producers.

The government used these foot soldiers of the Revolution to encourage greater cooperation among farmers, including the formation of mutual aid teams, marketing cooperatives, tool-making and handicraft enterprises, new irrigation systems, and militia the CPC still feared outside intervention, as happened after the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia , as well as fostering greater support for the Party and government. This approach also provided the central authorities with eyes and ears throughout the countryside, where no recent central authority in China had been able to have much control.

This political process was reinforced by an economic process whereby the central government provided rural producers with guaranteed markets for their output via state purchasing agents. These policies were crucial to the aforementioned process of unification of China under a central authority. One of the results of the land reform was to dramatically reduce hunger and malnutrition in the Chinese countryside.

Simply eliminating the feudal lords and those dependent upon them freed up an enormous amount of resources that could be put to better use from the standpoint of overall social investment and future productive potential. The role of the feudal landlords as exploiters was exposed by the fact that their elimination had no detrimental impact on the countryside. The lords made no investments in the countryside, did no productive work whatsoever nor did their hired thugs, family members, or other supporters , and consumed excessive amounts of social output to reproduce their lavish lifestyle.

The improved income for rural direct producers helped to stimulate more demand for the products of self-employed artisans and self-employed farmers, improving their incomes. The positive circular and cumulative effects to borrow a phrase from Gunnar Myrdal helped to reduce overall poverty in the countryside even further. The rural population became better nourished, better clothed and sheltered, healthier, and more productive. China became one of the most egalitarian societies in the less industrialized world, the envy of many advocates for rural poor around the world.

The rural population that had been somewhat indifferent to the communists, except in that they were preferred to the KMD and the feudal lords, was won over by the willingness of the CPC to put its actions where its rhetoric had been in the redistribution of wealth and power away from old elites to the rural poor.

There was a gender element to this revolutionary change. There were many women among the cadre sent to work in the villages and one of the results of the CPC-led organizational efforts was to weaken feudal constraints on what women were able to do in the villages. Greater freedom for women had always been an important element of communist ideology in China, although it had taken a backseat to gaining the support of rural men during the revolutionary period.

With the success of the revolution came a renewed interest in freeing women from feudal political, cultural and economic bonds. Towards this objective, the CPC government passed a series of laws that gave women more rights to own land and to seek divorce from abusive husbands. And the importance of female CPC cadre serving in the villages as experts should not be underestimated as an impact on the thinking of both adults and younger people in the rural communities.

During the Great Leap Forward at the end of the s discussed in essay 4 the CPC leftists would extend their attack upon traditional gender roles. One of the distinctive elements of the communes [1] and of the Great Leap Forward, as a broader attempt at social transformation, was the expansion in the role of women in economic and political life.

Women played important roles in the communes, often at the top levels of management, and the Great Leap Forward represented a full-scale assault on the traditional, feudalistic household by drawing more women into the community-wide efforts to build new economic arrangements. The Maoist theoretical framework that served as the foundation for the Great Leap Forward recognized all labor, whether male or female, as valuable to the national economy.

This is a very different worldview from that which had traditionally prevailed in the countryside and in the cities which discounted the value of female labor and creativity. For a time, and especially under the influence of the left-wing of the CPC, the liberation of women was an integral objective in the overall mission of socialism. For instance, there was the New Economic Policy NEP approach under Lenin, Bukharin, and others, wherein Russian farmers and rural artisans were given a great deal of freedom to engage in self-exploitation and to sell their goods in relatively unfettered markets.

The NEP represented a first attempt at what would later be called market socialism. There was also the Stalinist war communism approach of a powerful central government taking command over the allocation of products and labor power. The Chinese leaders who had survived the KMD's attempted extermination were disinclined to follow the Stalinist approach, at least in the countryside, for fear of alienating the rural population and perhaps planting the seeds for future rural unrest.

At first, the CPC seemed to have settled on a more NEP-like strategy, including providing farmers with a guaranteed market for some of their output, buying rice, grain, and other basic goods through state purchasing stations established in for resale in the cities and towns. This was important because it solved two immediate problems of the revolutionary government: the need to support rural farmers and to provide relatively cheap food for workers in the cities.

Also, by more generally taking control over mass merchanting, the government gained the means for directly controlling the pricing and allocation of key commodities. This direct control over the marketing of key commodities reduced the possibility of unplanned price inflation -- which had been a serious problem for the KMD government. However, this arrangement was not always to the advantage of the rural direct producers. The state had extraordinary market power in these key commodities and could virtually dictate prices to direct producers.

The state also had monopoly control over the sale of key inputs to direct producers. This situation provided the state with the means to "cheat" direct producers by setting the purchase prices for ancient output too low and the sale price for ancient inputs too high: creating what has been described in the literature as a price-scissors effect. Some have argued that the price-scissors was deliberately used a mechanism for extracting surplus resources from the countryside for both investment in industrialization and subsidization of urban worker real incomes.

The CPC cadre argued that collectivization would place farmers in a stronger position to reduce costs and increase the surplus available for rural development, including providing for social services urban workers were guaranteed employment and their danwe provided these social services subsidized by surpluses extracted from the countryside while rural direct producers had to provide their own surplus resources for such social services.

The "learn from Dazhai" campaign was the leftist exhortation of rural direct producers to form cooperative production units similar to that which was created in the model community of Dazhai in Shanxi Province. The greater the level of concentration of rural production, the less difficult it was to account for rural produced resources.

