strategic role of human resource management essay

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Strategic role of human resource management essay phoenix az resume services

Strategic role of human resource management essay

Delery and Doty have compartmentalized such approaches into- the universalistic, the contingency, the configuration. The so-called best practice HRM model falls within the ambit of the universalistic one. Best practice model deals with bundling of a few HR practices, whose viability in enhancing employee performance, retention rates and productive has been proven unassailable. Bundling deals with incorporating a number of HR practices which have gained proven efficacy and implementing at any firm with a view to effect positive outcome as to organizational performance and efficiency McDuiffe, The best practice model, which has gained which have gained relative traction in the last decade, will be analyzed in this particular essay.

Furthermore, it is also posited that the viability of the best practice model is not contingent on variables such as the organizational strategy, the environment corporate strategy, size and etc. Huselid ventured to characterize the use of High Performance Work Systems and positive internal fit culminates in better organizational efficiency at all firms.

Moreover, Gephart and van Buren have gone to enumerate the key features of the HPWS model, which are team-based work, employee involvement, compensation management and selective hiring. Guest also provides for comparable views at the central features of an HPWS model, citing team-working and employee- employer cooperation as the main elements of an HPWS model. To effectively analyze the merits and demerits of the best practice HRM model, it is key to analyze its elements, which tend to be broad.

The prongs of the best practice HRM model are as follows. Firstly , i. Secondly , the HPWS model advocates selective recruitment, that while hiring, the firm has to be selective as to who it recruits, and that the criteria for recruitment is transparent and adhered to. Thirdly , the best practice model prefers self-managed teams, emphasizing the benefits that can be derived from self-managed teams as opposed to a peer-based control of work performance, given how self-managed teams were related to more efficiency.

Fourthly, the best practice HRM model hails the use of high compensation based on performance, Fifthly, it is training that forms the central part of HPWS models. Nonetheless, there is no consensus as to what elements should be incorporated in a best practice HPWS model, corroborating the relative contention as to the elements of the HPWS model.

Howeve r, the best practice HRM model viability and credibility to effect positive change in organizations of varying sizes as the posited by the Huselid , has been the subject of opprobrium from other research papers. These limitations presented by the best practice HRM model will be analyzed below. Firstly, as above analyzed, best practice HRM model is not contingent upon the business strategy, which involves planning the future undertakings of the company, setting performance objectives, and formulating policies to reach such performance objective of the company i.

Strategy choice , as conceived by Pfeffer and Salancik , suggests that decisions of the managements i. Secondly, there tends to be a consensus around how corporate strategy including HRM strategy has to keep up with the growth companies gains Raisch HRM model or strategy, a key component of that corporate strategy, therefore, has to be in keeping with such growth.

To illustrate, as private companies have a tendency to be a secretive, with divulging as little info as possible regarding their financial and other performance. The so-called element of sharing information , as discussed above, is key to a HPWS model. However, it is evident that such element is simply not compatible with the corporate strategy of the organization, which is a testament to the inapplicability of best practices to all types of companies.

Moreover, Baird and Meshoulam ventured to compartmentalize the organization growth stages into five stages- initiation, functional growth, controlled growth, functional integration and strategic integration. HRM strategies i. Thus, best practice model bundles together HR strategies with prevalent viability, such practice omits to allow for a balanced portfolio of solutions posited by Raisch , thereby illustrating another limitation of the best practice HRM model.

Thirdly, implementing best practice HRM model culminates in some key shifts occurring at organizations. The strategic human resource management was excellent as all employees reported high. Looking back to the evolution of human resource field, it has followed the history of business in the United States and most western countries.

HR has evolved from personal management to human resource management and from HRM. Strategic Human Resource Management 1. Introduction In the late decade of , the organisations realized the significance of their employees as a capital asset or human resources; and by adopting and implementing a set of HRM practices such as recruiting, training and developing people etc.

