ancestry approach literature review

american government essay paper

A full set of resources to accompany this feature can be downloaded for free here. Calling all English teachers: does this sound familiar? As structure gcse english lit essay go through extracts in the last lesson on Friday afternoon, you ask carefully crafted questions, and note with satisfaction how students shoot their hands up in a flash, like Barry Allen on the run. Later, back at home, you mark them. What went wrong?

Ancestry approach literature review online resume directory

Ancestry approach literature review

We provide more explicit guidance on searching for evidence for an EBP query in the chapter supplement on website. A literature search may yield nonresearch references, including opinion articles, case reports, and clinical anecdotes. Such materials may broaden understanding of a problem or demonstrate a need for research. These writings, however, may have limited utility in research reviews because they do not address the central question: What is the current state of evidence on this research problem?

Conducting a literature review is a little bit like doing a study: A reviewer starts with a question and then must gather, analyze, and interpret the information. Figure 7. Reviews should be unbiased, thorough, and up-to-date.

Also, high-quality reviews are systematic. Decision rules for including a study should be explicit because a good review should be reproducible. This means that another diligent reviewer would be able to apply the same decision rules and come to similar conclusions about the state of evidence on the topic.

TIP Locating all relevant information on a research question is like being a detective. The literature retrieval tools we discuss in this chapter are helpful, but there inevitably needs to be some digging for, and sifting of, the clues to evidence on a topic. Be prepared for sleuthing! Doing a literature review is in some ways similar to undertaking a qualitative study. An early step in a literature review is devising a strategy to locate relevant studies.

The ability to locate evidence on a topic is an important skill that requires adaptability—rapid technological changes mean that new methods of searching the literature are introduced continuously. We urge you to consult with librarians or faculty at your institution for updated suggestions. Having good search skills is important. A particular productive approach is to search for evidence in bibliographic databases, which we discuss next. Decisions must also be made about limiting the search.

For example, reviewers may constrain their search to reports written in one language. You may also want to limit your search to studies conducted within a certain time frame e. Bibliographic databases are accessed by computer. Most databases can be accessed through user-friendly software with menu-driven systems and on-screen support so that minimal instruction is needed to retrieve articles.

Your university or hospital library probably has subscriptions to these services. Before searching a bibliographic database electronically, you should become familiar with the features of the software you are using to access it. The software has options for restricting or expanding your search, for combining two searches, for saving your search, and so on.

Most programs have tutorials, and most also have Help buttons. An early task in an electronic search is identifying keywords to launch the search although an author search for prominent researchers in a field is also possible. A keyword is a word or phrase that captures key concepts in your question. For quantitative studies, the keywords are usually the independent or dependent variables i.

For qualitative studies, the keywords are the central phenomenon and the population. If you use the question templates for asking clinical questions in Table 2. TIP If you want to identify all research reports on a topic, you need to be flexible and to think broadly about keywords.

For example, if you are interested in anorexia, you might look up anorexia , eating disorders , and weight loss and perhaps appetite , eating behavior , food habits , bulimia , and body weight changes. There are various search approaches for a bibliographic search. All citations in a database have to be coded so they can be retrieved, and databases and programs use their own system of categorizing entries.

The indexing systems have specific subject headings subject codes. You can undertake a subject search by entering a subject heading into the search field. You do not have to worry about knowing the subject codes because most software has mapping capabilities. Mapping is a feature that allows you to search for topics using your own keywords rather than the exact subject heading used in the database. When you enter a keyword into the search field, the program likely will launch both a subject search and a textword search.

A textword search looks for your keyword in the text fields of the records, i. Thus, if you searched for lung cancer in the MEDLINE database which we describe in a subsequent section , the search would retrieve citations coded for the subject code of lung neoplasms the MEDLINE subject heading used to code entries and also any entries in which the phrase lung cancer appeared, even if it had not been coded for the lung neoplasm subject heading.

Some features of an electronic search are similar across databases. One feature is that you usually can use Boolean operators to expand or delimit a search. The operator AND delimits a search. If we searched for pain AND children , the software would retrieve only records that have both terms. The operator OR expands the search: pain OR children could be used in a search to retrieve records with either term. Finally, NOT narrows a search: pain NOT children would retrieve all records with pain that did not include the term children.

Wildcard and truncation symbols are other useful tools. In some databases, wildcard symbols often? For example, a search for behavio? Term Grey literature. Definition studies with more limited distribution, such as conference papers or unpublished reports.