Thus, increased scale production was also beneficial to a central government desiring more efficient and effective control over rural inputs and outputs and the rural surplus. This was certainly what the Party leadership had learned from Dazhai. Control over the sale of most inputs and outputs, especially industrial products, also gave the CPC-led government the means to indirectly control many of the activities of private-capitalist firms.

This allowed for a persistence of both state and private ownership in the capitalist sector a policy promoted by Party leaders who accepted the traditional Marxian teleology in which capitalism had to be fully developed prior to any transition to nonexploitative economic relations broadly referred to within these essays as either the rightwing of the CPC or as modernist Marxists.

Many of the remaining private sector capitalists may have believed that this policy of creating a complex web of interdependence between agencies of the state both productive enterprises and the bureaucracy and the private sector might bode well for their future prosperity or at least survival. During the early period of the new regime, this "mixed economy" approach may have, therefore, reduced the dangers of counter-revolutionary activities, since it appeared to be in the interest of the surviving private sector capitalists to cooperate with the government.

Lets examine this "mixed economy" approach in a bit more detail. In the cities, the CPC followed a pragmatic blueprint by which banks and many, though certainly not all, industrial enterprises were confiscated from their private owners primarily members and sympathizers of the KMD who had already fled the country.

Many private capitalist enterprises , particularly those engaged in "light manufacturing" were allowed to operate with government oversight -- regulation of wages, prices, and working conditions but private appropriation and distribution of the capitalist surplus. Thus, state-owned and privately owned capitalist firms operated together within the Chinese industrial sector.

The workers continued to work as wage labor employees of these firms, both the state-owned and private versions. Although workers councils were established to provide workers with a voice in certain matters, primarily social benefits provided by the firms both state-owned and privately-owned , the control over the cash flow generated by the state-owned enterprises was in the hands of government ministries who also appointed enterprise management and the cash flow generated by the privately-owned enterprises remained in the hands of their privately appointed directors.

Free market transactions between buyers and sellers continued to play the primary role in determining those cash flows. The internal governance of the surplus flows within state-owned capitalist enterprises was certainly in keeping with the Soviet version of "socialism" where public ownership of the means of production was deemed a sufficient step in the early stages of the transition to communism, but full-scale communism would have to wait until such time as the productive forces were deemed advanced enough to support allowing workers to control their own profits.

As the primary capitalist entity in the nation, the state would, according to official ideology again, this idea was borrowed from the Bolsheviks , use its control of the social profits to finance the construction of the country and the establishment of the conditions necessary to the eventual transition to communism. More pragmatically, the government used its resources to finance the military and the growing bureaucracy, to direct development towards heavy industry, to direct resources to the more economically depressed regions and areas where the dislocations caused by the civil war had been particularly severe, and to subsidize urban consumption and employment at levels that would reduce the risk of social unrest.

As was the case in the Soviet Union, the government not only controlled the profits generated in industry but would also control the allocation and pricing of the outputs and inputs of industry, both state-owned and privately owned enterprises.

This would be carried out eventually by via a central plan that was then imposed on all industrial, extractive, transport particularly the railroad system , and state merchanting enterprises. The result, as in the Soviet Union, was a boost in output, often of goods of poor quality and in quantities not in accord with need, but always cheap. More importantly for the government, perhaps, is that the central plan provided an expedient means for raising government revenue and of controlling inflation.

In the last years of KMD rule, it had become difficult for the nationalist government to raise sufficient revenues to meet the demands of policing civil conflict, financing a massive bureaucracy, feeding widescale corruption KMD officials were notorious for stealing from the government coffers , and paying the wages of the KMD army. The KMD solution had been to print more money with no concomitant increase in real goods and services which had triggered hyperinflation.

Hyperinflation had added to the miseries of urban life under the KMD and the CPC was determined not to reproduce this mistake. Thus, the CPC-controlled government used its role as primary capitalist appropriator to siphon needed revenues into the government, kept tight control over corruption to reduce the overall cost of administration, and coordinated the activities of a wide range of enterprises to meet the immediate needs of a post-civil-war reconstruction.

This first attempt at planning the Chinese economy as a whole was constructed with strong support and influence from Soviet advisers in The plan was largely based upon the Soviet model of economic development , with heavy emphasis on large-scale industrial enterprises and related development of mining, power, and transportation infrastructure.

The plan encompassed not only the new state-owned and controlled enterprises but the remaining private industrial enterprises, as well. All industrial inputs and outputs would be under the indirect command of the central authorities. In the rural areas, the plan called for the creation of large-scale state-owned and controlled farms in order to more tightly control the rural surplus for purposes of financing urban industrialization. In order to fund this plan, it was necessary to shift significant amounts of social resources labor time, raw materials, available machinery, vehicles, etc.

Given that this shift of resources would have initially been along an existing production possibilities frontier without either tapping unemployed resources or increasing the productivity of workers in the effected sectors , rather than an expansion in that frontier, you can imagine that this shift would likely have had a negative impact on output in those sectors of the economy from which resources were drawn. This was, in fact, the case.

As in the Soviet Union, the shift of resources into so-called heavy industry, mining, and infrastructure resulted in sharp drops in output of some consumer goods. This was considered by the government planners to be a necessary short-term sacrifice as the economic base of the economy was improved and the longer term increase in average productivity was brought about shifting the production possibilities frontier outwards.

In other words, the assumption of the planners was that the short-term trade-off by shifting resources along the production possibilities frontier or, perhaps more accurately, shifting them along a path somewhere below the full-employment frontier and trading off consumer goods for more heavy industry would ultimately result in a outward shift of the production possibilities frontier, allowing for greater production of all products and services.