Human Resource Management, unlike Personnel Management, is linked to and plays a vital role in the organisations strategic planning and. To simply define Human Resource Management HRM , it is a management function that helps managers recruit, select, train and develop members for an organization. When we say HRM of the organization, it is concerned with all the departments of it. In the marketing department, people consult products or services that lead to the sale.

In the sales department, people sell products or give services to the customers. And also. Human resource is the greatest and most important asset in any organization. This is because without the human resources an organization cannot achieve its goals. An organization need to develop a pool of labor so as avoid low labor turn over. For a company or an organization to develop a pool of labor it has to strategically manage the human resources.

Strategic human resource management involves managing people with an aim of future direction. It is geared towards matching the human resources with the future needs of the organization. The process aims at motivating the staff. This is …show more content… Proper and effective analysis of this enables the organization to estimate the effects the change has on their operation and their level of returns. The objectives and content of change and process of management have to be specified as part of change management Carter McNamara, According to the change management in the human resources, there are several theories that help in the management of the changes; one of the commonly used theories being that on payoffs.

The theory states that; one way to get traction on the larger goal of a fully comprehensive system transparent to all would be to start where the payoff is likely to be the greatest. An organization has to consider the issue of payoff so as to avoid conflicts in the organization among the employees and between the employees and the employers Carter McNamara, The payoff should start where it is greatest since this process usually result in understandable resistance.

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How would you describe the quantity and quality of output generated by the former employee? What is your overall assessment of the candidate? Why or why not? Would this individual be eligible for rehire? Other comments? Check all applicable state laws. Review the impact of federal equal employment laws. Remember that using arrest information will be highly suspect.

Use information that is specific and job related. Keep information confidential and up to date. Never authorize an unreasonable investigation. Source: Adapted from Jeffrey M. Make sure you always get at least two forms of identification from the applicant. Always require applicants to fill out a job application.

Particularly for executive candidates, include background checks of such things as involvement in lawsuits, and of articles about the candidate in local or national newspapers. Separate the tasks of 1 hiring and 2 doing the background check. Hire only citizens and aliens lawfully authorized to work in the United States. Advise all new job applicants of your policy.

Require all new employees to complete and sign the INS I-9 form to certify that they are eligible for employment. Examine documentation presented by new employees, record information about the documents on the verification form, and sign the form. Retain the form for three years or for one year past the employment of the individual, whichever is longer.

List the main types of selection interviews. Explain and illustrate at least six factors that affect the usefulness of interviews. Explain and illustrate each guideline for being a more effective interviewer. Effectively interview a job candidate. Adapted with permission. Base questions on actual job duties. Train interviewers. Use the same questions with all candidates. Use descriptive rating scales excellent, fair, poor to rate answers. Use multiple interviewers or panel interviews.

If possible, use a standardized interview form. Control the interview. Take brief, unobtrusive notes during the interview. Suppose a co-worker was not following standard work procedures. The co-worker was more experienced than you and claimed the new procedure was better.

Would you use the new procedure? Suppose you were giving a sales presentation and a difficult technical question arose that you could not answer. What would you do? Past Behavior Questions: 3. Based on your past work experience, what is the most significant action you have ever taken to help out a co-worker?

Can you provide an example of a specific instance where you developed a sales presentation that was highly effective? Background Questions: 5. What work experiences, training, or other qualifications do you have for working in a teamwork environment?

What experience have you had with direct point-of-purchase sales? Job Knowledge Questions: 7. What steps would you follow to conduct a brainstorming session with a group of employees on safety? What factors should you consider when developing a television advertising campaign? Note: So that direct comparisons can be made, an example is presented to assess both teamwork 1,3,5,7 and sales attributes 2,4,6,8 for each type of question. Describe the basic training process.

Describe and illustrate how you would go about identifying training requirements. Explain how to use five training techniques. Between operations, explain the difficult parts, or those in which errors are likely to be made. Show why the learned method is superior. Department of Labor apprenticeship database, the occupations listed below had the highest numbers of apprentices in Establish a sense of urgency. Mobilize commitment through joint diagnosis of problems. Create a guiding coalition.

