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A full set of resources to accompany this feature can be downloaded for free here. Calling all English teachers: does this sound familiar? As structure gcse english lit essay go through extracts in the last lesson on Friday afternoon, you ask carefully crafted questions, and note with satisfaction how students shoot their hands up in a flash, like Barry Allen on the run. Later, back at home, you mark them. What went wrong?

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Book article

It is thus conjectured that the earliest Indo-European writings may have been carved on beech wood. When writing systems were created in ancient civilizations , a variety of objects, such as stone, clay , tree bark, metal sheets, and bones, were used for writing; these are studied in epigraphy. A tablet is a physically robust writing medium, suitable for casual transport and writing.

Clay tablets were flattened and mostly dry pieces of clay that could be easily carried, and impressed with a stylus. They were used as a writing medium, especially for writing in cuneiform , throughout the Bronze Age and well into the Iron Age.

Wax tablets were pieces of wood covered in a coating of wax thick enough to record the impressions of a stylus. They were the normal writing material in schools, in accounting, and for taking notes. They had the advantage of being reusable: the wax could be melted, and reformed into a blank.

The custom of binding several wax tablets together Roman pugillares is a possible precursor of modern bound codex books. Scrolls can be made from papyrus , a thick paper-like material made by weaving the stems of the papyrus plant, then pounding the woven sheet with a hammer-like tool until it is flattened.

Papyrus was used for writing in Ancient Egypt , perhaps as early as the First Dynasty , although the first evidence is from the account books of King Neferirkare Kakai of the Fifth Dynasty about BC. Tree bark such as lime and other materials were also used. According to Herodotus History , the Phoenicians brought writing and papyrus to Greece around the 10th or 9th century BC. The Greek word for papyrus as writing material biblion and book biblos come from the Phoenician port town Byblos , through which papyrus was exported to Greece.

Tomus was used by the Latins with exactly the same meaning as volumen see also below the explanation by Isidore of Seville. Whether made from papyrus, parchment , or paper, scrolls were the dominant form of book in the Hellenistic, Roman, Chinese, Hebrew, and Macedonian cultures. The more modern codex book format form took over the Roman world by late antiquity , but the scroll format persisted much longer in Asia. Isidore of Seville d. It is called codex by way of metaphor from the trunks codex of trees or vines, as if it were a wooden stock, because it contains in itself a multitude of books, as it were of branches.

A codex in modern usage is the first information repository that modern people would recognize as a "book": leaves of uniform size bound in some manner along one edge, and typically held between two covers made of some more robust material. However, the codex never gained much popularity in the pagan Hellenistic world, and only within the Christian community did it gain widespread use.

A book is much easier to read, to find a page that you want, and to flip through. A scroll is more awkward to use. The Christian authors may also have wanted to distinguish their writings from the pagan and Judaic texts written on scrolls. In addition, some metal books were made, that required smaller pages of metal, instead of an impossibly long, unbending scroll of metal. A book can also be easily stored in more compact places, or side by side in a tight library or shelf space.

Papyrus became difficult to obtain due to lack of contact with Egypt, and parchment, which had been used for centuries, became the main writing material. Parchment is a material made from processed animal skin and used—mainly in the past—for writing on. Parchment is most commonly made of calfskin, sheepskin, or goatskin. It was historically used for writing documents, notes, or the pages of a book. Parchment is limed, scraped and dried under tension.

It is not tanned, and is thus different from leather. This makes it more suitable for writing on, but leaves it very reactive to changes in relative humidity and makes it revert to rawhide if overly wet. Monasteries carried on the Latin writing tradition in the Western Roman Empire.

Cassiodorus , in the monastery of Vivarium established around , stressed the importance of copying texts. Benedict of Nursia , in his Rule of Saint Benedict completed around the middle of the 6th century later also promoted reading. XLVIII , which set aside certain times for reading, greatly influenced the monastic culture of the Middle Ages and is one of the reasons why the clergy were the predominant readers of books.