This was the underlying assumption of the FYEP in China, as it had been the underlying assumption of the economic plans adopted in the Stalinist Soviet Union. In keeping with the Soviet model of development, which had sacrificed resources and people in the rural areas to the cause of industrialization, the FYEP shifted resources out of agriculture and into heavy industry, mining, and infrastructure.

In the USSR, this was coupled with the use of brute force to make the rural direct producers operate more efficiently, i. Although economic historians who have studied the Stalinist-era in the Soviet Union do not always agree on the relative success or failure of this policy, it does seem clear that many rural direct producers did not comply with the demands of their urban-based Bolshevik masters. The rural direct producers in the USSR often destroyed farm machinery and sabotaged crops in protest of the way they were being treated.

In China, the CPC could not afford to alienate the over eighty percent of the population that lived in the countryside by following this Soviet approach, particularly since it is ambiguous whether it actually worked. Perhaps even more importantly, the faction within the party leadership that is associated with Mao was clearly not willing to follow a strict Stalinist line when it came to rural economic, political and social development.

Mao had written that it was necessary to forge a grand alliance of urban workers and rural direct producers in order to create a unified, Socialist China. This meant respecting the rural population in a way that might have been envisioned by some pre-Stalin-era Soviet leaders, such as Bukharin, but which was completely unimaginable under Stalin.

Thus, when the shift of resources out of agriculture resulted in a fall in agricultural output, increased migration from the rural areas into the cities, and a worsening of urban unemployment then the CPC leadership had to seek a more creative solution than the Stalinist approach of naked coercion that had been applied in early Soviet history.

The unique Chinese solution was to create, as part of the Great Leap Forward, a new form of state-feudalism that was euphemistically called "collectivization" or the creation of communes. The term "communes" implies the creation of an institution within which the communist fundamental class process prevails. However, the communist fundamental class process implies that the direct producers collectively appropriate and distribute the surplus product created within the enterprise.

This was certainly not the case within the communes. Workers clearly did not control their own collective surplus. It is also clear that the communes were not capitalist institutions within which workers were hired at a wage to work for a period of time mutually agreed upon between the workers and the enterprise management. Rural direct producers were obligated to work in the communes.

The commune management was appointed by the government, although it was not until the later period of the Great Leap Forward that the commune management would be fully bureaucraticized with most of the commune administrators selected from urban cadre. The surplus generated by the communes was under the control of the government. The obligatory relationship wherein workers were required to serve the state within the communes, i.

This was no different from feudal relationships within which the feudal direct producer was obligated to serve an individual feudal lord or the Catholic Church or any other non-state economic agent. We can, however, use the additional adjective "state" to describe this form of feudalism in order to highlight the fact that the feudal "lord" was, in this instance, the government.

There is no doubt that if it was generally understood that the government was instituting this new variant of feudalism more opposition might have arisen. Result of the auction was a huge success for UK government. The next country to run spectrum rights auction in was Netherlands. This auction raised euros per capita. Reason of such flop, comparing to the British result was lack of competition. When auction were run there were 5 major phone operators for 5 licenses to be sold. Few entrants decided to participate in the auction, since everybody was sure that 5 licenses will be distributed among market leaders.

Another factor that made things even worse was the fact that that was an ascending auction. In this case with few participants there is a risk of collusion among market leaders. Netherlands would have generated much more money if they would some how encourage competition and change the action design in such a way that it would be possible for participants other than market leaders to place bids independently of each other to reduce collusion sealed bid. Italy generated euros per capita and attracted 6 participants.

Italy intentionally reduced amount of participants by imposing a requirements that participant of the auction must satisfy. Such situation combined with the fact that Italian auction was ascending could result in possible collusions among competitors.

As a result wrong auction design resulted in low revenues. Swiss auction was a real flop. They generated only 20 euros per capita. Here amount of participants was also artificially limited by allowing participants to join into the groups. And the price that government accepts was also reduced for some reason.

Number of participants was sufficient to run profitable auction, but combination of officially permitted collusions and low reserve price resulted in absolutely insufficient revenues. German and Austrian auctions were similar. Number of participants in both countries' auctions was low, which means that there were risks of collusion.

Both countries sold licenses in blocks, allowing "number of winners be determined by bidders". Additionally Austrian government set a very low reserve price. Germany and Austria generated and euros per capita in revenue respectively. Germany designed auction in such a way that bids of two main market players were rationalized in a way that it resulted in high revenues. Generally, the main difference in revenues generated from spectrum rights auctions can be explained by the difference in chosen auction design.

Different auction design results in different amounts of money in revenues. Countries that tried to facilitate competitive bidding and limited the possibilities of collusion enjoyed high revenues. Klemperer say that what really matters in auction design is "robustness against collusion and attractiveness to entry".

Exactly the combination or lack of one of this factors resulted in the difference in the revenues generated by European countries. Any country that wants to increase revenues from auction must try to facilitate the competition among bidders by trying to make participation in auction as attractive as possible and eliminating any barriers for participation. There should be no cooperation between participants, as it will result in lower bids and as a consequence in low revenues.

Countries should not choose auction design that facilitates collusion, as ascending auction in our case. Of course there are several other reasons for difference in revenues, among them there is a fact that UK as a country that run the first spectrum rights auction in the world, might have enjoyed high revenues simply because participants were new to the licenses and had no idea of their true value.

Overall economic situations in the counties as well as political might also result in differences in revenues. But the main reason for difference in profitability of the spectrum licenses auctions is difference in auction designs which were effective in some countries and not in the others.