Develop a shared vision. Communicate the vision. Help employees to make the change. Generate short-term wins. Consolidate gains and produce more change. Monitor progress and adjust the vision as required. Describe the appraisal process.

Develop, evaluate, and administer at least four performance appraisal tools. Explain and illustrate the problems to avoid in appraising performance. List and discuss the pros and cons of six appraisal methods. Perform an effective appraisal interview. Reprinted with permission. Berk ed. Set departmental goals. Discuss departmental goals. Define expected results set individual goals. Performance reviews. Provide feedback. Each tool has its own pros and cons.

Copyright HRnext. Describe the issues to consider when making promotion decisions 4. Describe the methods for enhancing diversity through career management 5. Answer the question: How can career development foster employee commitment? Otte and Peggy G. Source: Fred L. In addition to career development training and follow-up support, First USA Bank has also outfitted special career development facilities at its work sites that employees can use on company time.

These contain materials such as career assessment and planning tools. List the basic factors in determining pay rates. Explain in detail how to establish pay rates. Explain how to price managerial and professional jobs. Discuss current trends in compensation. The law has been amended many times and covers most employees. Who Is Not Exempt? Any questionable allocation of exemption status should be reviewed by labor legal counsel. It also regulates vesting rights employees who leave before retirement may claim compensation from the pension plan.

What must our company do to be successful in fulfilling its mission or achieving its desired competitive position? What are the employee behaviors or actions necessary to successfully implement this competitive strategy? What compensation programs should we use to reinforce those behaviors? What should be the purpose of each program in reinforcing each desired behavior?

What measurable requirements should each compensation program meet to be deemed successful in fulfilling its purpose? How well do our current compensation programs match these requirements? The salary survey — Aimed at determining prevailing wage rates.

Job evaluation — A systematic comparison done in order to determine the worth of one job relative to another. Do not use this chart alone for classification purposes; additional grade level criteria are in the Web- based chart.

August 29, Group Similar Jobs into Pay Grades — A pay grade is comprised of jobs of approximately equal difficulty or importance as established by job evaluation. Price Each Pay Grade — Wage Curve — Shows the pay rates currently paid for jobs in each pay grade, relative to the points or rankings assigned to each job or grade by the job evaluation.

Source: Reprinted with permission of the publisher, HRnext. Obtain job information — Step 2. Select key benchmark jobs — Step 3. Rank key jobs by factor — Step 4. Distribute wage rates by factors — Step 5. Rank key jobs according to wages assigned to each factor — Step 6. Compare the two sets of rankings to screen out unusable key jobs — Step 7. Construct the job-comparison scale — Step 8.

Skill A. It is very largely training in the interpretation of sensory impressions. Examples 1. In operating an adding machine, the knowledge of which key to depress for a subtotal would be skill. In automobile repair, the ability to determine the significance of a knock in the motor would be skill. In hand-firing a boiler, the ability to determine from the appearance of the firebed how coal should be shoveled over the surface would be skill.

Physical Requirements A. Physical effort, such as sitting, standing, walking, climbing, pulling, lifting, etc. Physical status, such as age, height, weight, sex, strength, and eyesight. Source: Jay L. Otis and Richard H. Responsibilities A. For raw materials, processed materials, tools, equipment, and property. For money or negotiable securities. For public contact. For records.

For supervision. Primarily the complexity of supervision given to subordinates; the number of subordinates is a secondary feature. Planning, direction, coordination, instruction, control, and approval characterize this kind of supervision. Also, the degree of supervision received. If Jobs A and B gave no supervision to subordinates, but A received much closer immediate supervision than B, then B would be entitled to a higher rating than A in the supervision factor.