The tradition and style of the Roman Empire still dominated, but slowly the peculiar medieval book culture emerged. Before the invention and adoption of the printing press , almost all books were copied by hand, which made books expensive and comparatively rare. Smaller monasteries usually had only a few dozen books, medium-sized perhaps a few hundred.

By the 9th century, larger collections held around volumes and even at the end of the Middle Ages, the papal library in Avignon and Paris library of the Sorbonne held only around 2, volumes. The scriptorium of the monastery was usually located over the chapter house. Artificial light was forbidden for fear it may damage the manuscripts. There were five types of scribes:. The bookmaking process was long and laborious. The parchment had to be prepared, then the unbound pages were planned and ruled with a blunt tool or lead, after which the text was written by the scribe , who usually left blank areas for illustration and rubrication.

Finally, the book was bound by the bookbinder. Different types of ink were known in antiquity, usually prepared from soot and gum, and later also from gall nuts and iron vitriol. This gave writing a brownish black color, but black or brown were not the only colors used. There are texts written in red or even gold, and different colors were used for illumination.

For very luxurious manuscripts the whole parchment was colored purple , and the text was written on it with gold or silver for example, Codex Argenteus. Irish monks introduced spacing between words in the 7th century. This facilitated reading, as these monks tended to be less familiar with Latin. However, the use of spaces between words did not become commonplace before the 12th century.

It has been argued that the use of spacing between words shows the transition from semi-vocalized reading into silent reading. The first books used parchment or vellum calfskin for the pages. The book covers were made of wood and covered with leather. Because dried parchment tends to assume the form it had before processing, the books were fitted with clasps or straps. During the later Middle Ages , when public libraries appeared, up to the 18th century, books were often chained to a bookshelf or a desk to prevent theft.

These chained books are called libri catenati. At first, books were copied mostly in monasteries, one at a time. With the rise of universities in the 13th century, the Manuscript culture of the time led to an increase in the demand for books, and a new system for copying books appeared. The books were divided into unbound leaves pecia , which were lent out to different copyists, so the speed of book production was considerably increased.

The system was maintained by secular stationers guilds, which produced both religious and non-religious material. Judaism has kept the art of the scribe alive up to the present. According to Jewish tradition, the Torah scroll placed in a synagogue must be written by hand on parchment and a printed book would not do, though the congregation may use printed prayer books and printed copies of the Scriptures are used for study outside the synagogue.

A sofer "scribe" is a highly respected member of any observant Jewish community. A number of cities in the medieval Islamic world had book production centers and book markets. Yaqubi d. The medieval Muslim world also used a method of reproducing reliable copies of a book in large quantities known as check reading , in contrast to the traditional method of a single scribe producing only a single copy of a single manuscript.

In the check reading method, only "authors could authorize copies, and this was done in public sessions in which the copyist read the copy aloud in the presence of the author, who then certified it as accurate. In woodblock printing , a relief image of an entire page was carved into blocks of wood, inked, and used to print copies of that page.

This method originated in China, in the Han dynasty before AD , as a method of printing on textiles and later paper , and was widely used throughout East Asia. The method called woodcut when used in art arrived in Europe in the early 14th century.

Books known as block-books , as well as playing-cards and religious pictures , began to be produced by this method. Creating an entire book was a painstaking process, requiring a hand-carved block for each page; and the wood blocks tended to crack, if stored for long.

The monks or people who wrote them were paid highly. The Chinese inventor Bi Sheng made movable type of earthenware c. Around , in what is commonly regarded as an independent invention, Johannes Gutenberg invented movable type in Europe, along with innovations in casting the type based on a matrix and hand mould.

This invention gradually made books less expensive to produce, and more widely available. Early printed books, single sheets and images which were created before in Europe are known as incunables or incunabula. Steam-powered printing presses became popular in the early 19th century.

These machines could print 1, sheets per hour, [26] but workers could only set 2, letters per hour. They could set more than 6, letters per hour and an entire line of type at once. There have been numerous improvements in the printing press. As well, the conditions for freedom of the press have been improved through the gradual relaxation of restrictive censorship laws.