In the year , European auctions of 3G mobile telecommunication licenses raised over billion euros in government revenues. There was a big differential between revenues raised in each country with United Kingdom leading at euros per capita and Switzerland coming in last at 20 euros per capita. The reasons for this big discrepancy in revenues is likely due to poor auction designs and the sequence in which the auctions took place. When it comes to auction design, the two crucial components are attracting entry and preventing collusion.

Ascending auctions encourage bidders to act collusively and deter weaker potential bidders as they know that the stronger bidder will always out bid him. On the other hand, first-price sealed-bid auctions act in the opposite direction from ascending auctions. It does not give bidders a chance to collude and encourages weaker bidders to participate. However, the disadvantage of using a sealed-bid auction is that it is more likely to lead to inefficient results than an ascending auction.

The reason for this is that sometimes bidders with a lower value may beat opponents with a higher value. Hence, there is no perfect auction design and they must be customized to suit different environments and targets. United Kingdom was the first to hold the auctions and they are a good example of how a well-planned auction design and good marketing strategies can lead to a favourable outcome. As there were five licenses and 4 incumbents, they had an ascending auction.

To prevent collusion, each license could not be shared and each bidder was allowed no more than one license. Also, the fact that at least one license was available to new entrants lead to fierce competition from nine new entrants. To top it all off, UK had a solid marketing strategy which was planned over three years - All this helped contribute to UK raising 39 billion euros and being the most successful out of all the countries that took part in the 3G auctions.

Netherlands, Italy and Switzerland made the mistake of following UK and carrying out an ascending auction when a sealed-bid auction would have served them better. This resulted in revenues less than that achieved by UK. In the case of Netherlands, they had five licenses and five incumbents. This deterred new entrants as well as facilitated collusion.

For example, Deutsche Telekom colluded with local incumbents to bid for a 3G license. A sealed-bid would have worked better as this would have discouraged joint bidding, raise higher revenues as well as give new entrants a glimmer of hope. Italy had their auction next but failed to learn from Netherlands and UK. Their auction design was not robust and failed to adapt to the environment in Italy. They adopted the UK design but had the additional rule that if bidders did not exceed licenses, the number of licenses would be reduced.

They did not realize that having one more bidder than license does not assure that the outcome will be competitive. Also, Italy had failed to anticipate that firms would react differently to those in Netherlands and UK as they now had more information. Hence, weaker bidders were discouraged by previous auctions and did not bother to participate and since the participation rate was low, it made it easier for the strong bidders to collude.

A bad auction design that was not tailored to the Italian environment and a low reserve price resulted in Italy only earning less than 25 billion euros. Switzerland was the most unsuccessful amongst all the countries that held the auctions. It raised only 20 euros per capita in its ascending auction and this can be attributed to an unfeasible auction design, badly formulated rules and an absurdly low reserve price.

Since the beginning, weaker bidders were deterred by the auction form. They felt that they did not stand a chance against the strong bidders and hence did not bother participating. This resulted in little competition. Furthermore, The Swiss government committed auction suicide when they permitted last-minute joint-bidding!

This resulted in nine bidders colluding to become just four. The last mistake that the Swiss government made was to set a reserve price that was way too low. Since there were four licenses and four bidders, bidders ended up paying only the reserve price.

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That's where auction theory comes into play. Modern auction theory is a very powerful tool for designing auctions of very profitable kind. Proper auction design will rise maximum amount of money for the government and provide companies with resources they need.

However actions that maximize profits for the government have a direct influence also on the life of the citizens, as Dixit puts it: " So, auctions held by government, and to be more specific properly designed actions directly influence the life of modern country. In this essay I would like to make a kind of short review of auctions of spectrum rights for third generation mobile phones held in Europe in year The peculiarity of these auctions lies in the fact that revenues that were generated by European governments are different as a result of differently designed actions they held.

This fact allows as to trace features of the auctions that were successful and resulted in relatively high revenues for the government. There were 6 European countries to held spectrum right auctions in Let's start with United Kingdom as it was the first country to hold such kind of auctions. Strategy that United Kingdom had chosen was selling 5 licenses during classical ascending auction. Auction resulted in huge revenues: euros per capita. Firstly it should be said that auctions as any normal business activity should be competitive in order to be effective.

UK spectrum auction was relatively competitive attracting 13 participants. There are several reasons why this action attracted so many participants. Firstly, UK was the first country in the world to hold spectrum rights auction.

Participants were not completely aware of the usefulness of 3G cell phones, but were eager to get competitive advantage in the new generation mobile communication technology. Secondly, UK sold 5 licenses to the market with 4 major phone operators. This fact attracted new entrants, since at least one of the licenses can be potentially won by new entrants to the market. Both this facts generated highly competitive auction environment and limited possible collusions.

Result of the auction was a huge success for UK government. The next country to run spectrum rights auction in was Netherlands. This auction raised euros per capita. Reason of such flop, comparing to the British result was lack of competition. When auction were run there were 5 major phone operators for 5 licenses to be sold.

Few entrants decided to participate in the auction, since everybody was sure that 5 licenses will be distributed among market leaders. Another factor that made things even worse was the fact that that was an ascending auction. In this case with few participants there is a risk of collusion among market leaders. Netherlands would have generated much more money if they would some how encourage competition and change the action design in such a way that it would be possible for participants other than market leaders to place bids independently of each other to reduce collusion sealed bid.