To summarize the four degrees of supervision: Highest degree—gives much—gets little High degree—gives much—gets much Low degree—gives none—gets little Lowest degree—gives none—gets much 5. Working Conditions A. Environmental influences such as atmosphere, ventilation, illumination, noise, congestion, fellow workers, etc.

Hazards—from the work or its surroundings. Beatty and James R. Discuss the main incentives for individual employees. Discuss the pros and cons of incentives for salespeople. Name and define the most popular organization- wide variable pay plans. Describe the main incentives for managers and executives. Outline the steps in developing effective incentive plans. Among those polled, were working or retired Americans, whose responses represent the percentage cited in this release.

The survey was conducted June 4—7, , by Wirthlin Worldwide. An incentive may be paid for exceeding the piece rate standard. Establish general plan objectives. Choose specific performance measures. Decide on a funding formula. Choose the form of payment. Decide how often to pay bonuses. Develop the involvement system. Implement the plan.

Name and define each of the main pay for time not worked benefits. Describe each of the main insurance benefits. Discuss the main retirement benefits. Explain the main flexible benefit programs. Wellness programs 2. Disease management 3. Absence management 4. On-site primary care 5.

Eliminating cost-inefficient plans 6. In unionized companies, the union can participate in pension plan administration. Explain what is meant by ethical behavior at work. Discuss important factors that shape ethical behavior at work. Describe at least four specific ways in which HR management can influence ethical behavior at work. Employ fair disciplinary practices. List at least four important factors in managing dismissals effectively.

Donovan et al. Donovan, Fritz Drasgow, and Liberty J. Munson at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Sources: O. Ferrell and John Fraedrich, Business Ethics, 3rd ed. New York: Houghton Mifflin, , p. Data Trust Corporation.

Privacy policy. Your use of this site indicates your agreement to be bound by the Terms of Use Site Map. Copyright HRNext. Issue an oral reminder. If the behavior is repeated, the next step is dismissal. Deliberate defiance of clearly stated company policies, rules, regulations, and procedures. Human resources play a large Part 1 gives an overview of the recent literature on this topic, particularly pertaining to the two issues which received have most attention until now: the relational aspects and the content aspects.

In part 2, we go deeper into the wilderness and explore the least known aspect of strategic human resource management, namely the process aspects. This exploration is based on the simultaneous study of the scarce literature and four cases. Finally, the connection between the three aspects is investigated. In both the management and the academic literature, it is generally acknowledged that the strategic deployment and management of personnel can contribute to the success and continuity of the firm.

In this view, the human resources are the most important assets of an organisation. At the same time, in addition to the importance of the human resources as such, it is believed to be important that the management of the human resources should be in perfect Executive Summary This report traces the evolution of the HR function from its traditional role of personnel management into what is known today as Strategic Human Resources Management SHRM and the role that devolution has played in this evolutionary cycle.

From the research, it was observed that the devolution of HR responsibilities to line managers has enabled the HR function to take on a more strategic role as a business partner of the organization. It is also observed that devolution has benefited both line managers and employees alike by reducing bureaucratic red-tape and providing a faster approach to decision making and problem solving. The limitation of this report is that the negative aspects of devolution as noted by many researchers are not covered due to limitations in the length and scope of the assignment.

The rapid changes in the Available online at www. Churchill Sq. HR organizational structure is the framework within a human resources department that divides the decision making functions within HR into specific groups with distinct job functions. HR Business Partner model reflects modern expectations arising from new roles of human resources managers in organizations which include its strategic consequences, change support and also its abilities of HR systems development and improvement of employee engagement.

The paper in its first part describes basic principles of new roles of human resource departments in organizations based on HRBP concept and also new competencies required. In the second part the paper presents situation in these aspects in organizations from different sectors of the Czech and Slovak economy especially secondary and tertiary sector , benefits of the HR department transformation and some conclusions drawn from the analysis of data obtained from qualitative and quantitative survey Obviously, facing the economical globalization, development of technology, the coming of information age and lowering of trade barriers, as a result firms have to think of new and effective ideas to compete with other competitors.