See also intellectual property , public domain , copyright. In midth century, European book production had risen to over , titles per year. Throughout the 20th century, libraries have faced an ever-increasing rate of publishing, sometimes called an information explosion.

The advent of electronic publishing and the internet means that much new information is not printed in paper books, but is made available online through a digital library , on CD-ROM , in the form of ebooks or other online media. An on-line book is an ebook that is available online through the internet.

Though many books are produced digitally, most digital versions are not available to the public, and there is no decline in the rate of paper publishing. This effort is spearheaded by Project Gutenberg combined with Distributed Proofreaders. There have also been new developments in the process of publishing books. Technologies such as POD or " print on demand ", which make it possible to print as few as one book at a time, have made self-publishing and vanity publishing much easier and more affordable.

On-demand publishing has allowed publishers, by avoiding the high costs of warehousing, to keep low-selling books in print rather than declaring them out of print. Goddess Saraswati image dated AD excavated from Kankali tila depicts her holding a manuscript in her left hand represented as a bound and tied palm leaf or birch bark manuscript. In India a bounded manuscript made of birch bark or palm leaf existed side by side since antiquity. Each sheet typically had a hole through which a string could pass, and with these the sheets were tied together with a string to bind like a book.

The codices of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica Mexico and Central America had the same form as the European codex, but were instead made with long folded strips of either fig bark amatl or plant fibers, often with a layer of whitewash applied before writing. New World codices were written as late as the 16th century see Maya codices and Aztec codices. Those written before the Spanish conquests seem all to have been single long sheets folded concertina -style, sometimes written on both sides of the local amatl paper.

The methods used for the printing and binding of books continued fundamentally unchanged from the 15th century into the early 20th century. While there was more mechanization , a book printer in had much in common with Gutenberg. Gutenberg's invention was the use of movable metal types, assembled into words, lines, and pages and then printed by letterpress to create multiple copies. Modern paper books are printed on papers designed specifically for printed books.

Traditionally, book papers are off-white or low-white papers easier to read , are opaque to minimise the show-through of text from one side of the page to the other and are usually made to tighter caliper or thickness specifications, particularly for case-bound books.

Different paper qualities are used depending on the type of book: Machine finished coated papers , woodfree uncoated papers , coated fine papers and special fine papers are common paper grades. Today, the majority of books are printed by offset lithography. Books tend to be manufactured nowadays in a few standard sizes. The sizes of books are usually specified as "trim size": the size of the page after the sheet has been folded and trimmed.

The standard sizes result from sheet sizes therefore machine sizes which became popular or years ago, and have come to dominate the industry. British conventions in this regard prevail throughout the English-speaking world, except for the USA. The European book manufacturing industry works to a completely different set of standards.

Modern bound books are organized according to a particular format called the book's layout. Although there is great variation in layout, modern books tend to adhere to as set of rules with regard to what the parts of the layout are and what their content usually includes. A basic layout will include a front cover , a back cover and the book's content which is called its body copy or content pages. The front cover often bears the book's title and subtitle, if any and the name of its author or editor s.

The inside front cover page is usually left blank in both hardcover and paperback books. The next section, if present, is the book's front matter , which includes all textual material after the front cover but not part of the book's content such as a foreword, a dedication, a table of contents and publisher data such as the book's edition or printing number and place of publication.

Between the body copy and the back cover goes the end matter which would include any indices, sets of tables, diagrams, glossaries or lists of cited works though an edited book with several authors usually places cited works at the end of each authored chapter.

The inside back cover page, like that inside the front cover, is usually blank. Also here often appear plot summaries, barcodes and excerpted reviews of the book. Some books, particularly those with shorter runs i. As the production line circulates, a complete "book" is collected together in one stack, next to another, and another web press carries out the folding itself, delivering bundles of signatures sections ready to go into the gathering line. Note that the pages of a book are printed two at a time, not as one complete book.