Italy generated euros per capita and attracted 6 participants. Italy intentionally reduced amount of participants by imposing a requirements that participant of the auction must satisfy. Such situation combined with the fact that Italian auction was ascending could result in possible collusions among competitors. As a result wrong auction design resulted in low revenues. Swiss auction was a real flop.

They generated only 20 euros per capita. Here amount of participants was also artificially limited by allowing participants to join into the groups. And the price that government accepts was also reduced for some reason. Number of participants was sufficient to run profitable auction, but combination of officially permitted collusions and low reserve price resulted in absolutely insufficient revenues. German and Austrian auctions were similar. Number of participants in both countries' auctions was low, which means that there were risks of collusion.

Both countries sold licenses in blocks, allowing "number of winners be determined by bidders". Additionally Austrian government set a very low reserve price. Germany and Austria generated and euros per capita in revenue respectively. Germany designed auction in such a way that bids of two main market players were rationalized in a way that it resulted in high revenues.

Generally, the main difference in revenues generated from spectrum rights auctions can be explained by the difference in chosen auction design. Different auction design results in different amounts of money in revenues. Countries that tried to facilitate competitive bidding and limited the possibilities of collusion enjoyed high revenues.

Klemperer say that what really matters in auction design is "robustness against collusion and attractiveness to entry". Exactly the combination or lack of one of this factors resulted in the difference in the revenues generated by European countries. Any country that wants to increase revenues from auction must try to facilitate the competition among bidders by trying to make participation in auction as attractive as possible and eliminating any barriers for participation.

There should be no cooperation between participants, as it will result in lower bids and as a consequence in low revenues. Countries should not choose auction design that facilitates collusion, as ascending auction in our case. Of course there are several other reasons for difference in revenues, among them there is a fact that UK as a country that run the first spectrum rights auction in the world, might have enjoyed high revenues simply because participants were new to the licenses and had no idea of their true value.

Overall economic situations in the counties as well as political might also result in differences in revenues. But the main reason for difference in profitability of the spectrum licenses auctions is difference in auction designs which were effective in some countries and not in the others. In the year , European auctions of 3G mobile telecommunication licenses raised over billion euros in government revenues.

There was a big differential between revenues raised in each country with United Kingdom leading at euros per capita and Switzerland coming in last at 20 euros per capita. The reasons for this big discrepancy in revenues is likely due to poor auction designs and the sequence in which the auctions took place. When it comes to auction design, the two crucial components are attracting entry and preventing collusion. Ascending auctions encourage bidders to act collusively and deter weaker potential bidders as they know that the stronger bidder will always out bid him.

On the other hand, first-price sealed-bid auctions act in the opposite direction from ascending auctions. It does not give bidders a chance to collude and encourages weaker bidders to participate. However, the disadvantage of using a sealed-bid auction is that it is more likely to lead to inefficient results than an ascending auction.

The reason for this is that sometimes bidders with a lower value may beat opponents with a higher value. Hence, there is no perfect auction design and they must be customized to suit different environments and targets. United Kingdom was the first to hold the auctions and they are a good example of how a well-planned auction design and good marketing strategies can lead to a favourable outcome. As there were five licenses and 4 incumbents, they had an ascending auction.

To prevent collusion, each license could not be shared and each bidder was allowed no more than one license. Also, the fact that at least one license was available to new entrants lead to fierce competition from nine new entrants. To top it all off, UK had a solid marketing strategy which was planned over three years - All this helped contribute to UK raising 39 billion euros and being the most successful out of all the countries that took part in the 3G auctions. Netherlands, Italy and Switzerland made the mistake of following UK and carrying out an ascending auction when a sealed-bid auction would have served them better.

This resulted in revenues less than that achieved by UK. Across many of these countries, too, there is little ambiguity about which country is dominant, with double-digit differences between the shares who choose the U. South Koreans are also more likely to name the U. The U. In Tunisia and Israel, the belief that the U. Likewise, more see the U.

In Nigeria and South Africa, the tendency to name the U. However, roughly a third still name China as the top economy in Mexico and Argentina, and this share has gone up by 6 percentage points in Argentina since In France, the share that views China as the top economic power has increased by 7 percentage points since , flipping the top choice from the U.

Spaniards, Swedes and Bulgarians are more muted, with about 5-point differences in their evaluations of the two economies. Those in the UK are about equally likely to point to China or the U. In five European countries that have consistently been asked which economy is strongest over the past decade — France, Germany, Spain, the UK and Poland — China has come out on top more often than not.

Still, Lithuanians are 23 percentage points more likely to see the U. Poles and Slovaks are also at least 10 points more likely to choose the U. Greeks, Italians, and Hungarians similarly evaluate the U. Opinions in Russia and Ukraine are divided. Ukrainians say the U. Majorities in most countries surveyed say China has a substantial amount of influence on the economic affairs of their countries.

Roughly three-quarters in Kenya and Nigeria say the same, while about six-in-ten see at least a fair amount of Chinese influence on their domestic economies in the three Latin American countries surveyed. But in South Korea and Japan, upwards of nine-in-ten say both superpowers have a great deal of influence. All three sub-Saharan African publics surveyed are more likely to see Chinese economic influence, with about a point difference in Nigeria and South Africa.

Conversely, those in Latin America are more likely to see influence from the U. Those in Lebanon and Tunisia are about as likely to say the U. People who said that China or the U. In Asia-Pacific countries, evaluations of Chinese influence are fairly divided; Australians, Filipinos and Indonesians are more likely to see Chinese influence as positive than negative, while Japanese, South Koreans and Indians identify Chinese influence as more negative than positive.