Human capital is the most special asset of a company. It is special because people cannot be separated from their knowledge, skills, health, or values in the way they can be separated from their financial and physical assets Becker, Competitive advantage is secured when organizations have skills and capabilities that are unique, difficult to replicate and imitate by competitors Rainbird, McCracken and Wallace have mentioned in their article that, organizations should ensure any investment which is made in human capital with the promotion of HRD strategy is clearly linked to the wider corporate strategy It is not a traditional The main functions of human resource in the organization are providing training to employees in the organization and benefits.

In addition, human resource helps in performance manage and promoting safety of the workers in the organization. Other roles include recruiting employees and payroll. Most of the organizations do not recognize the benefits of human resource in the organization as they have not integrated human resource in their activities. The human resource functions are limited to payroll, benefits, training, performance manager and safety.

Also, the organizations do not allow human resource managers to report to organizational managers. Human resource managers report to VP of operation. Organizations in different parts of the world have integrated human resource in their activities. The human resource roles have increased for the last ten years. Many people have called the human resource for the last ten years to take the role of strategic partner.

In this role, human resource is seen as a member of the senior management team. In addition, human resource is involved in making important decisions in the organization like forming strategies, designing the organization and implementing the business model. There are various methods that can be used to redesign human resource in the organization and make it an essential strategic partner in the future Unit 6. Page Introduction If a organization want to developp, they need a good manager.

Based on Shivarudrappa , Human resource management are playing the role that the manager employ, educate, pick out and develop contributory for an organization. He also told us that HRM is making and implementation plan for all staff and operations of the company. So the role of HRM is very important for the development of each organization.

To complete the task, HRM is the lead right from the first step. HRM must understand the needs of the employees, the company's strategy, knowledge of marketing, creative, and refreshing work themselves, said creating effective working environment Zuzeviciute and Tereseviciene, There are some skills can help the manager grow into more effective. Two of the most important skills an employer's selection and recruitment.

Recruiting good staff is the first basic skills of a recruiter. He also Email: sandeepk iimahd. Email: manjari iimahd. The three stages cover strategy formulation, implementation and evaluation. The inter-linkages in this dynamic model have been explored. The organisational factors that have enabling or deterring influence on the success of each of these three stages have been discussed. The paper highlights the key role played by HR professionals in these three stages.

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Some of the administrative tasks for HR department include job procedures which include defined process of work, problem solving skills, work innovation among others that enables the organization to increase production. It is the responsibility of HR manager to ensure that employees abide by work guidelines and continuously acquire new skills that improve and make their work more efficient Boxall and Purcell, Thus, the administrative duties of a HR manager must involve activities that increase organizational value through employees as drivers of such a process.

Pfeffer has identified seven key areas in organization that build on employee efficiency and directly contribute to the company performance thereby creating it value. These key areas are: employment security, self-managed teamwork, pay rise pegged to personnel performance, selective recruitment process, regular personnel training, communication facilitation in organization and reduction employee differentials McCourt and Edridge, An example of administrative roles of HR manager involves reevaluating it perspective on employee to one that recognizes the human resource as valuable to the company growth.

This is because administration activities are run according to the organizational policies, as such change of policy is necessary in order to influence the way that HR department implements administration duties. Another administrative role for HR manager involves initiating organizational culture change where employee commitment to organizational objectives are cultivated rather than enforce commitment through authoritative approach.

This requires good administrative systems to be in place so as to attain employee long term cooperation and ultimately ensure that organizations growth is sustained. An integral duty of HR manager that is articulately captured in the SHRM model is the employee championship that requires HR department to anticipate and agitate for employees rights within the organization context.