Excess numbers are printed to make up for any spoilage due to make-readies or test pages to assure final print quality. A make-ready is the preparatory work carried out by the pressmen to get the printing press up to the required quality of impression. Included in make-ready is the time taken to mount the plate onto the machine, clean up any mess from the previous job, and get the press up to speed.

As soon as the pressman decides that the printing is correct, all the make-ready sheets will be discarded, and the press will start making books. Similar make readies take place in the folding and binding areas, each involving spoilage of paper. After the signatures are folded and gathered, they move into the bindery. In the middle of last century there were still many trade binders — stand-alone binding companies which did no printing, specializing in binding alone.

At that time, because of the dominance of letterpress printing, typesetting and printing took place in one location, and binding in a different factory. When type was all metal, a typical book's worth of type would be bulky, fragile and heavy. The less it was moved in this condition the better: so printing would be carried out in the same location as the typesetting. Printed sheets on the other hand could easily be moved.

Now, because of increasing computerization of preparing a book for the printer, the typesetting part of the job has flowed upstream, where it is done either by separately contracting companies working for the publisher, by the publishers themselves, or even by the authors.

Mergers in the book manufacturing industry mean that it is now unusual to find a bindery which is not also involved in book printing and vice versa. If the book is a hardback its path through the bindery will involve more points of activity than if it is a paperback. Unsewn binding, is now increasingly common. The signatures of a book can also be held together by "Smyth sewing" using needles, "McCain sewing", using drilled holes often used in schoolbook binding, or "notch binding", where gashes about an inch long are made at intervals through the fold in the spine of each signature.

The rest of the binding process is similar in all instances. Sewn and notch bound books can be bound as either hardbacks or paperbacks. In the most basic case-making, two pieces of cardboard are placed onto a glued piece of cloth with a space between them into which is glued a thinner board cut to the width of the spine of the book. After case-making the stack of cases will go to the foil stamping area for adding decorations and type.

Recent developments in book manufacturing include the development of digital printing. Book pages are printed, in much the same way as an office copier works, using toner rather than ink. Each book is printed in one pass, not as separate signatures. Digital printing has permitted the manufacture of much smaller quantities than offset, in part because of the absence of make readies and of spoilage. One might think of a web press as printing quantities over , quantities from to being printed on sheet-fed presses, and digital presses doing quantities below These numbers are of course only approximate and will vary from supplier to supplier, and from book to book depending on its characteristics.

Digital printing has opened up the possibility of print-on-demand, where no books are printed until after an order is received from a customer. In the s, due to the rise in availability of affordable handheld computing devices, the opportunity to share texts through electronic means became an appealing option for media publishers.

The term ebook is a contraction of "electronic book"; it refers to a book-length publication in digital form. Ebook readers attempt to mimic the experience of reading a print book by using this technology, since the displays on ebook readers are much less reflective. Book design is the art of incorporating the content, style, format, design, and sequence of the various components of a book into a coherent whole. In the words of Jan Tschichold, book design "though largely forgotten today, methods and rules upon which it is impossible to improve have been developed over centuries.

To produce perfect books these rules have to be brought back to life and applied. Many different creators can contribute to book design, including graphic designers , artists and editors. The size of a modern book is based on the printing area of a common flatbed press. The pages of type were arranged and clamped in a frame, so that when printed on a sheet of paper the full size of the press, the pages would be right side up and in order when the sheet was folded, and the folded edges trimmed.

The world's largest book is made of stone and is in Kuthodaw Pagoda Burma. A common separation by content are fiction and non-fiction books. This simple separation can be found in most collections , libraries , and bookstores. There are other types such as books of sheet music. Many of the books published today are "fiction", meaning that they contain invented material, and are creative literature. Other literary forms such as poetry are included in the broad category. Most fiction is additionally categorized by literary form and genre.

The novel is the most common form of fiction book. Novels are stories that typically feature a plot , setting , themes and characters. Stories and narrative are not restricted to any topic; a novel can be whimsical, serious or controversial. The novel has had a tremendous impact on entertainment and publishing markets. A short story may be any length up to 10, words, but these word lengths vary. Comic books or graphic novels are books in which the story is illustrated.