Opinions in the Middle East and North Africa are also conflicted. Those in Israel and Lebanon are much more likely to see the Chinese impact on economic conditions in their country as positive. Tunisians also see Chinese influence as more positive than negative, but by a smaller margin. Turks more frequently see Chinese influence negatively. Opinions elsewhere are more clear-cut. Majorities in the sub-Saharan African countries surveyed say Chinese influence is positive, especially in Nigeria, where about seven-in-ten hold this opinion.

About four-in-ten or more see Chinese influence positively in the Latin American nations surveyed as well. Those in the Asia-Pacific region are more likely than not to describe U. Indians, Indonesians and South Koreans are also much more likely to see the U. Only in Australia do more say the U. In Turkey especially, about three-quarters say the U. Those in Lebanon and Tunisia are at least 20 points more likely to see the influence as negative.

More in the three sub-Saharan countries surveyed say the U. Still, substantial minorities of around one-in-five or more describe it negatively. When directly comparing the perceived positive influence from the U. Most in sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America, too, describe Chinese influence positively, even as substantial numbers in most countries also see U. But, in much of the Asia-Pacific region, people are more likely to evaluate the U.

Favorable views of Chinese economic influence are more common among those who think their country has good economic ties with China and those who prefer a close economic relationship to China. Those who feel similarly toward the U. Outside of Canada, the U. In the wake of major trade disputes and political tensions with China , around half in both the U. In the Middle East and North Africa, majorities in all except Turkey say the economic relationship between their country and China is going well.

Even in Turkey, about half say the relationship is positive. Likewise, majorities in the sub-Saharan African and Latin American countries surveyed also rate their economic relationship with China positively. The other Middle East and North African countries surveyed are the only countries where fewer than half say relations are currently positive.

This is especially true in Turkey, where about two-thirds said economic ties between their country and the U.

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Having the right source is what separates the grain from the chaff. The sources should also have economics essay writing steps to guide you in the process mostly. Your choice of source is preferential. The sources depend on how accessible they are, how affordable and how easy they are to interpret. Below is a list of where to obtain your sources;.

Once done with the economics essay draft, you should go through the essay to make the necessary revisions. This is done by proofreading and making the necessary changes. In the bibliography, you have to make citations of where you got your content. Finally, choose a topic you enjoy writing and avoid plagiarism. Essay Kitchen. Sign in. Sign In.

Search for:. Get Custom Essay from:. Order now. Article structure Preparation List of possible topics The structure Outline sample Introduction Thesis Body Conclusion Sources Finalizing Preparation of writing When embarking on economic essay writing , the following should be adhered to.

The following are examples of some of the topics for an economic essay you could explore: How does economics affect the rate of unemployment? Does education stand a chance on improving the economy? How does economic competition, improve the quality of goods and services? Difference between macro and micro economics Decisions are best made on marginal analysis How do demand and supply affect the economic scale?

Healthcare and the Role of Prices How does the market force contribute to good outcomes Agricultural role in the economy of a country Effects of the stock market on inflation Players of inflation Effects of government policies on the GDP Contribution of culture on economic stagnation How exports and imports contribute to inflation How politics play a major role in economics Is poverty inevitable?

Economics of disease and death Trickle-down effect and where it is seen Should there be a limit on ownership of private property Tourism and its contribution to development. An essay should have: the introduction, body, conclusion.

Essay structure As an economics essay structure has an introduction, body and conclusion so do an economics essay writing. Economics essay topics can be found on: The internet; Previous research; From brainstorming; Newspaper articles; Books.

Are Banks Necessary? Introduction Do we need banks? Thesis Banks are a source of employment and extra resources. Body What are banks? What are the contributions of banks to the society? Conclusion Finally, banks are important institutions as they are tools of development. Tips on introduction writing An economics essay introduction should capture the audience attention by using writing hooks.

This creates a craving for reading more. The introduction should have one paragraph and a thesis statement supporting it. The reader should get the tone and why you are writing the essay. Tips on thesis writing After an introduction to economics essay, a thesis should follow.

The thesis should have questions as they present a tone of the article. They also act as economics essay hooks. Short sentences should also be used as they prevent repetition and show precision. Transition words also should be used. For example, conclusively, moreover etc. Tips on body paragraphs The paragraphs should be short. They should also be straightforward Transition words to show the flow should also be there.

As they end ideas and show the beginning of another. Tips on the conclusion Conclusion of economics essay sums up what has been discussed. Sources for Essay Choice Coming up with an essay choice is difficult. Below is a list of where to obtain your sources; Books Newspapers Research Finalizing Essay Once done with the economics essay draft, you should go through the essay to make the necessary revisions.

How to do homework faster, 4 good tips for students on essaykitchen blog. Homework doing optimization tips on essaykitchen blog. Nowadays, the economy is the main engine that moves our world forward. The way we do business determines the geopolitical situation in the world. Moreover, it influences many other parts of our lives. Economics studying is of utmost importance nowadays. It helps to gain a better understanding of processes that put everything in motion.

Economics is quite broad, so it has a great variety of subfields. And this is a fantastic opportunity for us to generate as many essay ideas as possible. Here, you will find great economic topics for your paper. As mentioned before, we have divided them into several sections to ease your selection process. No worries! We have more issues to share with you. Take a look at our list of economical essay topics. Here are 40 more ideas focusing on globalization and the history of economics. Generally, essay writing on economics has the same structure as any other essay.