According to Havard model of SHRM, HR manager can undertake several initiatives that are ideally directed towards improving employee working condition within the organization. Foremost, the HR manager has the mandate to cultivate good relationship between employees and organizational leaders by improving employee welfare. In order to be able to effectively achieve this, HR manager should adopt practices for personnel that boost performance, because employee performance translates to organizational success which means an organization is in a better position to improve employee performance.

As an employee championship, HR manager should adopt to have a policy of cost cutting that does not compromise employee welfare as well as working conditions which is different from what many organizations does at the moment because of the need to deliver on organizations bottom line which is generation of increased profits.

As far as employee welfare is concerned, HR manager should go beyond the mere improvement of employee welfare at work place to include assisting employees to strike a balance between work and rest and therefore promote favourable work conditions that does not involve working under pressure Boxall and Purcell, Employee championship also involves adopting measures that do not exploit employee labour force and which are consistent with labour laws of the country in which the organizational is based.

As such, HR manager plays an important role in driving employee reforms within the organization which means they positions themselves as partners to employee unions rather than their antagonists. As a result HR manager appreciates and respect the role of employees unions as an integral component of employee welfare and explore ways that would improve the working relationship between the union body and the organizational towards the common goal of improving employee welfare.

In conclusion an effective SHRM management system must address all these areas and every other area that personnel are managed against which makes up the HR management roles under a framework of SHRM model.

Boxall, P. Strategy and human resource management 2nd ed. Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan. Fernado, M. Pinnington, A. Introduction to Human Resource Management. Stone, R. Human resource management 5th ed. McCourt, W. California, Edward Elgar Pub. Need a custom Assessment sample written from scratch by professional specifically for you?

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Best practice model deals with bundling of a few HR practices, whose viability in enhancing employee performance, retention rates and productive has been proven unassailable. Bundling deals with incorporating a number of HR practices which have gained proven efficacy and implementing at any firm with a view to effect positive outcome as to organizational performance and efficiency McDuiffe, The best practice model, which has gained which have gained relative traction in the last decade, will be analyzed in this particular essay.

Furthermore, it is also posited that the viability of the best practice model is not contingent on variables such as the organizational strategy, the environment corporate strategy, size and etc. Huselid ventured to characterize the use of High Performance Work Systems and positive internal fit culminates in better organizational efficiency at all firms. Moreover, Gephart and van Buren have gone to enumerate the key features of the HPWS model, which are team-based work, employee involvement, compensation management and selective hiring.

Guest also provides for comparable views at the central features of an HPWS model, citing team-working and employee- employer cooperation as the main elements of an HPWS model. To effectively analyze the merits and demerits of the best practice HRM model, it is key to analyze its elements, which tend to be broad. The prongs of the best practice HRM model are as follows. Firstly , i. Secondly , the HPWS model advocates selective recruitment, that while hiring, the firm has to be selective as to who it recruits, and that the criteria for recruitment is transparent and adhered to.

Thirdly , the best practice model prefers self-managed teams, emphasizing the benefits that can be derived from self-managed teams as opposed to a peer-based control of work performance, given how self-managed teams were related to more efficiency. Fourthly, the best practice HRM model hails the use of high compensation based on performance, Fifthly, it is training that forms the central part of HPWS models.

Nonetheless, there is no consensus as to what elements should be incorporated in a best practice HPWS model, corroborating the relative contention as to the elements of the HPWS model. Howeve r, the best practice HRM model viability and credibility to effect positive change in organizations of varying sizes as the posited by the Huselid , has been the subject of opprobrium from other research papers.

These limitations presented by the best practice HRM model will be analyzed below. Firstly, as above analyzed, best practice HRM model is not contingent upon the business strategy, which involves planning the future undertakings of the company, setting performance objectives, and formulating policies to reach such performance objective of the company i.

Strategy choice , as conceived by Pfeffer and Salancik , suggests that decisions of the managements i. Secondly, there tends to be a consensus around how corporate strategy including HRM strategy has to keep up with the growth companies gains Raisch HRM model or strategy, a key component of that corporate strategy, therefore, has to be in keeping with such growth. To illustrate, as private companies have a tendency to be a secretive, with divulging as little info as possible regarding their financial and other performance.