Term Keyword. Definition a word or phrase that captures the key concepts in your question. Term Subject heading. Definition subject codes found within indexing systems. Term Mapping. Definition a feature that allows you to search for topics using your own keywords, rather than needing to enter a term that is exactly the same as a subject heading in the database.

Term Subject search. Definition entering a subject heading into the search field. Term Textword search. Definition will search for your specific keyword in the text fields of the records in the database e. Term Author search. Definition searching for citations for a specific author.

Term Wildcard character. Term Boolean operators. Definition another useful tool that can be used to expand or restric a search; using "and," "or". Definition an extremely important electronic database for nurses; it covers references to virtually all English-language nursing and allied health journals, as well as to books, book chapters, dissertations, and selected conference proceedings.

Term PubMed. Term MeSH.

COLLEGE EDITING WEBSITE GB

An integrative review is best designed for:. Source: Whittemore et al Depends on many factors such as but not limited to: resources available, the quantity and quality of the literature, and the expertise or experience of reviewers" Grant et al. Is your review question a complex intervention? Learn more here. Sources and searches: Comprehensive but with a specific focus, integrated methodologies-experimental and non-experimental research.

Purposive Sampling may be employed. Database searching is recommended along with grey literature searching. See our Systematic Review Search Service for help conducting the search! Selection: Selected as related to problem identified or question, Inclusion of empirical and theoretical reports and diverse study methodologies. Appraisal: "How quality is evaluated in an integrative review will vary depending on the sampling frame.

Synthesis: Narrative synthesis for qualitative and quantitative studies. Data extracted for study characteristics and concept. Synthesis may be in the form of a table, diagram or model to portray results. The method consists of:. Grant MJ, Booth A. A typology of reviews: an analysis of 14 review types and associated methodologies. Health Information and Libraries Journal. Whittemore R, Knafl K. The integrative review: updated methodology. Journal of Advanced Nursing. Nursing professionals are vulnerable to depression when young, married, performing night work and having several jobs, and when they have a high level of education, low family income, work overload, high stress, insufficient autonomy and a sense of professional insecurity and conflict in the family and work relationship.

Suicide risk among nursing professionals is associated with symptoms of depression and correlated with Burnout Syndrome, which can affect work performance. Synthesis used narrative methods. All patient samples included people with CKD stage 5; 2 also included patients with stage 4. Seven interventions were tested; all were narrowly focused and none was evaluated by comparing wishes for end-of-life care with care received. One intervention demonstrated effects on patient and family outcomes in the form of improved well-being and anxiety following sessions with a peer mentor.

Insights from qualitative studies that have not been used to inform interventions include the importance of instilling patient confidence that their advance directives will be enacted and discussing decisions about dis continuing dialysis therapy separately from 'aggressive' life-sustaining treatments eg, ventilation.

Interventions in CKD should attend to barriers and facilitators at the levels of patient, caregiver, health professional, and system. Intervention studies should measure impact on compliance with patient wishes for end-of-life care. Google Scholar. Literature review. Primary source. Secondary source. A literature review is a written summary of the state of evidence on a research problem. It is useful for consumers of nursing research to acquire skills for reading, critiquing, and preparing written evidence summaries.

Before discussing the activities involved in undertaking a research-based literature review, we briefly discuss some general issues. The first concerns the purposes of doing a literature review. The primary purpose of literature reviews is to summarize evidence on a topic—to sum up what is known and what is not known. Literature reviews are sometimes stand-alone reports intended to communicate the state of evidence to others, but reviews are also used to lay the foundation for new studies and to help researchers interpret their findings.

In qualitative research, opinions about literature reviews vary. Grounded theory researchers typically begin to collect data before examining the literature. As a theory takes shape, researchers turn to the literature, seeking to relate prior findings to the theory. Phenomenologists and ethnographers often undertake a literature search at the outset of a study.

Regardless of when they perform the review, researchers usually include a brief summary of relevant literature in their introductions. The literature review summarizes current evidence on a topic and illuminates the significance of the new study. Literature reviews are often intertwined with the problem statement as part of the argument for the study. If you are preparing a literature review, you should rely mostly on primary sources , which are descriptions of studies written by the researchers who conducted them.