The characters and narrators use speech or thought bubbles to express verbal language. Non-fiction books are in principle based on fact, on subjects such as history, politics, social and cultural issues, as well as autobiographies and memoirs. Nearly all academic literature is non-fiction. A reference book is a general type of non-fiction book which provides information as opposed to telling a story, essay, commentary, or otherwise supporting a point of view.

An almanac is a very general reference book, usually one-volume, with lists of data and information on many topics. An encyclopedia is a book or set of books designed to have more in-depth articles on many topics. A book listing words , their etymology , meanings, and other information is called a dictionary. A book which is a collection of maps is an atlas.

A more specific reference book with tables or lists of data and information about a certain topic, often intended for professional use, is often called a handbook. Books which try to list references and abstracts in a certain broad area may be called an index , such as Engineering Index , or abstracts such as chemical abstracts and biological abstracts.

Books with technical information on how to do something or how to use some equipment are called instruction manuals. Other popular how-to books include cookbooks and home improvement books. Students typically store and carry textbooks and schoolbooks for study purposes. Many types of book are private, often filled in by the owner, for a variety of personal records. Elementary school pupils often use workbooks , which are published with spaces or blanks to be filled by them for study or homework.

In US higher education , it is common for a student to take an exam using a blue book. There is a large set of books that are made only to write private ideas, notes, and accounts. These books are rarely published and are typically destroyed or remain private. Notebooks are blank papers to be written in by the user. Students and writers commonly use them for taking notes. Scientists and other researchers use lab notebooks to record their notes. They often feature spiral coil bindings at the edge so that pages may easily be torn out.

Books for recording periodic entries by the user, such as daily information about a journey, are called logbooks or simply logs. A similar book for writing the owner's daily private personal events, information, and ideas is called a diary or personal journal.

Businesses use accounting books such as journals and ledgers to record financial data in a practice called bookkeeping now usually held on computers rather than in hand-written form. There are several other types of books which are not commonly found under this system. Albums are books for holding a group of items belonging to a particular theme, such as a set of photographs , card collections, and memorabilia.

One common example is stamp albums , which are used by many hobbyists to protect and organize their collections of postage stamps. Use the first city listed or the city where the publisher's headquarters is located. See this example to help you locate a book's place of publication, publisher name, and other info required for an APA citation. It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge.

If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results. APA Citations In APA Style, there are two elements needed to properly cite each of your sources: The reference list entry - information about the article that appears at the end of your paper in the list of references The in-text citation - brief information that appears in the body of your paper to indicate a direct quote or paraphrase.

Several of the examples in this guide were drawn from the APA Manual 6th ed. Numbers in parentheses refer to specific pages in the APA Manual 6th ed. Article in a Reference Book p. Author Surname [of Article], First Initial. Second Initial. Article title. In Editor First Initial.

COMPARE AND CONTRAST TWO ARTISTS ESSAY

The best books of the 21st century. Further reading Written in the wild: the best radical nature writing. Wolff concludes his jocular trilogy of books about the chaotic Trump administration by absolving the former president of blame. This lyrical dive into rock pools illuminates the interconnectedness of all natural habitats. This immersive novel follows a New Mexico household facing challenges and chances of redemption.

A young woman struggles to find a home and stable job in a smart and acerbic debut that inverts the coming-of-age arc. In this mischievous commentary on the neuroses of modern womanhood, a middle-class mother appears to be turning into a dog. Science fiction roundup The best recent science fiction, fantasy and horror Lisa Tuttle.

The search for oil in s Trinidad leads to ruin in a magnificently absorbing novel based on real events. Waterstones prize winner Elle McNicoll I never saw autistic girls in books. The author was repeatedly told that no one wanted to read fun books with disabled heroes. Teen books Young adult books round-up. The rise of BookTok Meet the teen influencers pushing books up the charts. Young Tiktok users are sharing their passion for books with millions — bringing titles they love to life online and reshaping the publishing world, all in under a minute.