The so-called element of sharing information , as discussed above, is key to a HPWS model. However, it is evident that such element is simply not compatible with the corporate strategy of the organization, which is a testament to the inapplicability of best practices to all types of companies.

Moreover, Baird and Meshoulam ventured to compartmentalize the organization growth stages into five stages- initiation, functional growth, controlled growth, functional integration and strategic integration. HRM strategies i.

Thus, best practice model bundles together HR strategies with prevalent viability, such practice omits to allow for a balanced portfolio of solutions posited by Raisch , thereby illustrating another limitation of the best practice HRM model. Thirdly, implementing best practice HRM model culminates in some key shifts occurring at organizations. For instance, when the reward system, a specific element of an HPWS, is adopted, there is a chance that such implementations might render counterproductive to a shifting change within an organization.

Being oblivious to such contingency variables can negate the efficacy of the approach, therefore some organizations might be better off with a different HRM strategy such as contingency or best fit one Purcell

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These authors attempt to relate the elements in the HRM system across these three types of organizations. With regard to HRM system, the basic strategy of the defenders, according to them, could be to build human resource, of prospectors could be to acquire human resource, and of analyzers to allocate human resource.

Taking the case of performance appraisal, defenders and analyzers could be process-oriented meaning thereby that they could evaluate performance based on critical incidents and production targets while prospectors could be result-oriented by evaluating performance on profit targets. Tackling the important question of compensation, defenders could determine it based on the position of a person in the organizational hierarchy, prospectors on performance, and analyzers on a mix of hierarchy and performance popularly referred to as merit-cum-performance basis.

Several authors e. According to them, HRM is strategy focused and contains certain elements. This means that HRM by its very nature is strategic. The elements of HRM such as recruitment and selection or compensation do not strictly operate in isolation but are derivatives of the requirements of the strategy that an organization employs.

Strategic planning dictates HRM planning. Though desirable and idealistic, this view does not seem to be fully acceptable by the thinkers. There is a feeling that HR planning is to some extent strategic but not in all its aspects. So the HR strategy should be a derivative of the whole organization strategy and aligned with it, it is an integral part of the business strategy.

This is called vertical integration between business and HR strategy to accomplish each other's. Also Horizontal integration with other features of the HR strategy is needed to combine its different elements together. The purpose is to attain an intelligible approach to managing individuals in a firm in which the various practices are reciprocally supportive.

As per Walton , one of the main characteristics of HRM is to stress the importance of enhancing mutual commitment and increase the level of trust within the internal relations in an organization. The approaches to achieve high commitment are detailed below as per Walton and Wood :. This approach aims to create an impact on the whole organization performance through its people in all different areas as customer service, productivity, profits, quality, growth and eventually better shareholder value.

The High-performance approach includes severe recruitment procedures for ultimate selection of employees, diversified management development activities, performance management processes, extensive training programs and incentive pay systems. This approach considers employees as partners in the organization and their input in every issue is taken into great consideration and their interests are respected, in general it focuses on involvement and communication.

The aim is to keep the communication channels and dialogues between managers and employees always open in order to outline expectations and continuously share information about the company vision, mission, objectives and values. This will keep the whole organization synched and aligned on the same page, with a full and mutual understanding on what should be done and when, all in the benefit of the company.

As per Barney , this approach aims to achieve strategic alignment between the resources and opportunities to obtain the best added value after effectively deploying the resources. This approach stresses on the development of managers and other employees who are capable of thinking and planning strategically and who can understand the key strategic issues.

In this way, the company can increase its strategic capability and can obtain a competitive advantage because its human resources are enabled to learn faster and to adapt quickly and effectively to changes than its competitors.

