However, here the researcher will also participate in the events. This technique helps in observing people by also getting first-hand experience in natural settings. The literature review method analyzes social life by interpreting the words and images from published work.
The researcher analyzed how the words are used in the context and draw possible inferences and meanings. The case study research method has now become the most valuable method of conducting research. It has evolved in recent years and is used to explain an entity in detail. Moreover, it also involves a thorough understanding of different types of data sources. These include interviews, documents, reports, and observations.
The ethnographic research method is the most familiar and in-depth observational method. It focuses on people and their behaviors in the natural environment. Here, a researcher needs to adapt to the environment and society of the target audience to conduct better research. It helps to get the first-hand experience of the natural setting, including the customs, traditions, and culture of the subjects.
This type of research is a challenging and time-taking process as it can last from days to years. However, geographical constraints can be an issue while collecting data. While other methods discuss and focus on an event or activity. The grounded theory method deeply looks into the explanation and the main theory behind the event. It requires the researcher to observe the interviews and documents to build a theory. Moreover, it usually starts with a question or collection of data.
This type is used in the description of an event, phenomenon, and an activity. Here, methods like interviews, reading documents, visiting places, and watching videos are used. This will help to add new insights to the existing data analysis by checking its reliability and validity. The narrative method is used to gather data from subjects through interviews or documents. Later the gathered information is used to derive answers and suggestions for future research.
The historical method involves the examination of past events to draw conclusions and predictions about the future. The steps included in the method are formulating a plan, gathering data, and analyzing the sources. Qualitative data can be in the form of interviews, transcripts, surveys, videos, audios, etc.
The steps involved in qualitative data analysis are given below. A researcher should know the difference between quantitative and qualitative research. Similarly, he should also be aware of how to use a combination of both methods for conducting ideal research. In many cases, a researcher is asked to use any one of the research methods specifically.
Depending on the topic, it can be a qualitative method that is an interpretative or quantitative method that is concrete. In simple words, quantitative studies are all about numbers and measurements. In contrast, qualitative approaches talk about the understanding of words. Similarly, qualitative research allows the researcher to take into consideration a selected issue. In contrast, quantitative methods require the use of measurements to understand different ideas and experiences of people.
Moreover, qualitative data is holistic in nature, while quantitative data is particularistic. Lastly, quantitative research suggests a final course of action, while qualitative develops the initial understanding. Here are the main differences between qualitative vs. We have also compiled a list of research paper topics in case you need more unique ideas. Check out the examples of qualitative research to get a better idea of writing a qualitative research study.
The qualitative research method shows the idea and perception of your targeted audience. However, not every student is able to choose the right approach while writing a research paper. It requires a thorough understanding of both qualitative research and quantitative research methods. This is where the professional help from MyPerfectWords.
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Research Proposal. History Research Paper Topics. How to Start a Research Paper. How to Write an Abstract. How to Write a Literature Review. Sociology Research Topics. Types Of Qualitative Research. Qualitative VS Quantitative Research. Psychology Research Topics. How To Write A Hypothesis. Types Of Research. Quantitative Research. Exclusive access to the MyPerfectWords. You'll get weekly tips and tricks for improving your own writing and for achieving academic success through your writing.
We are U. This is all that we do. One interview was conducted in Spanish because the bilingual participant requested Spanish. All participants were cognitively functional and medically stable and were over the age of All study participants expressed very positive attitudes toward rapid oral HIV testing in the dental setting for themselves and for other patients.
A variety of reasons were offered. I came to the dentist and they did the test. Two of the advantages identified by participants were that the test would be offered free of charge and universally. Most participants said that everyone should be offered testing and most said that it should be voluntary. Participants were very positive about being offered rapid oral HIV testing in the dental clinic setting and thought it consistent with their view of dental practice.
Participants identified a number of logistical issues related to implementation of rapid oral HIV testing in the dental practice setting, including getting positive test results; need for professional counseling and linkage to care for HIV-positive patients, providing HIV prevention educational materials and the need for privacy. Most participants raised concerns about how they or another patient might feel about learning they have a positive test result and their ability to deal with those emotions.
One participant thought the patient should not be given the results until the confirmatory test was done. Several participants stressed the importance of privacy for getting test results especially in the dental clinic setting where many patients, dental students, and dental faculty are in close proximity.
When asked about HIV prevention education in the dental setting, participants were unanimous in their support for providing educational materials in the dental clinic but much more cautious about offering free condoms. While the study did not directly explore the issue of cost, several participants voluntarily mentioned free testing as an important incentive.
The two previously published studies of patient perspective on HIV screening in dental setting provided free testing and demonstrated high acceptability [ 6 , 16 ]. The vast majority of participants felt HIV testing should be offered to everyone on a voluntary basis. The identified barriers to HIV testing for dental patients included fear of receiving a positive result, lack of awareness of HIV, and knowing their HIV status already. Several challenges to HIV testing in the dental setting were identified by patient participants.