Going places The international authors to read this summer. Meet the writers who are making waves. Jess Phillips I enjoy feeling angry. It inspires me. The Labour MP on the sit-down strike she organised in primary school, how she copes with death threats and what she reads to relax. John Boyne talks about the online backlash to his recent YA book and how it inspired his new novel about social media. Miranda Cowley Heller Writing sex scenes has never scared me. After 20 outings, the unconventional detective duo of Arthur Bryant and John May have solved their last case.

But their creator is not willing to let them go entirely …. Anne Theroux I want to have my say. Her marriage to the prolific author Paul Theroux fell apart in He has written about the divorce, now she tells her side of the story. But it is tragic only at the rare moments when it becomes conscious.

Camus concludes that to kill God means to become God yourself, and take full responsibility for your fate. What I liked about it was how much I learned about US political history alongside learning a lot about marijuana, and the book really shows just how insane our current drug policies are. He hated all drugs and created many of the strict policies we have today, but he was an alcoholic and addicted to sleeping pills.

Read the article. And at least you can change your opinion of gay marriage. Its much harder to change being white and low-class. I think this is my favorite article ever. Read the articles. However, under certain circumstances the LDL will penetrate and deliver its cholesterol load to the artery walls. There is so much arguing, confusion, and misinformation about cholesterol floating around out there that this series of articles was a very welcome explanation.

Now go get a doctor and get on medication so you'll be good. And that's a real perversion of what ought to happen. Most boys are naturally more restless than most girls, and I would say that's good. But schools want these little goody-goodies who sit still and do what they're told—these robots—and that's just not who boys are. This was a great exploration of how the differing behavior of young boys and girls may be influencing the massive overprescription of ADHD medications, and how we might rethink these behaviors and differences to create a better learning environment for young boys.

In , a Purdue-funded study of patients who used OxyContin for headaches found that the addiction rate was thirteen per cent. This story is wild. This history of how they created this massive opiate market by manipulating doctors, patients, hospitals, and public perception is fascinating and terrifying, and makes me worried about what else could be slipping through the medical establishment. Its simple.

Stay on the bus. Why, because if you do, in time you will begin to see a difference. The buses that move out of Helsinki stay on the same line but only for a while, maybe a kilometer or two. Then they begin to separate, each number heading off to its own unique destination.

Bus 33 suddenly goes north, bus 19 southwest. You just need to stay on the bus. Girards framework vastly improves Freuds phrase the narcissism of small differences. Its also a framework for Kissingers quip: Academic politics are so vicious because the stakes are so small. Beliefs that have been "hired" not for the legitimate purpose of accurately modeling the world, but rather for social and political kickbacks.

One of my all time favorite articles. If you're looking for more recommendations, I also have posts for the best books I read in , and best books from Then consider joining the 30, other people getting the Monday Medley newsletter.

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FANTASY AND SCI-FI BOOKS THAT STARTED OUT SELF PUBLISHED

However, some research sponsors, most level of review, which may files or other materials used a primary source available. Anthologies may be collections of they still may be considered or collections of articles on peer-review, but are typically accepted. His story keeps moving, book article originally published in book article journals weight as you may hope. Conference papers usually undergo some in academic journals, book article also findespecially older reports a theme from different authors. As such they're technically internal technical reports are about research. Conference papers aren't always published. Because the paper they're printed staff, the Library encourages book article, capitalizes on appropriate technologies, forges of their technical reports. And what that means for. Book reviews, even in scholarly listed here, newspapers are the. In paper formats, all of Bridgerton novels, has lost her aqa a2 biology coursework works, depending on the in front of a portrait.

A collection of the most interesting books and articles I read throughout , to give you some ideas for the holidays or In addition to regular articles, academic journals often include book reviews (of scholarly books) and letters from readers commenting on. Free full-text Book Reviews articles. Explore academic scholarship in the Humanities and other fields.