Those who apply this approach believe that by investing in hiring and developing more talented employees adds to their value and extends the skills base in the company. Thus the main concern is to enhance the human and intellectual capital of the company. When the external environment is in a state of flux, the firm's own resources and capabilities may be a much more stable basis on which to define its identity. Hence, a definition of a business in terms of what it is capable of doing may offer a more durable basis for strategy than a definition based upon the needs eg markets which the business seeks to satisfy.

This rational says that if the company invests in human capital, it is investing in a durable and stable base, while focusing on market needs is putting most of the efforts on an unsteady environment. Thus creating a unique pool of high performing, productive, flexible and innovative talents, is the basis of developing and sustaining a competitive advantage that is hard to imitate.

Why it is hard to imitate? Because when adopting an HR strategy, a company is creating a unique blend of policies, practices, styles, personalities and culture which enable the company to differentiate what is supplies to the customers from what the rivals are supplying. All the approaches of the SHRM are based on the theory that every business, after reviewing and auditing the internal and external factors, they create a business strategy and from this strategy they generate HR strategies in specific areas which should be aligned with the business strategy.

But what we see in real life is that strategic HRM is not a formal process and it is not a well communicated policy. Aligning strategic HRM with business strategy is definitely a good theory but it is difficult to achieve specially that HRM is the closest function that deals with people and is affected directly by the organization culture. All in all, the emerging discipline of SHRM offers interesting and insightful variants so far as the views and approaches are concerned.

An on- going effort is required to unravel the mysteries of SHRM that holds the promise of being a powerful tool to manage human resource in the environment of fast-paced changes that organizations are experiencing today. Foulkes, F. This essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. These key areas are: employment security, self-managed teamwork, pay rise pegged to personnel performance, selective recruitment process, regular personnel training, communication facilitation in organization and reduction employee differentials McCourt and Edridge, An example of administrative roles of HR manager involves reevaluating it perspective on employee to one that recognizes the human resource as valuable to the company growth.

This is because administration activities are run according to the organizational policies, as such change of policy is necessary in order to influence the way that HR department implements administration duties. Another administrative role for HR manager involves initiating organizational culture change where employee commitment to organizational objectives are cultivated rather than enforce commitment through authoritative approach.

This requires good administrative systems to be in place so as to attain employee long term cooperation and ultimately ensure that organizations growth is sustained. An integral duty of HR manager that is articulately captured in the SHRM model is the employee championship that requires HR department to anticipate and agitate for employees rights within the organization context.

According to Havard model of SHRM, HR manager can undertake several initiatives that are ideally directed towards improving employee working condition within the organization. Foremost, the HR manager has the mandate to cultivate good relationship between employees and organizational leaders by improving employee welfare. In order to be able to effectively achieve this, HR manager should adopt practices for personnel that boost performance, because employee performance translates to organizational success which means an organization is in a better position to improve employee performance.

As an employee championship, HR manager should adopt to have a policy of cost cutting that does not compromise employee welfare as well as working conditions which is different from what many organizations does at the moment because of the need to deliver on organizations bottom line which is generation of increased profits.

As far as employee welfare is concerned, HR manager should go beyond the mere improvement of employee welfare at work place to include assisting employees to strike a balance between work and rest and therefore promote favourable work conditions that does not involve working under pressure Boxall and Purcell, Employee championship also involves adopting measures that do not exploit employee labour force and which are consistent with labour laws of the country in which the organizational is based.

As such, HR manager plays an important role in driving employee reforms within the organization which means they positions themselves as partners to employee unions rather than their antagonists. As a result HR manager appreciates and respect the role of employees unions as an integral component of employee welfare and explore ways that would improve the working relationship between the union body and the organizational towards the common goal of improving employee welfare.

In conclusion an effective SHRM management system must address all these areas and every other area that personnel are managed against which makes up the HR management roles under a framework of SHRM model. Boxall, P. Strategy and human resource management 2nd ed. Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan. Fernado, M. Pinnington, A.

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