Secondary source research documents are descriptions of studies prepared by someone else. Literature reviews are secondary sources. Recent reviews are a good place to start because they offer overviews and valuable bibliographies. If you are doing your own literature review, however, secondary sources should not be considered substitutes for primary sources because secondary sources are not adequately detailed and may not be completely objective.

TIP For an evidence-based practice EBP project, a recent, high-quality systematic review may be sufficient to provide the needed information about the evidence base, although it is usually a good idea to search for studies published after the review.

We provide more explicit guidance on searching for evidence for an EBP query in the chapter supplement on website. A literature search may yield nonresearch references, including opinion articles, case reports, and clinical anecdotes. Such materials may broaden understanding of a problem or demonstrate a need for research. These writings, however, may have limited utility in research reviews because they do not address the central question: What is the current state of evidence on this research problem?

Conducting a literature review is a little bit like doing a study: A reviewer starts with a question and then must gather, analyze, and interpret the information. Figure 7. Reviews should be unbiased, thorough, and up-to-date. Also, high-quality reviews are systematic. Decision rules for including a study should be explicit because a good review should be reproducible.

This means that another diligent reviewer would be able to apply the same decision rules and come to similar conclusions about the state of evidence on the topic. TIP Locating all relevant information on a research question is like being a detective. The literature retrieval tools we discuss in this chapter are helpful, but there inevitably needs to be some digging for, and sifting of, the clues to evidence on a topic. Be prepared for sleuthing! Doing a literature review is in some ways similar to undertaking a qualitative study.

An early step in a literature review is devising a strategy to locate relevant studies. The ability to locate evidence on a topic is an important skill that requires adaptability—rapid technological changes mean that new methods of searching the literature are introduced continuously. We urge you to consult with librarians or faculty at your institution for updated suggestions. Having good search skills is important. A particular productive approach is to search for evidence in bibliographic databases, which we discuss next.

Decisions must also be made about limiting the search. For example, reviewers may constrain their search to reports written in one language. You may also want to limit your search to studies conducted within a certain time frame e. Bibliographic databases are accessed by computer. Most databases can be accessed through user-friendly software with menu-driven systems and on-screen support so that minimal instruction is needed to retrieve articles. Your university or hospital library probably has subscriptions to these services.

Before searching a bibliographic database electronically, you should become familiar with the features of the software you are using to access it. The software has options for restricting or expanding your search, for combining two searches, for saving your search, and so on. Most programs have tutorials, and most also have Help buttons. An early task in an electronic search is identifying keywords to launch the search although an author search for prominent researchers in a field is also possible.

A keyword is a word or phrase that captures key concepts in your question.

Consider, top scholarship essay writing for hire gb share your

Start with your research question 2. Search the literature 3. Finalize results 5. Getting started The best way to approach your literature review is to break it down into steps. Literature Review Handout. Start with your research question Begin with a topic. Do background reading. Understand the topic. Familiarize yourself with the terminology. Note what words are being used and keep track of these for use as database search keywords. See what research has been done on this topic before you commit to the topic.

Review articles can be helpful to understand what research has been done. Develop your research question. How comprehensive should it be? Is it for a course assignment or a dissertation? How many years should it cover? Developing a good nursing research question Handout. Reviews PICO method and provides search tips. Determine key concepts from your research question. There are often key concepts in a research question.

Search for primary sources original research articles. Construct a search strategy. These are based on the key concepts in your research question. Remember to consider synonyms and related terms. Which databases to search?

What limiters should be applied peer-reviewed, publication date, geographic location, etc. Review articles secondary sources Use to identify literature on your topic, the way you would use a bibliography. Additional search tips Ancestry searching or backward citation searching.

Once you have some relevant articles, review reference lists to see if there are any useful articles. Descendancy search or forward citation searching. Which articles were written later and have cited some of your useful articles? Are these, in turn, articles that will be useful to you? Run searches. Keep track of what terms you used and what databases you searched.

Keep track of the citations for the articles you will be using in your literature review. Use RefWorks or another method of tracking this information. Database Search Strategy Worksheet Handout. How to construct a search. Review results. Start by reviewing abstracts.

Make sure you are selecting primary sources original research articles. Review articles can be used to identify primary research studies, but you must locate the original study. Subject Guide. Benita Strnad. Email Me. Contact: Subjects: Education. What is a Literature Review? Learn the purpose of a literature review.

Steps for a Literature Review Steps for starting your lit review. Finding "The Literature" Where to search. Citation Help Style guides and citation management software.