However, there are some distinctive features of economic papers. Thus, it is essential to figure them out from the very beginning of your work. Below, you will find a detailed plan that explains the fundamental concepts of the essay writing process. They are indeed helpful. Pick a topic and dissect it. Picking the right topic is the very basis of writing a successful essay. Think of something that you will be interested in and make sure you understand the issue clearly.

Research it. After selecting the right idea from our economical essay topics, research your subject thoroughly. Try to find every fascinating and intriguing detail about it. Remember that you can always ask your fellow students, friends, or a teacher for help. Come up with a thesis statement. A thesis statement is an essential element of your essay. It will determine your focus and guide the readers throughout your paper.

Outline your essay. Never underestimate the power of a well-structured outline! Creating an essay outline can significantly help you to determine your general plan. Evaluate which economic framework you will be using to address the issue. State the main points of your thesis and antithesis.

Make sure that they answer the central question of your work. Write your introduction. So, put enough effort to develop an outstanding introduction. It will create the first impression of your paper. Moreover, an introduction should include a thesis statement.

As we have mentioned above, a thesis plays a crucial role. Thus, make sure it is clearly stated. Another significant feature of the introduction is its coherence with the body of your essay. Also, keep in mind that no more than three key points can be discussed in a paper, even if it is an extended essay.

Thoroughly work on the body paragraphs. Usually, the body of the essay contains several paragraphs. The number of these paragraphs will depend on the nature of your question. Be sure to create one section for every critical point that you make.

This will make your paper properly-structured, and the reader will quickly get your ideas. For your convenience, we created a plan to develop your ideas in each paragraph, So, use it and make your writing process easier! Conclude your essay.

In your conclusion, summarize and synthesize your work by restating your thesis. Also, it is crucial to strengthen it by mentioning the practical value of your findings. Remember to make your essay readable by choosing appropriate wording and avoiding too complex grammar constructions. Thank you for visiting our page! Did you enjoy our article and learned something new? We are glad to help you. We use cookies to give you the best experience possible.

If you continue, we will assume that you agree to our Cookies Policy. Learn More. Table of contents. Clock image. Designing a just socio-economic system. Socio-economic status of Hong Kong in modern-day China. Explain how the city of Hong Kong gained a special status in China. Why did it emerge as one of the most important cities in its economy? Comment on the significance of Hong Kong in the international economic arena. Mobile banking in Saudi Arabia: towards understanding the factors that affect the sector.

Talk about the significant problems with the economy the USSR had in the s. What role did they play in its collapse? History of economic development in the UAE. Discuss the economic miracle in the UAE and Dubai.

Explain how the government could turn the city of Dubai into one of the most famous tourist destinations. What strategies were applied? Gender inequality and socio-economic development. How the socio-economic and political position of women changed between and How do the three main economic groups interact with each other?

There are three critical economic groups: — Consumers — Producers — Government Analyze the interaction of these groups with each other. Extended essay: how the study of economic data helped our society to advance? Western industrialization socio-economic impacts. Inequality at the top: not all billionaires have the same powers. Explain why they have unequal social status. What factors determine the influence of billionaires? An analysis of systems that help us measure agricultural development in a country.

Is social media a useful tool for brand promotion? Globalization and its impact on international economic relations. Define the term globalization. What role does globalization play in international economic relations? The lack of justice for the cheap international labor market. Discuss the issue of cheap labor in various countries.

Why do some workers often lack fundamental human rights while others abuse moral norms? Analyze the causes and effects of inequality in the workplace. Japan macroeconomics: problems and possible solutions. The issue of mercantilism in the history of Great Britain. Analyze the rise and development of mercantilism in the history of Great Britain.

To solidify your ideas, provide persuasive arguments, and appropriate examples of mercantilism. Why does the problem of environmental protection remain unresolved among global economies? International environmental concerns in economics: the case of China. The issue of international criminal justice in industry. Explain why international businesses often avoid criminal justice after wrongdoings.

Briefly introduce the problem. What were the causes and effects? How was the issue resolved? Express your own opinion regarding the lack of criminal justice in business. International microeconomics trade dispute case study: US-China dispute on the exportation of raw materials.

International economics in the context of globalization. How does Brexit affect the economy of the European Union? South Africa: international agribusiness, trade, and financing. Investigate the issue of extreme poverty in Mozambique. What are some possible solutions to the problem of poverty? Imbalances in the global economy. Discuss the imbalances between trading countries on the scale of the global economy.

What solutions would you suggest to deal with this issue? Etihad Airways company managerial economics. Labor economics: child labor. The UPS firm perspective: the labor market. Gender inequality of wage rate in modern business. Research how and why gender inequality is still an issue in the modern world of economics.

What are some ways to deal with the problem? Present your ideas accurately and effectively. Provide solid arguments and appropriate examples to prove your position. Labor unions adverse effects on economics. The decrease of the labor force in modern industries. Talk about the rising rates of robotization in the majority of industries.

How will it affect the traditional labor force? Comment on the problem of unemployment caused by labor automatization. Violations of labor rights of workers. Modern labor essay: how can an entrepreneur guarantee the minimum wage to their workers? How can labor geography help develop a special economic zone?

Talk about labor geography and its effects on developing an exclusive economic zone. How does the geopolitical location of a particular country influence its level of economic development? Entrepreneurship in the organic cosmetics sphere.

Gender-oriented labor trade unions. A case study. Discuss the gender-oriented trade unions and analyze their impact on our society. Child labor in the Turkish cotton industry. The connection between economic growth and demography. Analyze the connection between economic growth and its demographic context. Investigate both sides: — The issue of overpopulation — The problem of low birth rate. From an economic perspective, what problem is more dangerous? The effects of Landrum-Griffin Labor Act.