Most were concerned about the emotional impact of learning about an HIV-positive test. This concern was not specific to the dental environment but a general concern about the emotional impact of such information. Many participants suggested that, although dental providers could convey an HIV-positive test result to a patient, they should provide timely access to a professional with HIV psychological counseling skills to provide further information and support to patients.
Several participants stressed the importance of privacy for receiving test results in this setting. Though they were unanimous in their support for dental professionals providing education to their patients about HIV prevention, many felt that offering condoms to dental patients might offend some patients and recommended a discrete, passive availability of condoms. Patient concerns about HIV testing in the dental setting in this study differ from those reported by Deitz and colleagues [ 6 ] just after the CDC HIV testing policy changes were released.
In that study, patients identified concerns about HIV stigma from dental providers and others, accuracy of the rapid HIV, test and time constraints as important barriers. Further, the data presented here suggest that in order to address patient concerns there is a need to develop detailed protocols for rapid oral HIV testing that address protecting patient privacy, providing professional psychosocial support for patients who receive positive HIV test results, managing referrals and linkages to care for those who test positive, and providing educational materials in the dental practice setting.
The present study contributes important information to the small body of literature on the acceptability of HIV testing by dental patients. This is the first qualitative study to examine these issues and provides important contextual information to guide the development of protocols to address patient concerns. The findings support recommendations for the establishment of new interdisciplinary models of care to provide HIV testing in dental settings and to meet the needs of the dental patient with a positive HIV test [ 7 , 8 ].
These findings should be viewed in light of several study limitations. The study setting is a large urban academic dental clinic in a city with high HIV seroprevalence; adults from suburban and rural areas were not represented among the participants, and their perspectives were not reflected in the data. Although the sample size was small, that was not considered a limitation as data saturation was reached for all themes.
Since dental services in the USA are largely financed through self-payment rather than through dental insurance, the findings here may not be applicable to the larger uninsured population. However, in other studies, individuals who were uninsured and members of minority groups at high risk for HIV demonstrated very high acceptability for HIV testing.
Thus, the positive attitudes presented here may be similar to those held by those dental patients. Despite this, individuals who held extremely negative attitudes towards HIV testing in the dental clinic may have been less likely to agree to participate. As such, their voices would not have been heard.
Rapid oral HIV testing in the dental practice setting holds great promise for reaching a proportion of the population not currently accessing primary care in more traditional medical settings. For HIV testing in this setting to be successfully implemented, concerns raised by patients will need to be addressed including testing-related privacy, availability of expert posttest counseling, psychosocial support, follow-up confirmatory testing and linkage to medical care.
Collaborations between dentists and other health professionals with specialized training in HIV testing and counseling, such as nurses, provide an innovative approach to address these issues. In this model, the dental faculty or dental students will offer testing as part of routine care at the beginning of the oral examination.
For patients whose test is reactive the nurse will provide posttest counseling and linkage to care under the supervision of the NYU NFP. The colocation of these programs offers seamless continuity of care and linkage to specialized care for patients who test positive for HIV [ 8 ]. Although most dental practices do not have this kind of co-located access to nurses or other medical providers, developing collaborative relationships with nurse practitioners in the local community for purposes of HIV testing and referral offers a potential solution for dentists in small or solo practices.
Although there are no scope of practice issues for dentists or nurses in performing oral diagnostic tests, insurance reimbursement mechanisms for HIV testing and other oral diagnostics in collaborative models such as this will need to be addressed. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Article of the Year Award: Outstanding research contributions of , as selected by our Chief Editors. Read the winning articles. Journal overview. Special Issues. Academic Editor: Elizabeth Mertz. Received 30 Sep Accepted 05 Dec Published 16 Feb Abstract An estimated 1.
Introduction An estimated 1. Materials and Methods Data from patients were collected as part of a larger pilot study assessing the feasibility of implementing routine HIV screening and counseling in a large university-based dental clinic.
Procedures A convenience sample of study participants were recruited from patients who were registering for care at the NYUCD Admissions Clinic during afternoon sessions on variable week days. Theme 3: Logistical Issues Related to Implementation Participants identified a number of logistical issues related to implementation of rapid oral HIV testing in the dental practice setting, including getting positive test results; need for professional counseling and linkage to care for HIV-positive patients, providing HIV prevention educational materials and the need for privacy.
Limitations These findings should be viewed in light of several study limitations. Conclusions Rapid oral HIV testing in the dental practice setting holds great promise for reaching a proportion of the population not currently accessing primary care in more traditional medical settings. View at: Google Scholar B. Branson, H. Handsfield, M. Lampe et al. RR14, pp. View at: Google Scholar R.
An end to HIV exceptionalism? View at: Google Scholar H. Pollack, L. Metsch, and S. Patton, V. Santos, R. McKaig, D. Shugars, and R. View at: Google Scholar C.