Discuss its implications and consequences. Urbanization in Hong Kong and its effects on citizens. The urban planning of the city of New York: a critical analysis. Analyze the urban history of NY. How has the city been developing? Discuss revolutionary solutions to the past and problems of modern times. Globalization, urban political economy, and economic restructuring. How do urban areas affect local wildlife? Comment on how modern production technologies in urban areas impact the natural diversity of wildlife.

What impact does the rapid economic progress have on the environment? Suggest possible solutions. Urban sociology: does the city make us better people? Why should people be more careful about investing in real estate? Discuss the issues of overinvestment into real estate. Consider the economic crisis of as an example. Urban life and its effects on education.

The ethics of relocation: is it justified? Talk about the case of relocating locals when building projects of great magnitude.

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The essay will shed light on the importance of banks and disadvantages if there any. Banks serve as sources of employment and bring in the development of infrastructure and other capital material in society. Through savings, banks tend to invest and also offer loans to governments. The loans are used to sustain the state and help. Finally, banks are important institutions as they are tools of development.

They provide jobs for many directly and indirectly. They foster entrepreneurship and encourage self-employment. Conclusion of economics essay sums up what has been discussed. Transition words are essential as they show you have completed your essay. Your main ideas should help in stating your case to ensure your audience has got the message.

Coming up with an essay choice is difficult. Having the right source is what separates the grain from the chaff. The sources should also have economics essay writing steps to guide you in the process mostly. Your choice of source is preferential. The sources depend on how accessible they are, how affordable and how easy they are to interpret. Below is a list of where to obtain your sources;. Once done with the economics essay draft, you should go through the essay to make the necessary revisions.

This is done by proofreading and making the necessary changes. In the bibliography, you have to make citations of where you got your content. Finally, choose a topic you enjoy writing and avoid plagiarism. Essay Kitchen. Sign in. Sign In. Search for:. Get Custom Essay from:. Order now. Article structure Preparation List of possible topics The structure Outline sample Introduction Thesis Body Conclusion Sources Finalizing Preparation of writing When embarking on economic essay writing , the following should be adhered to.

The following are examples of some of the topics for an economic essay you could explore: How does economics affect the rate of unemployment? Does education stand a chance on improving the economy? How does economic competition, improve the quality of goods and services? Difference between macro and micro economics Decisions are best made on marginal analysis How do demand and supply affect the economic scale?

Healthcare and the Role of Prices How does the market force contribute to good outcomes Agricultural role in the economy of a country Effects of the stock market on inflation Players of inflation Effects of government policies on the GDP Contribution of culture on economic stagnation How exports and imports contribute to inflation How politics play a major role in economics Is poverty inevitable?

Economics of disease and death Trickle-down effect and where it is seen Should there be a limit on ownership of private property Tourism and its contribution to development. An essay should have: the introduction, body, conclusion. Essay structure As an economics essay structure has an introduction, body and conclusion so do an economics essay writing. Economics essay topics can be found on: The internet; Previous research; From brainstorming; Newspaper articles; Books.

Are Banks Necessary? Introduction Do we need banks? Thesis Banks are a source of employment and extra resources. Body What are banks? What are the contributions of banks to the society? Conclusion Finally, banks are important institutions as they are tools of development. Tips on introduction writing An economics essay introduction should capture the audience attention by using writing hooks.

This creates a craving for reading more. The introduction should have one paragraph and a thesis statement supporting it. The reader should get the tone and why you are writing the essay. Tips on thesis writing After an introduction to economics essay, a thesis should follow. The thesis should have questions as they present a tone of the article. They also act as economics essay hooks.

Short sentences should also be used as they prevent repetition and show precision. Transition words also should be used. For example, conclusively, moreover etc. Tips on body paragraphs The paragraphs should be short. They should also be straightforward Transition words to show the flow should also be there. Tesco is a world famous public limited company which was established in in East London by Jack Cohen.

International business is a relatively new discipline, it is very dynamic. A Customization and price from the low-cost production base from the competition in international competitors, the competitive pressure on the local challenges of international companies.

These companies make a choice between a standardized product to the location of the lower manufacturing costs and the cost […]. Organization:- An organization is a person or group of people intentionally organized to accomplish a common goal or set of goals. On January 1, , Al […]. Many scholars concludes that at the industry level, the needed changes to be more flexible and internationally competitive has led to several common patterns in term of […].

Many people growing up in the s remember the Cold War between Russia and the United States, two ideologies pitted against each other, a time of tension between the two countries. Baby boomers might remember the Red Scare and McCarthyism. The two economic systems seem to be diametrically opposed. In comparing the architects of the […]. In my lifetime I have often heard the phrase, sharing is caring!

Well, one man, by the name of Karl Marx, took the concept too far and created the governmental system known today as Communism. Communism has many disadvantages like creating monotonous lifestyles, taking motivation away from the people, and has the government involved with […]. Does a system of government where the government gets to steal money from you and re-distribute it to other people sound fair to you?

Are you okay with government officials making the most amount of money in our society? This is called socialism. People who are greedy never think about whether they really need these things, and things […]. One topic that has been in the news a lot lately is the proposal of a border wall spanning the entire southern border of the United States and Mexico.

President Trump has been pushing this proposal throughout his campaign and for most of his presidency. Political views aside, I believe that the wall would poorly […]. Development is relied upon to reach 3. Be that as it may, moderate development recuperation in […]. Essay examples.